Annexation of East Georgia by Russia and adopting new forms of governing caused the discontent of wide layers of population. The important part of nobility was displeased by annulment of the kingdom and limitation of old feudal rights, and on the back o f Georgian peasants besides the heavy taxes lay the fate of national oppression. Colonial regime was of a military-police character. There was an absolute unlawfulness in the country. Russian military-men and statesmen were robbing the people and those who expressed even the lest protest, were cruelly punished. This fact caused the several anti-Russian armed actions in East Georgia in 1804-1812 and 1813. The leaders of these actions were the single representatives of the Georgian royal family, which hoped to revive the monarchy. It took the extreme forces for Russian armies to suppress the rebellions, but the experience forced the Russian government to soften its policy towards Georgia and to abolish the unlimited license of Russian executioners. Also, the members of Kartl-Kakheti Kingdom were exiled in Russia.

After beginning the domination in East Georgia, Russia started to extend its dominions in Transcaucasia. As the result of two wars with Iran, Russia occupied North Azerbaijan and East Armenia. As for West Georgia, the annexation was implemented by two stages: at first, Russia took under its protection the local political bodies (1803-Megrelia Princedom; 1804-Imereti Kingdom; 1810-Guria and Abkhazia Princedoms; 1833-Svaneti Princedom), and then gradually abolished them by the complete annexation of their territories (Imereti-1810; Guria-1828; Megrelia-1857; Svaneti-1858; Abkhazia-1864).

Abolition of Imereti Kingdom Russia managed only after the direct military aggression. The last king of Imereti Solomon II (1789-1810) was forced to escape to Osman Empire, where he died in 1815.

The policy of Tsarism, to abolish the independence of Georgian Church, caused a large rebellion in Imereti and Guria in 1819-1820, but the rebels were defeated in the struggle with Russians. Their villages were exterminated and burnt. Inspite of this, there happened another antirussian rebellion in Guria in 1841 but it was also cruelly suppressed.

There were permanent armed actions in Abkhazia too (in 1821, 1824, 1840-1842, 1866, 1877). Besides, North-West Abkhazian tribes haven't obeyed Russia at all, they were permanently striving and after their defeat (1864) they escaped and settled in Osman Empire. After the suppression of 1866 and 1877 rebellions, Abkhazian native population was massively exiled in Turkey.

As a result of the Russia-Turkey wars Russia Empire annexed (and thus Georgia got back) the territories, conquered by Turks in the previous centuries: Samtskhe-Javaketi with its chief town Akhaltsikhe (1829), Ajara and several regions with t. Batumi (1878). This was some kind of positive fact for Georgia, attended by negative facts too. Thousands of Georgian Muslim population inhabiting the annexed territories escaped and settled in the inner regions of Osman Empire. The main reason of their escape was unwillingness to live under Russian administration.

Thus, in 1801-1878 Georgia was almost completely annexed with Russia Empire. Afterwards, only the extreme South-West part of Georgia remained outside the borders of Russia.


by Dr. George Anchabadze

The XVIII cen. began again with unified internal and external political condition for Georgia. There was a permanent internal war in Western Georgia. Turks were widening their influence there. Slave-trade was still on wide scale, slaves were sold in the slave market of Ottoman-Turks Empire.

East Georgia, as the vassal country of Iran of Sephevids, had to participate in the wars, held by this country. Struggle with rebelled Afghan tribes against Iranians was especially hard, during which many Georgian warriors and two Georgian kings were killed. Afghans also were hardly damaged by Georgians too. As says one of the authors of that time, Afghanian warriors considered Georgians as the most powerful rivals.

In 1709, when Georgian king, Giorgi XI was fighting in Afghanistan, his nephew, Vakhtang VI was appointed as his assistant in Kartli. Vakhtang was a famous statesman and culture supporter, poet and scientist. During the period of his government Kartli was on the way to ascent: the central government was strengthened, roads were arranged, bridges and irrigating channels were building, minting improved, arose trade-handicraft, the deserted after wars places were mastered again.

Arrangement of internal situation of Kartli was supported by Law Code, which was worked out by Vakhtang and was created according to Georgian Justice of the XI-XVI cen. and various foreign Juridical patterns.

With the leadership of Vakhtang, intensive scientific and literatural activity began. In 1709 the first Georgian Printing-House was established in Tbilisi, where ecclesiastical and civil books were printed. In 1712, there was printed "Knight in the Panther's Skin" of Rustaveli at the first time, with the basic scientical research. "Kartlis Tskhovreba" collection and others were also edited and completed with the new materials.

The well-deserved representative of scientific school of Vakhtang VI was his son, Vakhushti (1696-1757), who's fundamental work "Inventory of Georgian Kingdom" comprised the unique facts about history of Georgia and geography. This Issue was also added with the valuable cartographical materials.

At the same time with building and cultural activity, Vakhtang had to create new armies of nobility and transfer them in Iran, to complete the armies struggling against Afghans.

In 1716 Shah of Iran confirmed Vakhtang VI as the king of Kartli. At that time Kingdom of Sephevids was already weakened. At its borders stood Turkey and Russia in Transcaucasus. Vakhtang hoped that Russia, which was of one religion would help Georgia to revive independence. He made a secret agreement with the Emperor of Russia, Peter I, that considered the war against Iran together. So, in 1722 the army of Russia passed Caspian Sea coast and directed to South. Vakhtang VI, according to the plan, invaded Shah dominions with 30 000 warriors to join Russians, but it didn't happen. Peter I suddenly changed his plans and moved back, that put the king of Kartli in difficulty. Angry Shah, who obviously saw the "treachery" of Vakhtang, ordered to dismiss him f rom the throne and gave the throne of Kartli to the king of Kakheti, Constantine II. In 1723 Constantine took Tbilisi with the hired army of Dagestanians. The struggle caused a large damage to the town. At the same time Turks began invasions from West. Vakhtang VI couldn't stay in Georgia any more and had to escape to Russia. Armies of Ottoman-Turks occupied Tbilisi. Constantine II tried to struggle but he was killed.

In 1723-1735 Turks were dominating in East Georgia, and then, revived Iranian armies exiled Turks and established their government in the country. Georgians were fighting as against Turks so against Iranians, but liberating activity was disturbed by permanent feudal internal wars, which were held at the same time with the foreign struggles. The country was ruined from intensive military activities.

Beside the Ottoman and Iranian occupation and internal problems, invasions of Dagestanian groups in East Georgia was strengthening, which caused a large damage to the population. Georgians were fighting against Ottoman-Turks, Iranians and Dagestanians. These struggles were led by the younger brother of Constantine II, Teimuraz II. Shah of Iran was forced to make serious concessions to Georgians. In 1744 Teimuraz restored Kartli and Kakheti kingdoms, which after 1723 were abolished. The king of Kartli became Teimuraz II, and the king of Kakheti became his son, Erekle II.

They governed East Georgia at first as vassals of Iran, but then when Shah of Iran was killed by the conspirators in 1747, and there set anarchy in Iran, Kartli and Kakheti kingdoms got back their political independence.

After the death of Nadir-Shah, the long-term wars between the kingdoms, eracted on the ruins of his Empire, began. Georgians with the leadership of Erekle II, were mostly the winners in these wars. They not only defended their independence, but made some neigboring Khanates obey. Erekle showed himself as a clever general and a brave warrior. After the death of his father, Teimuraz II (1762), he became the king of the integral Kartli-Kakheti, or a whole East Georgia.

Victory of Georgians caused a big resonance in West Europe. There were articles in the French and German newspapers, the authors of which praised Erekle II and supposed that he would manage to occupy Iran, where the bloody internal wars took place.

The condition in Imereti Kingdom got comparably better. Its king, Solomon I (1752-1784) was vigorously struggling for the strength of the central governance and for liberating the country from the dominance of Turkey. He prohibited also slave-trade. The government of Ottoman-Turks, obviously didn't like such policy of Solomon I. Ottoman-Turkish armies invaded Imereti several times, but they failed.

In 1768-1774 Erekle and Solomon supported Russia in the war against Turkey, but in spite of this, that Erekle defeated the military forces of Akhaltsikhe Viliety, he couldn't succeed because of the betrayal of Russian General of Transcaucasia. In 1774 with the Pax with Turkey, Russia recognized souvereignty of Ottoman-Turks on West Georgia, but there was one condition, if Sultan would refuse the tributes from Imereti.

In the 50-70s of the XVIII cen. there shaped a definite rise in East Georgia. For the release of peasants conditions there were adopted a lot of laws, with which the condition of agricuture got comparably better. The mining revived in East Georgia. New enterprises were open, where the hired employment was widely used. The first manufacturings were established. Erekle II tried his best to put Georgia on the European way of development. In the period of his reign, there already appeared the decomposition of feudal relations in Kartli-Kakheti Kingdom. The part of peasants liberated from the serfdom and became the free producers. The role of rich Tbilisian merchants rose in the society life, single persons from the low level promoted on the high state ranks.

In the culture and education sphere, two seminaries and other educational institutions were open. In 1782 the first Georgian original play was performed in Tbilisi. From Georgian poets of that period, David Guramishvili (1705-1792) and Besik Gabashvili (1750-1791) are to be notified.

From the beginning of the 80s, the situation of East Georgia was aggravated again. One of the reasons for it was the permanent invasions of Daghestanians. They robbed the population, kidnapped the captives and sold them on the slave-markets of Ottoman-Turks and North Caucasus. All regions of East Georgia emptied from the invasions of Daghestanians.

In such condition, Erekle II decided to strengthen the situation with Russia again. In 1783, in the Russian fortress Georgievsk, the representatives of Russia Empire and Kartli-Kakheti signed the Treaty, according to which, East Georgia passed under the Russian protection. Georgians accepted the supremacy of Russian Emperor and refused the independent external policy. On its side, Russia promised to defend Georgia from the enemies, for which two Russian battalions with two cannons had to stand there. Also, Russia promised not to interfere with the internal affairs of Georgia. Royal Throne remained in the hands of Erekle and his descendants.

Georgievsk Treaty didn't bring any particular goodness to Georgia, but the negative result was big. Governing circles of iran and Ottoman-Turks, who were disturbed by entering of Russia in Transcaucasia opposed Erekle II. Invasions of Daghestanians strengthened. One of the strongest owner of Daghestan, Omar-Khan successfully invaded Georgia with his army of 20 thousand warriors in 1785 Russian battalions couldn't repel Daghestanians and Russia took its forces from Georgia and Erekle II stayed alone. In the meantime, the struggle for integrity of Iran was over. The head of the state became the founder of Kajar dinasty, Agha-Mohamed-Khan. In 1795 he invaded Transcaucasia with the huge army for revival of Iranian governance there. Erekle II, according to the Treaty, asked Russia for help, but he got nothing except promises. In the meantime, Agha-Mohamed-Khan came to Georgia with the army of 35 thousand warriors and after the bloody struggle, occupied Tbilisi on September 12, 1795. Iranians destroyed the city and captured its 10 thousand inhabitants.

After this tragedy, the situation of Kartli-Kakheti was more aggravated. In 1798 Erekle II died and his son, Giorgi XII (1798-1800), who was weak and passive, set on the Throne.

At this time, Russian government decided to annex East Georgia. In 1799 Russian armies entered Georgia again. And after the death of Giorgi XII, in 1801, Russian Emperor, Alexander I declared his manifesto on abolishment of Kartli-Kakheti Kingdom and its annexation with Russia. Manifesto hypocritically said, that this Act was dictated with only the care of the interests of Georgian people. The place in Tbilisi, where the Manifesto was publicly declared, was sieged by Russian army and artillery. And those from the listeners, who protested the abolishment of the Kingdom, were arrested on the place.

Thus, the period of Russian governance in Georgia began.


by Dr. George Anchabadze

At the end of the XV cen. and in the beginning of the XVI cen. the neighbours of Georgia became two strong kingdoms - Ottoman-Turks Empire and Iran of Sephevids. They began to run the strictly expressed aggressive policy towards Georgia from the very beginning. The struggle of Georgians for independence and original culture, which lasted during 300 years began. The background of this struggle was frequent internal wars, which made the condition of politically separated Georgia worse. For example only Kartli kin gdom held 14 wars against Iran, 11 wars against Turks and 13 wars against other Georgian kingdoms in the XVI cen.

The condition especially was aggravated after Iran and Turkey made agreement on sharing Iraq, Kurdistan and Transcaucasus in 1555. According to this agreement the East part of Georgia was declared as the dominion of Iran and the West part - the dominio n of Turkey. But Georgians didn't acknowledge this decision and still were fighting for independence. The kings of kartli, Luarsab I (1527-1556) and Simon I (1556-1599) should especially notified as the organizers of the national forced resistance in the XVI cen..

At the beginning of the XVII cen. Ottoman-Turks managed to conquer Samtskhe Princedom. The part of Samtskhe Princedom feudals accepted Islam and served Sultan. On the conquered Georgian lands there was created the Ottoman-Turkish administrative uni t - Akhaltsikhe Viliety, the governing layer of which, including governor Pashas, mainly was the representative of Georgian Feudals, who accepted Islam.

The rest of the parts of Georgia managed to retain the State system, but had to recognize the supremacy of conquerors: the kingdoms of East Georgia - Kartli and Kakheti became the vassal (subordinated) of Shah of Sephevids, the states of West Georgia became the vassals of Ottoman Sultan. But even this model of relation didn't set peace, because conquerors longed full incorporation of Georgia, and Georgians were trying to use every chance of revival of independence.

The situation especially was aggravated in East Georgia in the first half of the XVII cen. when Shah Abbas I decided to exile Georgians to Iran or exterminate them, and to settle Iranians on their lands. The armies of Shah took 100 000 people as captiv es only from Kakheti, almost the same number of people was exterminated. After invasions of Shah Abbas there wasn't left even one-third of the population in Kakheti. But Georgian people failed the plans of Shah with their heroic struggles. In 1625, with t he leadership of the King of Kakheti, Teimuraz I and kartlian general, Giorgi Saakadze, the active Iranian Army in Georgia was destroyed in the rebellion, Shah Abbas was forced to recognize the fact of existing of Georgian kingdoms.

The situation in East Georgia was comparatively stable from 30s of the XVII cen. when the two sides reached the compromise: the kings of Kartli and Kakheti recognized the supremacy of Iranian Shah, and the latter didn't intervene in their internal affa irs.

Between the political units in West Georgia in the XVII cen. there were the permanent struggles, which was used by Turks to strengthen their influence. They occupied several coastal points and supported the slave-trade, the result of which was the exil e of thousands of Georgian people.

The permanent invasions of foreigners and internal wars caused the new damage for the country, weakened in the previous centuries. Economic was falling, many branches of agriculture and handicraft were destroyed, the number of population abbreviated. T hese circumstances delayed the further progress of feudal society development and in some places (especially in the highland) caused the renewal of Early feudal and patriarchal institutions.

The economical revival of the country is notified only from the 40s of the XVII cen. and only in East Georgia (Kartli), the condition of which as it was mentioned above, was comparatively stable in this period. The situation caused the positive results for the civil life. The population of Tbilisi was not more than 10 000 people at the end of the XVI cen. and in the second half of the XVII cen. it was risen to 20 000. In this period Georgia had the closest economical relations with the cities of Iran.

From the XV cen. to the XVII cen. the Georgian culture was decreased. The Georgian architecture of this period can not be compared with the brilliant examples of the X-XIII cen. In Georgia of late medieval period such high educating-scientific centres as Gelati and Ikalto didn't exist. The education mainly was given in the families and cloisters. From the XVII cen. in the education sphere, the role of Western catholic-missioners was rising, which was establishing schools in Georgia, where there were taught as catholic preach, so Italian and Latin languages, some practical science etc.

In the XVII cen. the Georgian literature began to revive. The king Teimuraz I, who was warrior and poet, put the national-historical motive in Georgian poetry. He dedicated the poem to the death of his mother, queen Ketevan, who didn't refuse Christian ity in the captivity of Shah and so was killed. After Teimuraz, historical theme occupied important place in Georgian poetry.


by Dr. George Anchabadze