PROTOCOL OF THE MEETING OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PARTIES on the Implementation of the Agreement on Principles of Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
Striving for immediate cessation of bloodshed and achieving comprehensive settlement of the conflict between Ossetians and Georgians, being guided by the desire to restore peace and stability in the region, and pursuant to the Agreement signed on 24 June 1992 in the town of Sochi and the Minutes signed on 3 July 1992 in the town of Tskhinvali, the Parties composed of the following representatives:
S. K. Shoigu, F. N. Kovalev, A. N. Kulikov, S. A. Mikhailov, A. E. Safonov, I. L.Vorobyev, G. B. Filatov, A. Kh.Galazov, S. V. Khetagurov, I. G. Biragova, S. N. Suanova, I. L. Bzaev, G. M. Kantemirov.
T. K. Kitovani, A. I. Kavsadze, R. L. Gventsadze, G. V. Pipia,
T. G. Kulumbegov, V. N. Khubulov, S. I. Kochiev, P. G. Gazaev, L. K.Tibilov, A. N. Kabisov, O. D. Teziev
held the meeting on 4 July 1992 in the town of Vladikavkaz.
As a result of the meeting the Parties decided:
1. To set up a Mixed Control Commission (MCC) composed of the following officials: S. K. Shoigu, G.  V. Filatov, S. V. Khetagurov, S. N. Suanova, O. D. Teziev, P. G. Gazaev, T. K. Kitovani, P. Georgadze, N. Lomouri, E. Sabanadze, G. Tushurashvili.
2. To entrust T.Kitovani, S.Shouigu and S.Khetagurov with the responsibilities of co-Chairmanship of the Mixed Control Commission (MCC).
3. To entrust the Mixed Control Commission with implementing of the following functions:
a) To exercise control over the implementation of cease-fire, withdrawal of armed formations, disband of forces of self-defense and to maintain the regime of security in the conflict zone;
b) To define together with the commanders of opposing armed groups the pattern of separation of forces and cease-fire regime;
c) To create mixed armed groups- accountable immediately before the leadership of MCC- aimed at securing peace and maintaining order in the region;
d) To elaborate strategy and tactics in terms of application of mixed forces;
e) To set up a special multilateral press-center;
f) To initiate investigation of potential violations of the Sochi agreement and take all necessary measures for non-admission of such violations;
4. Representatives of the Parties shall entrust the Mixed Control Commission with a task of promoting the process of restoration of management organs responsible for social and economic issues, return and well-being of refugees, as well as organs of law enforcing structures.
5. The MCC shall submit balanced report about its activities to the government of the Parties involved.
6. The Mixed Control Commission shall start carrying out its functions immediately upon signing of this Minutes.
7. To restore the organizational and activities of local law enforcing bodies that shall be accountable to the MCC.
S. K. Shoigu, T. Kitovani, A. Kh. Galazov, T. G. Kulumbegov
4 July 1992
(Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia)


PROTOCOL #1 OF THE SESSION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC)
July 4, 1992,Vladikavkaz
Within the framework of the Agreement on the principles of settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict signed on July 24, 1992 in Sochi, as well as in accordance with the Protocol of the meeting of the parties dated July 3 and July 4, 1992 in Tskhinvali and Vladikavkaz, respectively, the joint commission in the composition of:
T. Kitovani, S. Shoygu, S. Khetagurov, P. Gazzaev, S. Suanov, O. Teziev and G. Filatov reviewed the following issues:
1. On formation of the joint forces for establishment of peace and keeping law and order (LOKF) in the zone of conflict under the JCC.
2. On the establishment of a joint group of observers.
3. On the establishment of a press-center under the JCC.
As a result of discussions, the following decisions were made:
On the first issue:
a) agree with the proposal of S. Shoygu, T. Kitovani and S. Khetagurov about appointment of command of the LOKF, its composition and term of formation (Decision #1);
b) Assign the command to form the LOKF and ensure entry of the LOKF no later than July 10, 1992.
On the second issue:
Agree with the proposal of the workgroup headed by S. Mikhaylov (Decision #2).
The joint group of observers shall start working simultaneously with the entry of the LOKF.
On the third issue:
Agree with the proposal on establishment and organization of the press-center (Decision #3).
T. Kitovani, S. Shoygu, S. Khetagurov.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


DECISION #1 OF THE SESSION OF JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC)
July 4, 1992,Vladikavkaz
1. For the purpose of ensuring command of the joint force to establish peace and support law and order, appoint the following chief military commanders in the staff:
Lieutenant General –Gennady Filatov;
Lieutenant General – Panteleimon Giorgadze;
Major General – Stanislav Suanov.
2. The joint forces shall be formed in the amount of 1,500 persons and 900 persons in reserve:
500 persons from Republic Georgia and 300 persons – reserve;
500 persons from the Russian Federation (parachute landing regiment and 300 persons – reserve);500 persons from Ossetian side and 300 – reserve.
Inspection of thee joint forces shall take place on July 12, 1992.
3. Assign chief military commanders to establish, within the period of two days, the head quarters of joint forces and define its composition and equipping.
4. The parties shall be obligated to substitute the commanders of their subdivisions on at the request of the unified command of the joint forces in the zone of conflict.
5. All issues related to the procurement shall be revised under the separate protocol after their submission by the joint command.
6. All issues about conducting investigation regarding violations of the Agreement set in accordance with the Agreement of the structures, and sanctions against the party in fault shall be resolved under the separate protocol.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


DECISION # 2 OF THE SESSION OF JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) on Establishment of Joint Group of Observers
July 4, 1992, Vladikavkaz
Appoint as chiefs in the group of observers the following representatives of the parties:
R. Tushurashvili – Major General;
Bolotaev – Colonel;
R. Kochiev – Colonel;
A. Ramonov – Lieutenant Colonel.
2. The following shall be provided at the disposal of the joint group of observers: two helicopters – МI-8б, three armored personnel carriers and three UAZ-464, as well as all necessary property and arms.
3. The joint group of mobservers shall work on the instructions of the JCC.
4. The JCC, when forming the post of observation, shall guarantee representation of all parties.
5. Helicopters and property shall be provided by the Russian party, a armored personnel carrier and UAZ-464 – by Georgian party.
6. The list of observers shall be presented to the JCC on July 8, 1992.
7. Provision on activities of the groups of observers shall be developed together with chiefs in the groups and submitted to the JCC for approval on July 8, 1992.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


DECISION # 3 OF THE SESSION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) on Establishment of Multilateral Press Centers
July 4, 1992, Vladikavkaz
According to the protocol of the working meeting of representatives of the parties on implementation of the Agreement on the principles of settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict (July 3, 1992, Tskhinvali), approve multilateral press-center in the following composition:
1. V. Alborov;
2. G. Bakradze;
3. V. Gutnov;
4. S. Kochiev;
5. A. Kurochkin;
6. I. Shaov;
7. M. Shentsov.
The press center shall provide objective and weighted coverage of the process of the conflict settlement in the mass media of not only of concerned parties but also abroad.
The sources of information of the press center shall be official documents and information of the JCC, as well as groups of observers and other organs of this commission. The group of the press center shall be authorized to visit the spots together with the subdivisions of peacemaking forces.
The press center shall be responsible for explaining to the population of the zone of conflict the conditions and mechanisms for realization of decisions of the JCC and its organs in the mass media as well as for accreditation of representatives of mass media.
On the basis of a decision of the JCC, the press center shall prepare and provide operative and efficient distribution of addresses, leaflets and statements to the populations of the regions under state of emergency in the zone of conflict.
If needed, the press center of the JCC shall organize and conduct briefings for representatives of native and foreign mass media.
The parties, by mutual agreement, shall provide the press center with the means of communication, organizational techniques and transport facilities to support the work of the multilateral press center.
T. Kitovani, S. Shoygu, S. Khetagurov.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


PROTOCOL #2 OF THE MEETING OF JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT
July 6, 1992, Tbilisi
In the process of developing the provisions of the Agreement on the principles of settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict signed on June 24, 1992 in Sochi, and pursuant to the Protocol of the meeting of the parties on July 3, 1992 – in Tskhinvali and July 4, 1992 – in Vladikavkaz, the JCC consisting of T. Kitovani, S. Shoygu, S. Khetagurov, P. Giorgadze, F. Kovalev, S. Suanov, O. Dzantiev and G. Filatov, reviewed the following issues at the meeting:
1. Establishment of the headquarters (staff), on the procedure of mutual cooperation between the commanders of subdivisions of the JPKF, and keeping law and order in the zone of conflict, on the duration of stay of the JPKF, on official salaries and insurance funds.
2. Establishment of a group of experts for the purpose of working out decisions and conducting negotiations on economic rehabilitation of regions located in the zone of conflict, and return of refugees.
3. Carrying out, within the framework of the JCC, meetings with the command of opposing armed groupings and representatives of the population of Georgian and South Ossetian parties.
4. The procedure of making decisions on reviewing the Sochi Agreement.
5. Composition, venue and date of meetings of the group of observers.
6. The venue and date of the meeting of the heads of multi-lateral press-center.
7. The structure, quantity of working organs of the JCC and the procedure of financing thereof.
8. The address to the Georgian and Ossetian peoples.
9. Organizational and technical issues.
As a result of discussions the following decisions were made:
On the first issue:
Approve the proposal of G. Filatov regarding establishment of the headquarters (staff), procurement subdivisions (see Annexes 1 and 2 to the Protocol #2 of the session of the JCC), on the procedure of mutual cooperation between the Commanders of the JPKF and keeping law and order in the zone of conflict (Annex 3), and approve the official salaries of joint forces and insurance funds (Annex 4).
Duration of stay of joint forces shall be defined by heads of states who signed the Sochi Agreement. the JCC presents its proposals regarding this issue to the heads of states.
On the second issue:
Assign S. Khetagurov, V. Savin, O. Vardzelashvili and O. Teziev, on July 5, 1992, to start developing programs for the supreme executive organs of relevant parties on economic rehabilitation of regions and return of refugees.
On the third issue:
the JCC shall arrange meeting with the command of opposing armed groupings and deputies of Georgian and Ossetia parties on July 12-13 of 1992.
On the fourth issue:
Investigation of the facts of violation of the Sochi Agreement is done by the JCC, and its decisions are discussed by heads of the states.
The same procedure of investigation is used with regard to possible violations of the Sochi Agreement and decisions of the JCC by the contingent of joint forces of one of the parties. The state, which has allocated its contingent in the composition of joint forces is responsible for the above-noted violations.
On the fifth issue:
Establish a group of 72 observers and 6 drivers for three armored personnel carriers – 80 and three UAZ-469, including 4 persons of the senior group, 8 persons for reserve, 60 persons for 5 posts.
The posts should be located:
Tskhinvali – West  (Post of Road Police);
Tskhinvali – East – (ИСП)
- Eredvi-Dmenisi-Vanati regions
- Tamarasheni-Java regions and Rocki pass;
- Kareli-Znauri regions.
Senior groups of observers should meet in Tskhinvali on July 8, 1992.
On the sixth issue:
Hold meeting of the heads of multi-lateral press-centers in Tskhinvali on July 8, 1992.
On the seventh issue:
Establish the secretariat of the JCC consisting of the following 5 persons: I. Inyutsin, O. Chudinov, P. Mamradze, O. Dzantiev and S. Kochiev.
For the organization for the activities of the secretariat shall be responsible the party on the territory of which the session of the JCC is held.
All expenses related to the activities of the JCC and the work of the office (staff) shall be financed from the sources of respective agencies.
The Georgian, Ossetian and Russian parties should provide specialists for calculating costs of formation and maintenance of activities of the JCC and other related forces (the JPKF, group of observers, multi-lateral press-centers, etc), and present these calculations for defining the order of financing by the governments of the parties that signed the Sochi Agreement. Deadline is July 9, 1992.
On the eighth issue:
Approve the text of the Address to Georgian and Ossetian peoples.
Assign СМ СОССР to print ten thousand copies of the text of the Address (Annex 5).
On the ninth issue:
Assign the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia to develop and prepare five thousand copies of the forms of ID, with a text in Russian, which will provide the right of stay in the zone of conflict.
The procedure of issuing the above-noted forms of ID shall be defined by the JCC.
Assign O. Teziev to prepare a stamp and sill for the stated purposes.
S. Kitovani, S. Shoygu, C. Khetagurov.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Annex 1 To Protocol #2 of the JCC Session dated July 6, 1992
DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT On establishment of the headquarters (staff) of joint forces for keeping law and order in the zone of conflict and approving of the composition of subdivisions for active service and securing the rear
1. For managing joint forces in the zone of conflict and resolving the issues of daily activities, the command of joint forces shall approve the structure, composition and equipment of the army.
2 shall be appointed as the head of the headquarters of joint forces.
3. The following persons shall be appointed as deputy heads of the headquarters of the joint forces:
From Georgia -
From Ossetia – A. P. Sysov, colonel in reserve;
4. Approve the headquarters in the following composition:
a) Head of the Operative Department – 1;
Officers of the Operative Department – 3;
Clerk-draftsman – 1;
Head of Communications – 1;
Group of combat management for communication with the aviation – 2;
Operative persons on duty – 4;
Head of reconnaissance (patrol) – 1;
Assistant to the Head of Reconnaissance – 1;
Clerk-typist of the headquarters – 1.
Head of engineering service – 1.
Total 21 persons
including 2 soldiers (sergeants).
b) For ensuring the activities of the headquarters, the following shall be available:
commandant platoon – 1;
tank platoon – 1;
communications platoon – 1.
5. Approve the composition, equipment and quantity of the above-noted subdivisions of joint forces in the zone of conflict presented by the Command of joint forces.
T. Kitovani, S. Shoygu, S. Khetagurov.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Annex 2 To Protocol #2 of the JCC Session dated July 6, 1992, Tbilisi
DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT
1. prove the procurement and service subdivisions proposed by the command of joint forces in the following composition:
- epartment – (headquarters of joint forces, ???, communications, group of air-gunlayers, transport unit) – 43 persons;
-oint artillery division – 79 persons (in reserve; the place of dislocation shall be defined by the commander);
-ield-engineering company – 53 persons;
-aterial security company – 96 persons.
All the above-noted subdivisions shall be formed by Ossetian party.
- Repair company – 58 persons (formed by the Georgian party);
-  medical unit – 15 persons (formed by the Georgian party).
2. Ask the Command of the North-Caucasian military okrug to allocate one company of communications consisting of three platoons (??? radio and telephone) – 52 persons.
Attached is the list of all staff of subdivisions.
3. For the purpose of suppressing artillery of other weapon emplacements of band-formations, echelons of helicopters in 30 minutes fighting trim.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


PROTOCOL #3 OF THE MEETING OF JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT
July 12, 1992, Vladikavkaz
The JCC in the composition of: S. Shoygu, S. Khetagurov, P. Giorgadze, S. Suanov, R. Tushurashvili and G. Filatov reviewed the following issues at the meeting:
1. Composition of the JCC.
2. The JPKF and keeping of law and order in the zone of conflict (LOKF).
3. Special legal regime and activities of local law-enforcement entities in the zone of conflict.
4. On entering the zone of conflict by LOKF.
The following decisions were made as a result of discussions:
On the first issue:
Include in the composition of the JCC representatives of Georgia, specifically, R. Tushurashvili and E. Sabanadze.
On the second issue:
Approve the Provision on the JPKF and LOKF in the Zone of Conflict (Annex 1 to Protocol #3 of the session of the JCC).
Approve the Contract with Servicemen of LOKF (Annex 2).
For the purpose of suppressing the band-formations that represent armed groups and forces of self-defense of either party, being incompliance with the Sochi Agreement and the decisions of the JCC, the JPKF and LOKF in the zone of conflict shall use weapons.
For the purpose of self-defense, the contingent of joint forces (servicemen in staff), as well as any member of the groups of observers, shall use weapons.
The zone of conflict shall be regarded the area within the radius of 15 kilometers from the center of Tskhinvali.
The safety corridor shall be regarded the zone of the area with the width of 14 kilometers across the administrative border of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Okrug and 7 kilometers on both sides of the border.
The joint military command shall be authorized to take all necessary measures for localization of armed conflicts and destruction of band-formations in the regions and villages on the territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Okrug not being the part of the zone of conflict and the safety corridor, in cooperation with the local law-enforcement entities, with further reporting to the JCC.
On the third issue:
Representatives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia shall establish a group for rehabilitating law-enforcement organs in the zone of conflict and the safety corridor, and present their proposals on their activities after entering LOKF to the JCC.
On the fourth issue:
Carry out entering of LOKF in the zone of conflict in series. From July 14, 1992, the Georgian battalion and parachute-landing regiment, from July 15, 1992 – Ossetian battalion.
LOKF shall be entered irrespective of readiness of the forces of any party.
Approve the order of the Joint Military Command on entering LOKF (Annex 3).
T. Kitovani, S. Shoygu, S. Khetagurov.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Annex 1 To Protocol #3 of the  JCC Session dated July 12, 1992
PROVISION On Joint Peacekeeping Forces (JPKF) and Law and Order Keeping Forces (LOKF) in the Zone of Conflict
Article 1. Joint forces shall be established in accordance with the Agreement signed by President of Russian Federation, B. Yeltsin, and head of the State Council of Georgia, E. Shevardnadze, and intended for restoration peace and supporting law and order in the zone of the armed conflict, safety corridor, regions and villages that are not parts of the zone of conflict, taking control over complying with the conditions the Agreement and decisions of the JCC on ceasing fire and making active measures including use of weapons in the case of violating by uncontrolled armed formations of any opposed parties to the conflict.
Article 2.The joint forces shall subordinate to the joint military command and the JCC.
Article 3. LOKF shall resolve the following issues:
- don’t permit entering and intrusion into the zone of conflict, safety corridor, regions and villages that are not parts of the zone of conflict of the armed groups and bands, and protect the population, state, agricultural-cooperative, private and personal properties from criminal invasion of such bands.
- in the zone of conflict, safety corridors, regions and villages that are not parts of the zone of conflict, don’t permit existence and activities of illegal armed persons and formations and stop armed and unarmed group conflicts and incidents.
- let in, and out from, the zone of conflict, safety corridors, regions and villages that are not parts of the zone of conflict the people, transport facilities and cargo, within the defined places.
- don’t permit delivery (transportation) of weapons, techniques, Other means, that may be used in acts of terror and sabotage to the zone of conflict, safety corridors, regions and villages that are not parts of the zone of conflict, and removal thereof, without special permission, as well as conduct of combat missions.
- take control over fulfillment of set rules of specific regime in the zone of conflict, safety corridors, regions and villages that are not parts of the zone of conflict, introduced by the Government of Georgia in coordination with the parties.
- render any type of assistance to local law-enforcement organs for supporting law and order in the zone of conflict, safety corridors, regions and villages that are not parts of the zone of conflict.
Article 4. LOKF shall be authorized to do the following on the territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast:
- post military detachments (patrol, post for observations, ambush, etc) and set barriers, as well as move (shift) to any districts of the region, not damaging, however, any house, lots of land, gardens, sowing, road and other structures.
chase (hunt), arrest or destruct bands of armed formations, groups of persons who do not fulfill or subordinate to the requirements of the special regime. Chasing and conduct of combat operations with criminal elements may be carried out even outside the zone of conflict.
check document of citizens for the right of entry, exit and movement, as well as examination of persons, cargo and transport facilities.
detain all persons who violate the set rules of the special regime.
carry out personal survey of detained individuals and examination of their belongings.
confiscate all types of guns, weapons, combat techniques and ammunition.
use in the zone of conflict, safety corridors, regions and villages that are not parts of the zone of conflict the existed telephone and telephonogram lines of communication, irrespective of their owners.
conduct combat operations by using weapons and combat technique to be adopted.
Article 5. the Organizational-staffing structure of the joint forces shall be approved by the JCC.
The place of dislocation of joint forces shall be defined by the joint military command.
Article 6. The joint forces, in their daily activities, shall be guided by the requirements of this Provision, as ell as decisions of the JCC and the joint military command.
Article 7. The joint forces shall be established on the voluntary basis from citizens who are from 20 to 50 years old, have been in the military service, do not have any criminal record and are fit to service due to their state of health, as well as on the basis of the subdivisions of current armed forces of any party.
Article 8. Persons expressing their desire to become a part of the joint forces shall present the following documents to the selecting commission:
- application;
- passport;
- military card;
- reference-recommendation from the place of work or residence.
Enrolment in the joint forces shall be carried out on the basis of the resolution issued by the joint military command.
Article 9. Those enrolled to the joint forces shall conclude a contract with the command for the period of two or more months. After expiration of this term, the contract, pursuant to the wish of the parties, may be extended up to the period of 6 or more months. The term of service shall be counted from the date of enrollment, based on the order.
Article 10. In the case of breaching the contract ahead of the schedule at the initiative of the command without any good reasons, as well as due to reduction of staff or sickness, servicemen of the joint forces shall be paid severance pay in the amount of a month’s salary. If the contract is breached ahead of the schedule because of a serviceman without a good reason, he/she shall not be paid severance pay. In the case of committing civil or criminal offence, a serviceman is brought to criminal liabilities according to the legislation of Russian Federation and Georgia.
A serviceman may be dismissed in the following cases:
- after finishing the term of service set under the contract;
- due to violation of the conditions set under the contract;
- due to the state of health;
- due to the family conditions;
- not to be fit and proper for the office;
- doe to the reduction of staff;
- due to the conviction for committed crimes.
Article 11.Service in the joint forces shall be counted in the labor records in the proportion 1:3;
Article 12. Funding of the joint forces and its logistical support shall be carried out by the government of the states that signed the Sochi agreement.
Article 13. Personnel of the joint forces shall be bound:
to comply with the Constitution of Russian Federation, Republic of Georgia and the procedure set in the zone of conflict.
unquestionably fulfill al, orders and instructions of the command, overcome all severities and difficulties with dignity and honor.
know and protect armament, combat and other techniques as well as military and public property.
be watchful, strictly keep military and state secrets.
Article 14. Supervision over legality of activities of joint forces shall be carried out by the Public prosecutor’s Office of Russian Federation and the Georgia.
Article 15. The single type of uniforms and military insignia shall be established for the joint forces (blue stripe on the left hand, helmet and combat technique).
T  Kitovani, S. Shoygu, S. Khetagurov.
/R. Tushurashvili/
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


DECREE # 753 ISSUED BY THE CABINET OF MINISTERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA ON 23 JULY 1992 on Abrogation of Decrees of the Government of Georgia related to Allocation of lands for Airdromes located in the village of Nikozi and for the Infantry Regiment Located in Tskhinvali
The Government of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To endorse a proposal put forward by the State Committee on Land Resources and Land Reforms of the Republic of Georgia and the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Georgia on returning back to the State agricultural farm of the village Nikozi 139,45 hectare arable land and 33,35 hectare of arable land to the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Georgia  (14,53 hectare in the village of Nikozi and 18,82 in Tskhinvali)  out of total 172,80 hectare arable land transferred to the reserve airdrome, helicopter airdrome and the infantry regiment located in Tskhinvali.
2. Immediately after the adoption of this decree, a decree # 1282 issued by the Government of Georgia on 13 July  1941, the decree # 612 issued on 3 July 1949 and the decree #88-4 issued on 3 February 1976 on transferring to military regiments # 35405 and # 85326 of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR of 172,80 hectare lands, shall be declared null and void and having no legal force.
Acting First Deputy Prime-Minister of the Republic of Georgia O. Kvilitaia
Acting Head of the State Chancellery of the
Cabinet Of Ministers of the Republicof Georgia G. Beridze
23 July 1992
(Decrees Issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia, July 1992, p. 137-138)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on changes to the Regulations of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia of the 12th convocation
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
To change Article 11 of the Regulations of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia of the 12th convocation and provide it with the following wording:
“The changes to the Constitution of Abkhazia is exercised by the Supreme Council by the majority cast of the members of the Supreme Council”.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
23 July 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 138, 28 July 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Cessecion of the Legal Effect of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR of 1978
Over the recent time the events that have taken place on the territory of the former USSR drastically changed inter-state relations and established new legal interrelation between former Soviet entities.  All aforementioned affected relations between Abkhazia and Georgia.
Legal state status of Abkhazia and its relation with the Georgian SSR and the USSR was determined and regulated by the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR and Georgian SSR of 1978, as well as by the Constitution of the USSR.
In 1989-1990 the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR unilaterally adopted a number of legal acts initiated Georgia’s secession from the USSR.  Among them are the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR of 18 November 1989 and of 9 March and 20 June of 1990.
Pursuant to these documents all state institutions of Georgia that are established since 24 February of 1921, as well as all legal acts issued by those institutions are declared null and void.
After disintegration of the USSR, in February of 1992, in order to suspend legal linkage with the former USSR, the State Council of Georgia issued the Decision on switching to the Constitution of the Georgian Democratic Republic of 1921, which doesn’t consider Abkhaz ASSR.
As a result of adopted decisions by Georgian authorities and based on the aforementioned Decrees, the Georgian SSR that had the legal relation with the Abkhaz ASSR, suspended its existence and a new state - Georgian Democratic Republic has been introduced and that has no relations with the Abkhaz ASSR.
As it is widely known, Abkhazia was included within the state of Georgia on the treaty base, which was concluded in February of 1922.  The relations between Georgia and Abkhazia were regulated by further legal acts from 1922 to 1989. The last one among those acts were the Constitutions of Abkhazia and Georgia adopted in 1978 and the Constitution of the USSR of 1977.
The Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR of 1978 was adopted in compliance with the Constitution of the Georgian SSR of 1978 and the Constitution of the USSR of 1977.  After abrogation of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, Abkhazia was deprived the legal right of existence, that complies neither with the political nor the legal realities of present time. Thus inadmissible legal vacuum has been established in the relation of Abkhazia and Georgia.
In order to settle legal abeyance between them, and also striving for the restoration of interstate relations between Abkhazia and Georgia, the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To consider the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR of 1978 null and void.
2. The Constitution of the Abkhaz SSR of 1925 will be in force before adoption of the new Constitution of Abkhazia retaining the current system of legislative, executive and judicial power.
3. To entrust the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia with a task of bringing proposals to the session of the Supreme Council on composition of the working group for elaboration Agreement between Abkhazia and Georgia.
4. The Constitutional Commission shall accelerate the work on the draft-Constitution of Abkhazia with further submission to the Supreme Council of Abkhazia in September 1992.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
23 July 1992
(Newspaper “Abkhazia”, # 27, 30 July-6 August 1992)


CONSTITUTION OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA OF 1 APRIL 1925
(…)
1. After overthrowing a power of a former Georgian Democratic republic on the territory of Abkhazia, the workers, peasants and soldiers of a Red Army of Abkhazia have founded the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and established sovereignty and dictatorship of the proletariat rendering all state power to the Councils of workers’, peasants’ and soldiers’ deputies.
4. The Abkhaz SSR, united on the basis of Union Treaty with the Georgian SSR, enters Trans-Caucasus Soviet Socialist Federative Republic through the Georgian SSR and as a member of latter, the USSR.
(…)
5. The Abkhaz SSR is a sovereign state, which exercises state authority on its territory independently from any other powers.
The sovereignty of the Abkhaz SSR that voluntarily entered the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and the USSR is restricted only within the frame of the Constitution of the mentioned Unions.
The citizens of the Abkhaz SSR, retaining the citizenship of the Republic, at the same time have the status of the citizens of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR (Soviet Federation Socialist Republic - edit.) and the USSR.
The territory of the Abkhaz SSR shall not be changed without consent of the Republic.
The language of state institutions on the territory of the Abkhaz SSR is Russian.
(…)
44. The Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic is governed by the Council of People’s Commissars under the Chairmanship of a special person - a member of Central Executive Committee comprising of the following Commissars: 1) Internal Affairs, 2) Justice, 3) Education, 4) Health-care; 5) Agriculture and 6) Social security.
The Council of People’s Commissars also includes the Chairman on the Supreme Council of National Economy and plenipotentiary representatives of the Commissars of Finance, Workers and Peasants Inspection, Labour and Internal Trade and the Chairman of the Special (extraordinary) Commission.
45. The management of departments of Foreign Affairs, Military and Maritime Affairs, Foreign Trade, Transportation, Post and Telegraph is under the jurisdiction of the relevant Commissars of the USSR.
(…)
65. All of the issues of general character are under the jurisdiction of the Congress of the Councils of the Abkhaz SSR and Central Executive Committee  outside of the jurisdiction of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and the USSR, in particular:
a) General management of internal policy of the Abkhaz SSR;
b) Administrative division of the territory of the Abkhaz SSR;
c) Establishment of the bases for the public economy and certain branches on the territory of the Abkhaz SSR;
d) Consideration of the budget of the Abkhaz SSR and determination of taxes and duties with the endorsement of the TCSFSR;
e) Internal state legislation, judiciary, courts, criminal and civil legislation and others…
f) Appointment and removal of certain members of the Council of People’s Commissars, as well as the whole Council of the People’s Commissars, and also approval of the Chairman of the Council of people’s Commissars;
g) The right of Amnesty on the territory of the Abkhaz SSR, as well as the right of pardon and rehabilitation of citizens convicted by courts or administrative agencies of the Republic;
h) The right to issue decrees on rendering or removal of citizenship of the Abkhaz SSR;
(…)
66. Under the sole jurisdiction of the Assembly of Councils of the Abkhaz SSR are the following issues:
a) Changes and amendments to the basics of the Abkhaz SSR Constitution;
b) Issues related to the changes of the border of the Abkhaz SSR in conformity with the laws of the USSR and the TCSFSR.
(…)
(Congresses of the Soviets of the USSR,  Union and autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics of the Transcaucas. Collection of documents of 1923-1937; M., 1964, v.VI, p.686-700/in Russian)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on changing the name of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
To change the name of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and call it the Republic of Abkhazia henceforth.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
23 July 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 138, 28 July 1992)


LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on new symbolics of the Republic of Abkhazia
Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
1. To approve the portrayal of the new National Emblem, Anthem and Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia (attached).
2. The President of the Republic of Abkhazia shall issue the regulations on National anthem and Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia.
3. The government of the Republic of Abkhazia shall publish the regulations on National anthem and Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
23 July 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 138, 28 July 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on draft-agreement between the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of Georgia
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
To send the draft-agreement between the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of Georgia to the Commission of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia for further revision.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
23 July 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 138, 28 July, 1992)


LAW OF THE REPUBLCI OF ABKHAZIA on Transit Duties
Article 1. Payers of duties:
Payers of transit duties shall be the legal and natural persons - owners and users of transport means that are not the residents of Abkhazia and use the territory of Abkhazia, air and maritime spaces of the republic for transit movement of the transport, cargoes and passengers.
Article 2. Rate of duties
a) Rate of duties depends on the type of vehicle and its carrying capacity.
(…)
b) The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Abkhazia shall determine the rate for air and maritime transportation on the basis of intergovernmental agreement.
Article 3. The rules and terms of payment of duties
Collection of duties shall be exercised by the agency that will be determined by the Decree of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia…
(…)
Article 4. Preferential duties
Humanitarian and charity cargoes, as well as military and operative transport shall be exempted from transit duties.
(…)
Legal and natural persons from the Republic of Georgia and from city Sochi of Krasnodar Region shall be exempted from transit duties.
(…)
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
23 July 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 143, 4 August 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on decree issued on 23 July 1992 by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Cessation of Legal Effect of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR of 1978”
The State Council of the Republic of Georgia notes, that the decree issued on 23 July 1992 by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR stipulates cessation of legal force of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Until elaboration of a new Constitution, it was decided to restore the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR of 1925 while maintaining existing legislative, executive and judicial bodies.
The State Council of the Republic of Georgia underlines that the aforementioned decree misrepresents and misinterprets the state-legal relationships between the Republic of Georgia and the Abkhaz ASSR that has come about after the disintegration of the Soviet Union and declaration on restoration of the 1921 Constitution of Georgia issued by the Military Council of the Republic of Georgia.
The disintegration of the USSR did not, and could not change the state borders and territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia and that was confirmed by the UN Security Council and the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe, as well as other sovereign States that have recognized the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia.
Restoration of the 1921 Constitution, proclaimed by the Military Council of the Republic did not change the state borders and national-state arrangement of the Republic of Georgia, either the status of the Abkhaz ASSR and that fact was confirmed by the first article of the Declaration issued by the Military Council of the Republic of Georgia on 21 February 1992.
It should be emphasized that the aforementioned decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR was adopted with gross violation of the internationally recognized principles of constitutionality, namely, in Article 162 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR it is clearly laid down that making decision on constitutional issues requires qualified majority of deputies. The aforementioned decree had ignored the free will of the majority of population of the Abkhaz ASSR and violated the international norms and principles of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
The State Council of the Republic of Georgia underlines that the leadership of the Abkhaz ASSR which must be actively involved in the process of dealing with problems associated with statehood building and political arrangement of Georgia, had adopted the aforementioned decree without any prior consultations with the leadership of the Republic of Georgia and therefore must take responsibility for possible consequences.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the State Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
To consider the decree issued on 23 June 1992 by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Termination of Legal Force of the Constitution of Abkhazian ASSR” legally null and void.
Chairman of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia E. Shevardnadze
Secretary of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia V. Goguadze
25 July 1992
(Newspaper “Svobodnaya Gruzia”, # 95, 28 July 1992)  
 

DECREE  ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCI OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Further Work of Faction of Deputies  “Democratic Abkhazia” of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR
Decree adopted on 23 June by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR, without participation of the faction of Deputies “Democratic Abkhazia” that represents overwhelming majority of the population of the Autonomous Republic, constitutes an attempt at cessation of functioning of the 1978 Constitution and introduction of the 1925 Constitution of the Abkhaz SSR that declared the dictatorship of proletariat, which is absolutely unacceptable for modern-day realities.
Adoption of this decree represented logical consequence of the policy of legitimization of uniqueness of authoritarian regime, violation of human rights of the vast majority of the population of Abkhazia.
The very obvious proof of the aforementioned is a law adopted by the session on introduction of amendments to the Rules of Procedure of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia of the 12th convocation, which makes it possible to introduce amendments to the Constitution of Abkhazia by mere majority of Deputies of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia. This law, in fact, rules out participation of Deputies of the faction “Democratic Abkhazia” in the work of the Supreme Council. This is not singular instance when interests of deputies, representing vast majority of the population of Abkhazia, are blatantly ignored.
Taking into due consideration demands from the electorate, sense of responsibility for the existing civil-political situation in the Republic, and its improvement by parliamentary means, the faction of Deputies “Democratic Abkhazia” decrees:
The faction of Deputies of “Democratic Abkhazia” shall hold separate sessions with the right of adopting legislative acts.
First Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhazian ASSR T. Nadareishvili
29 July 1992
(Newspaper “Abkhazetis Khma”, # 121, 1 August 1992)


DECREE USSED BY SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR ON POLITICAL-LEGAL ASSESMENT of the Decree issued by the First Session of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR of the 12th convoction of 23 July 1992 on “Cessation of the Legal Effect of the 1978 Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR and Restoration of the 1925 Constitution of the Abkhaz SSR”
On 23 June 1992, a part of Deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR carried out a Coup d’ etat through parliamentary means, as a result of which the first signs and achievements of democratic developments have been destroyed: multiparty system, diversity of economy; dictatorship of proletariat had been restored, private ownership over the land had been abolished, means of production have declared as property of the State.
The ultimate goal of the restoration of the Constitution of the Abkhaz SSR of 1925 is to exercise in unilateral manner the state power on the territory of Abkhazia.
However, in accordance with the 1925 Constitution of the Abkhaz SSR, Abkhazia is not a fully-fledged sovereign State, since its sovereignty were limited by boundaries, stipulated by the Constitutions of the Georgian SSR, the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Socialist Federative Republic and the USSR (part 2 of article 5 of the Constitution of Abkhazian SSR).
Proceeding from the analysis of article 4 of the Constitution, Abkhazia represented national-state autonomous entity within the Georgian SSR. Therefore, political-legal status of Abkhazia laid down in the Constitution of Abkhazia of 1978 is adequate to the legal status of Abkhazia laid down in the Constitution of Abkhazia of 1925.
With a view of justification of illegal decisions taken by the Session, the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR referred to its illegal decree on “Declaration on State Sovereignty of Abkhazia” that was adopted by a group of Deputies on 25 August 1990. Later on, on 31 August 1990 this declaration was repealed by the Extraordinary Session of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR as a document that did not reflect the will of the vast majority of the population of Abkhazia.
Therefore, the illegally adopted Declaration on State Sovereignty of Abkhazia can not be regarded as justification of the aforementioned decision. It is noteworthy, that the decision of 23 June 1992 was made with traditional violations of the Constitution of Abkhazian ASSR of 1978. That is why, so crucially important issues for civil-political life of Abkhazia such as: termination of validity of the 1978 Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR; changing of the title of the Republic; law on New State Symbols; introduction of amendments to the Constitution of 1925; introduction of amendments to the Rules of Procedure; The aforementioned facts are telling examples that the Supreme Council of Abkhazia serves group and clan interests of certain people.
In accordance with Article 162 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, any amendments to the Constitution of Abkhazia are to be introduced through the decision of qualified majority, that is, no less than two thirds of Deputies of the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR (Article 94).
Of course, in order to introduce amendments to the Constitution, votes of 43 Deputies are needed. Termination of validity of the Constitution represents one of the forms of repeal of the Constitution. During the session, which made the decision, there were only 36 Deputies in presence and no registration of the Deputies took place.
Analyzing the policy of the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR, we came to a conclusion, that taking the aforementioned decision was a logical continuation of legitimization of the authoritarian regime and claims on national superiority and uniqueness in the process of management the supreme bodies of power of the Autonomous Republic.
It is crystal -clear that next step of the group of Deputies of the Supreme Council will be adoption of a new Constitution, ruling out protective mechanism for the vast majority of the population of Autonomous Republic. Therefore, they want to finally legalize the dictatorship of minority over the majority.
As a result of the illegal decision of the Supreme Council made on 23 June 1992, in fact the very legal basis of the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic-as of representative of legislative body-had been liquidated. Proceeding from the aforementioned, self-liquidation of the Supreme Council of the Abkhazian ASSR would be a logical result of its activities.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
Decision of the group of Deputies of the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR made on 23 June 1992 on “Termination of Legality of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR of 1978 and Restoration of the Constitution of Abkhazian SSR of 1925” amounts to a political game, aimed at artificial cessation of state-legal relations between the Autonomous Republic and the Republic of Georgia.
Until the adoption of a new Constitution of the Autonomous Republic, to consider the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR of 1978 as the supreme law and the only political-legal act defining a social-legal arrangement of the Autonomous Republic.
To consider all the legal acts adopted by the Session of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on 23 June 1992 as null and void.
On behalf of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR - First Deputy Chairman of the Supreme
Council of the Abkhaz ASSR T. Nadareishvili
29 July 1992
(Newspaper “Abkhazetis Khma”, # 121, 1 August 1992)


DECISION OF THE SESSION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC)
August 3, 1992, Tskhinvali
1. Guided by the agreement on the principles of settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, and, in pursuance of the decision of the JCC dated July 29, 1992, establish from representatives of Georgian, Ossetian and Russian parties of the JCC for resolving the issues regarding keeping law and order in the zone of conflict.
- Economic council – by attracting relevant specialists;
- Law-enforcement council – from specialists of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Public prosecutor’s Office and the Judiciary;
- Council for social protection of, and assistance to the population – by attracting relevant specialists;
- United command of peacemaking forces under the JCC shall lead the councils between sessions of the JCC.
The councils shall resolve the following main issues:
- study and analyze the economic, social and living condition of the population and real possibilities for return of refugees to their homes.
- prepare conditions for negotiations on economic rehabilitation of the regions in the zone of conflict.
- develop proposals for competent organs of the parties and take operative control over implementation of the adopted decisions.
The councils shall be authorized:
- to require and receive necessary information from agencies.
- to make operative decisions, bring them to the parties and require their unconditional fulfillment.
- to invite to their sessions authorized persons with the purpose of coordinating practical actions of the parties.
- to present to the competent organs of the parties their conclusions and proposals about the process of implementing the duties and responsibilities by the parties.
- to have permanent contact with the local organizations, citizens, and organize reception of individual persons.
All organizations, agencies and persons shall support the councils in executing their functional responsibilities;
The councils shall work according to the current plan.
The main forms of the activities of the councils shall be practical works at spots, operative discussions about the situation and status of the work, development of proposals and decisions, bringing them to the parties and inspection of fulfillment thereof.
Operative meetings shall be held in the cases of necessity, which shall be announced in advance.
Decisions and recommendations shall be regarded as approved in the case of  unanimity of the joint command.
2. The established structure shall work in close cooperation with the local organs of authorities.
The personnel of the councils shall be defined within the period of three days.
3. Carry out preparatory works for the purpose of organizing the campaign of delivery of arms (weapons) by the population.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA # 814 on Suspension of the Decree issued by the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR on 21 February 1992
In order to secure the integrity of Customs Service and Customs Borders of the Republic of Georgia, the Government of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To suspend the decree # 19 issued on 21 February 1992 by the Council of Ministers of the Abkhazian ASSR on creation of the so-called Customs Service of the Autonomous Republic of the Abkhaz ASSR, as in accordance with the Georgian legislation creation of customs organs, enterprises and organizations and liquidation is within the jurisdiction of the Government of the Republic of Georgia.
2. To close down temporarily, until creation of Sukhumi branch of Customs Service of the State Department affiliated to the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Georgia, custom-passing check points of the sea port and airport of Sukhumi.
3. The State Chancellery of the Government of the Republic of Georgia shall inform the border military service of the Trans-Caucasian military district and  carry out monitoring over its implementation.
Chair of the Government
of the Republic of Georgia, acting Prime-Minister T. Sigua
Acting Deputy Head of State Chancellery
of the Government of the Republic of Georgia K. Gelashvili
7 August 1992
(Decrees Issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia, August, 1992, p. 88-89)
                 

DECREE ISSUED BY the Presidium of THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Introduction of the State of Emergency on the Railway Transport
Attacks of the armed bands on the vitally important for the country transport system-the Railway -are still continuing. There are ever increasing facts of blockage, blowing up, and damage of transport communications, capture and pillage of railway vehicles and cargo, robbery of passengers, threatening the lives of people working in the railway system.  At the same time, we are especially concerned by the fact that citizens from some regions of Georgia are involved in these acts of vandalism carried out by armed gangs.
The measures, undertaken by the Railway Department and law-enforcement agencies are not sufficient to secure protection of the railway.  The Manifest issued by the State Council of the Republic of Georgia is not being implemented that regards implementation of special measures by law-enforcement agencies, city and local government officials to prevent subversive and terrorist acts and secure unimpeded operation of the railway and other means of transportation.
On the next day the Manifest was issued, plotters attacked freight train and wounded a conductor.  At the same day they stopped railway traffic in Poti.  On August 8 railway bridge was exploded in Chaladidi.  Tbilisi-Moscow and Tbilisi-Yerevan trains were stopped and robbed in Gali.  Several armed persons attacked freight train at Tsatkhvi-Inguri portion of railway and robbed the train.  At a station of Kheta armed people robbed two carriages of goods train; the same was repeated next day.
The damage inflicted as a result of the aforementioned criminal activities amounts nine billion rubles. National economy and citizens are deprived of essential food and goods.  It’s impossible to deliver to Abkhazia, Poti and Samegrelo region any kind of goods or supply, thereby further deteriorating the already difficult social-economic situation in the country and threatens the whole society with all-encompassing chaos and anarchy. The neighboring Republic of Armenia found itself in very unfavorable situation, and because of the current situation in the region, is left with no other option but to carry out cargo and passenger traffic through the Georgian railway.
In order to ensure security of traffic, restoration of legality and order and immediate normalization of the situation on the Georgian railway, the Presidium of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Article 13 of the Rules of Procedure of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia, to introduce the State of Emergency on the Georgian Railway on 15 August 1992 for the duration of one month.
2. To entrust the Armed Forces of the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Georgia and units of militarized protection of the Georgian Railway Department with a task of implementation of the State of Emergency.
3. The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Georgia shall mobilize and coordinate the efforts to eliminate the consequences of the state of emergency; for this purpose the Ministry of Defence shall set up operative headquarter led by the Minister of Defence.
4. Those armed forces authorized to implement the State of Emergency on the Georgian Railway, shall secure protection of trains, bridges, tunnels and other communications and objects, and accompany passenger and cargo vehicles. They shall preclude and root out attacks and other criminal activities directed against the railway transport.
8. This decree shall come into force immediately after it is signed.
Chairman of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia E. Shevardnadze
10 August 1992
(Abkhaz Issue in Official Documents, part I, p. 78-80)           


DECREE ISSUED BY THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Decree Issued on 10 August 1992 by the Presidium of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia on “ Introduction of the State of Emergency on the Railway Transport”
In order to assure the security of traffic, restoration of legality and order and immediate normalization of the situation along the Georgian railway, and based on Article 24 of the “Rules of Procedure of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia”, the State Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To approve the decree issued on 10 August 1992 by the Presidium of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia on “Introduction of the State of Emergency on the Railway Transport”.
2. This decree shall come into force immediately after it is signed.
Chairman of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia E. Shevardnadze
Secretary of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia V. Goguadze
11 August 1992
(Collection of Normative Acts of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia, volume II, Tbilisi, 1995, p. 10)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Mobilization of Adult Citizens and Distribution of arms to the regiment of the internal troops of Abkhazia
Due to deployment of Georgian military formations on the territory of Abkhazia and a real threat against sovereignty of the Republic of Abkhazia and its population,
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
1. To carry out mobilization of the adult population of Abkhazia from 18 to 40 years old and assign them to the regiment of the internal troops.
2. The commander of the regiment of the internal troops shall form 5 battalions, with 500 people in each.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
14 August 1992
(G. Amkuab, T. Illarionova, Chronicle of the Undeclared War, Part I, 14 August-14 September, Moscow, 1992, p. 28-29/in Russian)


EXTRACT FROM THE RESOLUTION OF THE EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF KABARDINO-BALKHARIA
1. To condemn the policy of the leadership of Georgia trying to solve the problem in Abkhazia through aggression, dictate and forcible measures.
2. To request from the State Council of Georgia immediate withdrawal of troops from occupied territories of the Republic of Abkhazia and put an end to the genocide of the Abkhaz people.
3. To address to Mr. Khasbulatov and Mr. Yeltsin with the request to take immediate and effective measures, and before 3 September, for the regulation of conflict.
4. To express dissatisfaction towards the policy of the Russian leadership encouraging the activity of the governing elite of Georgia towards the Abkhaz people.
5. To continue active peace activity together with republics, regions and districts of the North Caucasus.
6. To address to Russia with request to organize humanitarian corridor on the territory of Abkhazia for assistance of population affected in the conflict.
7. To appeal to the UNO to interfere to the tragic events in Abkhazia and take all measures for restoring the peace in Abkhazia and Georgia.
8. To set up the Commission on the problems relating to the events in Abkhazia comprising of 3 deputies: 2 Deputies from the Russian Federation and 1 from the Republic of Kabardino-Balkharia.
17 August 1992
(G. Amkuab, T. Illarionova, Chronicle of the Undeclared War, Part I, p. 152-153)


PROTOCOL of consultations on the regulation of the conflict between Georgia and Abkhazia
Due to the developments in Abkhazia the concern and alarm are constently raising.  Every day of military confrontation brings new suffering to the civilians and serious damage to the economy.
The situation has become complicated in the south of Russia.  The republics of region, adjacent to the conflict zone are concerned at the established situation.
Participants of the consultations:
from the Georgian Side  - T. Kitovani
from the Russian Side - S. Shoigu, A. Vorobev, A. Safronov, V. Lisenko,  A. Klevtsov, B. Pastukhov
from the Abkhaz Side - V. Ardzinba, K.Ozgan
stated about their position on the ways aimed at overcoming the existing situation.
The sides agreed upon the following:
1) a firm commitment to stop bloodshed and secure conflict regulation through peaceful means;
2) suspension of military confrontation and movement of armed formations from 31 August of 1992;
3) establishment of permanent communication between the sides in order to exchange the information and respond to the changes of situation;
4) securing of regular and safe functioning of air and maritime transport; fulfillment of reconciled time-table of transportation of civil population in the conflict zone and on adjacent territories.
The sides commit themselves to take responsibility on prevention of possible incidents and provocations posing a threat to the people and delivery of cargo.
5) The conflicting sides expeditiously will hand over the wounded persons, hostages, war prisoners and dead bodies without any prior conditions.
6) The Russian Federation will render humanitarian assistance to the population affected by the conflict.  The Red Cross Organizations of three Sides will determine the procedure and distribution of humanitarian aid.
The representatives of Russian federation reaffirmed their readiness to carry out the role of mediator in the conflict settlement.
The participants of consultations consider that forthcoming meeting in Moscow on 3 September 1992 is an event of special importance.  Immediate cease-fire, normalization of the situation, unconditional protection of rights and freedoms of individuals will establish necessary preconditions for successful meeting.
Signed by: T. Kitovani, S. Shoigu, V. Ardzinba
Sochi, 29 August 1991
(G. Amkuab, T. Illarionova, Chronicle of the Undeclared War, Part I, p. 167-168)


MEMORANDUM On Boarders of South Ossetia
The name “South Ossetia” and “North Ossetia” representing the geographical definition of two parts of Ossetia in the Central Caucasus, has never expressed its political separation.
Being a part of the Russian Empire, Ossetia (from 1774) and East Georgia (from 1801) were subordinated to the empire administration, which was one for all its territories. In addition, the south part of Ossetia (South Ossetia) became the part of the province Tiflis, mainly due to absence of communications across passes between the two parts of Ossetia during the period of winter, which made its governance difficult from Vladikavkaz.
In 1856, the exarch of Georgia, Isidor, in his notes “On the Condition of Christianity in Ossetia”, composed for the Apostolic Synod, indicated that “Governance of Ossetia is divided into three parts. The largest part of the North Ossetia is subordinated to the superior of the military-okrug of Vladikavkaz, smaller part – Digorski Ossetians – to the superior of the center of the line, South Ossetia – to the superior of the mountain peoples and the okrug Java.” (ИГИА.ф.1268.оп.3 л.21-36).
Time by time, the fact of administrative entry of South Ossetia to the province of Tiflis was used by Georgian leaders as the basis for political claims on its territory. However, at that time, subordination of all parts of the empire to one law and one system of administration restrained the process of reunification of Ossetia.
As a result of the revolutionary upheavals in Russia in 1917, and the anarchy, which followed this process, the Georgian chauvinistic forces activated the attempts to annex South Ossetia and make it a part of the state, which was formed by Georgians from the parts of former Russian provinces. Territories of those provinces were formed and they acquired administrative independence only within the empire system, never having been formed as subjects of the state law before.
Ceaseless attempts of the Georgian leaders to annex South Ossetia were met with strong protest of Ossetian people and political organizations of all regions of South Ossetia with no exclusion. The protests intensified after 1917 and grew into armed revolt in various political centers of South Ossetia – Kornisi (1917). Tskhinval (1918), Java, Rukh (1920). The basis of this development was the Declaration of Rights of Peoples of Russia adopted by the Soviet of Peoples’ Commissariats dated November 2(15), 1917, which considered the rights of peoples of Russia to self-determination, even to separation and establishment of independent state. This very declaration of the rights became the basis of the process of unification of Russian provinces by Georgian Mensheviks, their withdrawal from the composition of Russia and, in 1918, making a declaration about founding the state (this very law became the basis for the draft Constitution of South Ossetian SSR on September 6, 1921, which was forcefully brought to the status of semi-colonial autonomous republic in 1922.
South Ossetia refused to leave the composition of Russia and did not participate in elections in the Georgian Parliament, demanding recognition of the right to free choice. On May 28, 19290, delegates and authorized heads of 17 committees “of semi-proletarian” South Ossetia confirmed in the “Memorandum on South Ossetia of CC RCP (B)” “the firm will of South Ossetia”: 1. South Ossetia is an integral part of Soviet Russia; 2. South Ossetia is a part of Soviet Russia on the general basis – DIRECTLY (highlighted in the original); 3. Indirect entry to the Soviet Russia through Georgian or other republics, even Soviet republic, is absolutely unacceptable to us, at any event.”
In response to this, on June 20, 1920, South Ossetia was exposed to armed aggression on the part of Menshevik leadership of Georgia and as a result of the most violent genocide the Ossetian population (18 thousand deceased and more than 50 thousand exiles to North Ossetia) was annexed.
Neither in 1920 nor before it there was any border between the two parts of Ossetia, i.e. legal border from the viewpoint of state law, backed by the relevant agreement. The borders of South Ossetia were first legally formed under the Decree of 1922 within North Ossetian AO transformed in 1991 into the republic pursuant to will of 72% of electorate.
Within 1990-1991, the Supreme Soviet of Georgian SSR denounced all agreements and legislative acts approved by Georgia during the Soviet period. As a result of this fact all legal basis of accession of South Ossetia to Georgia backed by the Constitution of Georgian SSR and USSR were lost, and Georgia lost the right to interfere into determination of borders between South and North Ossetia.
Abolition of the Constitution of Georgian SSR, which incorporated the legal guarantees of the territorial integrity of South Ossetian AO, does not represent the basis for the abolition of Republic of South Ossetia declared in accordance with the will of people of South Ossetian AO on the basis of its indefeasible right to self-determination, which has never been abolished by anybody. Abolition of South Ossetian AO by the Supreme Soviet of Georgia (elections where 72% of the population of SOAO who elected the Supreme Soviet of Republic of South Ossetia was boycotted) and genocide of the Ossetian people represent severe violation of world-recognized norms of law that guarantee sovereignty and safety of peoples, national-territorial formations, whose rights being strengthened everywhere.
At the present time, the border between South Ossetia and North Ossetia is not legally formed and there is no legal basis to establish it. Division of Ossetia during the Soviet period was the result of the geopolitical arbitrariness of Georgia’s leadership and Georgian (Stalin, Orjonikidze) Bolshevik leadership of the USSR. Furthermore, over the “mountain ridge”, the originally Ossetian territories of Kazbegi region went to Georgia, which makes the main argument of Georgia about “naturalness” of the border between Ossetia and Georgia “by watershed” absolutely unfounded too.
It was contemplated under the Agreement of May 7, 1920 concluded between Russia and Georgia to establish a “special joint border commission” until 1922 for determination and legal formation of the borders, including across “naro-mamison”, between Russia (North Ossetia) and Georgia (South Ossetia). However, in 1921, Georgia was sovietized and the “special” agreement on borders did not work. Even in the case of its signing, he agreement should have incorporate opinions of representatives of Ossetia as members of the “joint commission”, as the border was supposed to b established on the territory of Ossetia, which was inhabited by Ossetians along tens of kilometers on both sides of the Caucasus ridge.
It is well known that neither Soviet Russia nor the Menshevik Georgia was the subjects of the international law at the moment of signing the Agreement of May 7, 1920; in other words, they were not recognized by foreign states. Furthermore, the Agreement of May 1920 which pretended to have the status of an agreement on mutual recognition between two independent countries, was not ratified by the parliaments of the signatory countries, which deprives it of the status of inter-state agreement worked out in accordance with the recognized norms of the state law, which determined the fates of the whole nation. It cannot be used as the basis for the political division of the Ossetian nation on its historical territory.
The legal groundlessness of the Agreement along with other factors, is demonstrated in Article XVI which reads:
“The present Agreement shall become effective upon the very fact and moment of its being signed and shall not be subject to a special ratification….”
Can “the fact” and “moment of signing” be regarded as the law, or the expression of the will of the nations and states?! If besides the due and necessary ratification in such important cases there is a “special” ratification too, then this, anyhow, should not be regarded as a violation of elementary legal procedures of serious relationship between the states.
If we proceed from the adverse legal logic, them Uratadze and Karakhan, “with their own hands” can “make in two copies” not only annexation of South Ossetia!..
Just this fact explains the contradiction between the People’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs, G. Chicherin, expressing a harsh note of protest to Georgia in May 17, 1920 with regard to its aggression against South Ossetia, regarding it as “Unjustified interference into internal affairs of other country”, and his deputy, Karakhan, who, with his own hand, signed the agreement. Was not the Munich of 1939 “authographic” agreement? Or, is this the argument, which justifies crime?!
Division of Ossetia “across the ridge” gradually caused not only geographical, but also political division of Ossetia, which was based on imperial violence. This “border” is legally unfounded, and after abolishment of the Constitution of USSR and the Constitution of Georgian SSR, it became absolutely illegal as it did not have legal grounds based on the agreement.
Single citizenship of USSR and belonging to single political system within  the framework of USSR, excluded the political division of the Ossetian nation and did not create strong incentive for movement of Ossetians towards reintegration.
Current joint efforts of the administration of Russia and Georgia to carry out next division of Ossetia between each other is done, like during bolshevism, with full disregard to the historical realities , with severe violations of political and legal norms, which keeps the Ossetian nation under the conditions of permanent genocide. Plans for the current division of Ossetia represent a severe form of repression of the Ossetian nation, its spiritual genocide as it envisages to division of Ossetians in the structure of two states, which makes north and south parts of single nation aliens (strangers) to each other (!), which never was the case throughout the whole history of the Ossetian people, including the gloomy periods of feudalism and reign of Iranian and Persian Shahs in Georgia when South Ossetia managed to preserve its independence.
Attempts of the Georgian administration to carry out political division of the single ethnos shall be regarded as criminal from any point of view: political, legal and moral, and represent a genocide of the Ossetian nation done through military violence, which has been the case since 1989, for the second time after the genocide of 1920.
 The Supreme Soviet of Republic of South Ossetia recognizes integrity and indivisibility of the borders of  Republic of South Ossetia within the borders of South Ossetian AO.
The Supreme Soviet of Republic of South Ossetia once again confirms that there have been no borders between north and south parts of Ossetia during the whole history of the Ossetian nation beyond the Constitution of USSR and the Constitution of Georgian SSR. After the collapse of USSR and abolishment of the Constitution of USSR, all legal and contractual basis for existence of the border between North and South Ossetia were eliminated.
Establishment of these borders shall not be henceforward admitted without the participation of organs of state authorities of Republic of South Ossetia and North Ossetian SSR.
Adopted at the session of Supreme Soviet of Republic Of South Ossetia.
August 31, 1992
(Newspaper “Youzhnaia Ossetia”, # 86, 3 October 1992)


FINAL DOCUMENT OF THE MOSCOW MEETING
The President of the Russian Federation and the Chairman of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia having discussed the situation established in Abkhazia with participation of the leaders of Abkhazia, the North-Caucasus Republics, Regions and Districts of the Russian Federation, striving for the early introduction of cease-fire regime, overcoming the extreme critical situation and establishment of conditions for comprehensive political settlement in Abkhazia that has become the zone of military confrontation… considering inadmissible any violation of universal principles of territorial integrity of the states and inviolability of their frontiers, respecting the rights and freedoms of individuals, as well as the minority’s rights, agreed upon the following:
Article 1
- The territorial integrity of Georgia is to be secured.
- All armed formations participating in the conflict shall firmly observe cease-fire regime from 12.00h of 5 September 1992 and stop the usage of any force against each other.  At that the Sides commit themselves to refrain from any offensive actions before the cease-fire regime enters into effect.
Concurrently the Commission on controlling and inspection shall be set up composed of the representatives nominated by the authorities of Georgia, including Abkhazia, and the Russian Federation.  The Commission shall observe cease-fire and implementation of other provisions of this Agreement in compliance with elaborated procedures.
In order to fulfil their tasks the members of the Commission exercise disarmament, disbanding and withdrawal from Abkhazia all illegal military formations and groups, as well as prevent penetration of such groups into Abkhazia to assure stringent control along the whole perimeter of the conflict zone.
Once the cease-fire is implemented and the troops re-dislocated, the Commission shall monitor that the forces of the Republic of Georgia in the conflict zone shouldn’t exceed the agreed level necessary to fulfil the tasks of this Agreement (protection of railway and other determined objects).
The authorities of all levels shall expeditiously consider the recommendations of the Commission.
Article 2
Exchange of detainees, hostages, war prisoners and others shall be carried out before 10 September 1992 based on the principle “All for All”.
Article 3
The Sides shall prohibit and prevent any terrorist acts and taking in hostage and carry out effective measures to bring the perpetrators to justice.
Article 4
Immediate measures shall be taken to remove obstacles on the way of cargo movement, as well as services and persons that are engaged in lawful activities.  Regular and safe function of relevant land, air and maritime transport will be secured, as well as protection of borders.
The special attention will be attached to the security of certain portions of the Trans-Caucasus railway, including through establishment of joint mechanisms.
The Commission on Control and Inspection will provide necessary recommendations on this issue.
Article 5
The conditions for the return of refugees to the places of their permanent residence are being secured.  They shall receive the adequate assistance and aid.
The measures to find the missing persons and evacuate those willing to leave Abkhazia are being carried out.
Article 6
The effective measures shall be carried out to prevent any violation and plunder and bring the perpetrators to justice.
Article 7
The Sides will carry out measures to restore the regions and render the humanitarian assistance, including at the international level, to the population affected in conflict.  The Red Cross organizations, in coordination with the Commission on Control and Inspection shall determine the procedures of delivery and distribution of such assistance.
Article 8
The Sides confirm the necessity of observing the international norms in the sphere of human rights and minority rights, inadmissibility of discrimination of the rights of citizens with regard of ethnic, language or religion, securing of holding free democratic elections.
Article 9
The Troops of the Russian Federation, temporarily deployed on the territory of Georgia, including in Abkhazia, shall firmly observe neutrality and do not participate in internal conflicts.
All state authorities of Georgia, including Abkhazia, commit themselves to respect neutrality of Russian troops deployed there and prevent unlawful acts against military servicemen, members of their families and military property.
Article 10
The Sides will encourage resumption of functioning of legal organs in Abkhazia by 15 September 1992.
Article 11
The organs of power and management of the republics, regions and districts of the North Caucasus that are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation will take effective measures to prevent and avoid any acts from their respective territories that contravene the provisions of this Agreement.  They will facilitate the activities aimed at achieving peace in the region.  They will exert every effort to explain the population the provisions of this Agreement.
Article 12
The Sides appeal to the UN and the OSCE with request to support aforementioned principles of regulation and render assistance in their implementation, including detaching the mission on fact-finding and observers.
Moscow, 3 September 1992
On behalf of the Russian Federation B. Yeltsin
On behalf of Georgia E. Shevardnadze
Agreed: G. Khizha, A. Kozirev, P. Grachev, A. Mirzabekov, M. Magomedov, V. Kokov,
Kh. Kormokov, V. Saveliyev, V. Khubyev, S. Khetagurov, A. Galazov, A. Jamirov, V.
Ardzinba, K. Ozgan, T. Nadareishvili, T. Sigua, T. Kitovani, A. Chikvaidze, A. Tleuzh, V.
Diakonov, E. Kuznetsov, V. Choub.
3 September 1992
(www.un.org/russian)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA
The statehood of Abkhazia counts more than 12 centuries.  In 1810 Abkhazia voluntarily came under the protection of Russia as an independent entity and remained within its jurisdiction until 1917.
In 1918-1921 Georgian Democratic Republic, founded after collapse of Russian Empire, resorted aggression against Abkhazia and occupied its territory.
On 31 March 1921 Abkhazia was declared as an independent Soviet Socialist Republic (the Abkhaz SSR). and in February of 1922, on the basis of Union Treaty it was united with the Georgian SSR, that was a Federative Republic according to the Constitution of 1927 (Article 2).  In February of 1931, Stalin willfully reduced the status of the Abkhaz SSR to that of an autonomous republic within Georgia.  Though Abkhazia was a part of Georgia, it was a state having its Constitution, supreme bodies of legislative and executive power and possessed territorial sovereignty.  All these provisions were assigned in the Constitution of Georgia and Abkhazia of 1978 that regulated relation between the Abkhaz ASSR and the Georgian SSR.  In 1989-1990 Georgian authorities abolished all legal acts that determined the relation between Abkhazia and Georgia.  In this regard the Supreme Council of Abkhazia declared state sovereignty of Abkhazia in August of 1990.  In February of 1992 Georgia reinstated its 1921 Constitution of the Georgian Democratic Republic thus terminating the existence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia with which the Abkhaz ASSR had the state-legal relation.  Georgian Constitution of 1921 didn’t consider the Abkhaz ASSR.  As a fact, Georgia unilaterally ceased the legal relations with Abkhazia.  That’s why in July of 1992 Abkhazia had to reinstate the Constitution of 1925 on its territory that allowed for a treaty-based relation with Georgia.
In 14 August 1992 the Supreme Council of Abkhazia had to discuss the draft of an Agreement with the Republic of Georgia and exactly that day Georgia launched invasion of Abkhazia.  So, the day of invasion Abkhazia was a sovereign state and a subject to the International Law.
Considering then existing circumstances, detachment of troops of the State Council of Georgia to the territory of Abkhazia, in accordance of the definition of the UN, is an act of aggression…
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia decrees:
To consider armed attack of the troops of the State Council of Georgia to Abkhazia in 14 August 1992 and occupation of the part of its territory as an aggression of Georgia against the Republic of Abkhazia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia  V. Ardzinba
16 September 1992
(Newspaper “Svobodnaia Abkhazia”, # 2, 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA
On August 14 of 1992, armed troops of unlawfully established State Council of the Republic of Georgia, without prior notification, were dispatched to the Republic of Abkhazia that ceased capital city Sukhumi and occupied part of its territory.
From the very first of hours of invasion the troops of the State Council resort boundless terror and physical annihilation of 100 000 Abkhaz nation. They are ousting non-Georgian population from Abkhazia.  Mil­­itary helicopters, equipped with missile and bombs, as well as tanks and howitzers are used against the peaceful civilians.  The weapons of a mass-destruction “Grad” and others are widely used that are banned by the Geneva Convention of 1949.  The compact settlements of Abkhaz ethnic are being devastated, in particular the villages of Ochamchire and Sukhumi regions. Assassination of Abkhazs and establishment of unbearable condi­­­ti­­ons are aimed at annihilating the Abkhaz nation that comes under the definition of genocide of the 1948 Con­­vention “On Prevention of Offensive Genocide and Measures of Punishment for it”.  Georgian boeviks are kil­­ling children and women only for the ethnic affiliation. They are resorting torture, robbing and raping, including minors; houses, schools, hospitals, museums, recreation centers, administrative buildings are given to arson; the cultural and spiritual heritage of Abkhazia is being devastated.
The State Council of Georgia is not likely to hide its policy of genocide against the Abkhaz people.  On 15 August the chairman of the State Council of Georgia Ed. Shevardnadze on Georgian TV said: “Nothing stops us in fighting for the territorial integrity of our country as it always was done by our great ancestors “.  On 15 August the Commander of Georgian troops G. Karkarashvili declared in Abkhaz TV that he was ready to annihilate all the Abkhazs.  Thus we are witnessing a real plot aimed at genocide, direct aggression and offence that is defined as a crime by Article 3 of the 1948 Convention.  One of the goals of the ongoing aggression is to deprive the Abkhaz people of their historical statehood.  Current Georgian state, even not a member of the UN yet, violated the preamble and Articles 1 and 55 of the UN Charter that secures respect of a big and small nations and supplies the small people with a right of self-determination.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
To consider as an act of genocide of the Abkhaz people the mass-terror, physical annihilation, torture of war-prisoners and hostages resorted by the troops of the State Council of Georgia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia  V. Ardzinba
16 September 1992
(Newspaper “Svobodnaia Abkhazia”, # 2, 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on the Situation in the North Caucasus in the Light of Events in Abkhazia
Due to the critical situation established in the North Caucasus and continued conflict in Abkhazia, the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation decrees:
1. To condemn the violent act committed by the leadership of the Republic of Georgia using forcible measures to solve the inter-ethnic problems and request Georgian authorities to terminate military operations, withdraw the armed formations from the territory of Abkhazia and respect the human rights.
2.  To realize that the measures, undertaken by the leadership of the Russian Federation aimed at regulating the conflict in Abkhazia yet failed to establish peace.  The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation, breaching Articles 108 and 114 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, didn’t convene an extraordinary session of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation upon the request of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Adygey and the Peoples’ Council of Krasnodar Region.  This fact made a negative impact to the developments in the North Caucasus region.
3.  To support the initiative of the president of Russian Federation on convocation of the meeting of the leadership of Russia, Georgia, Abkhazia, as well as the republics, regions and districts of the North Caucasus with an aim to secure unconditional cease-fire in Abkhazia, development of peace process, stabilization of the situation in the region and assistance to the refugees as was assigned at the Moscow Meeting of 3 September 1992.
4. To advise the President and the government of the Russian Federation:
- to discuss the issue on involvement of the contingents of Military forces of the Russian Federation as a peacekeeping forces for protection of the population and securing the operation of industrial enterprises and transport in the demilitarized zone of the conflict in conformity to the Final Document of the Moscow Meeting of 3 September 1992.
- to elaborate a package of measures on protection of the interests of Russian Federation along the state border in the North Caucasus region before 10 October 1992;
- to cease the process of transferring to Georgia the arms, military techniques and ammunition from the military units and establishments of the Russian Federation; to terminate transferring to Georgia the arms, military techniques and ammunition, as well as other supplies and raw materials for enterprises producing the weapons, military techniques and ammunition under previously concluded contracts;  to refrain from concluding economic agreements with Georgia until the regulation of the conflict in Abkhazia;
- to continue humanitarian assistance to the population in the conflict zone;
5.  The Chairmen of the Chambers of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation, before 10 October 1992, shall set up standing commissions for operative study of the situation in the conflict zone and for performing the function of mediator.
6.  To consider necessary establishment of the international commission for investigation of facts of human rights violation on the territory of Abkhazia, estimation of material damages and assistance to return of all refugees in Abkhazia.
8.  The prosecutor General, the Ministry of Interior, the ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation shall carry out adequate measures to prevent the operation of illegal military formations on the territory of the north Caucasus.
The Supreme Council of the Russian Federation expresses its hope that all of the republics within the USSR will respect the international norms with regard of human rights assigned in the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, International Treaty, Helsinki Final Document, Paris Charter for New Europe and other documents by CSCE and calls them for securing the human rights and the rights of ethnic minorities.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation R. Khasbulatov
25 September 1992
(Journal “Dimplomaticheskiy Vestnik”, 1992, #  # 19-20, p. 24-25)


DECREE # 965 ISSUED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Transferring the Sanatoriums, Recreation Houses and Summer Cottages under former Soviet and Soviet-Republican  Subordination to the State Chancellery of the Government of the Republic of Georgia
In accordance with Resolution ‘on the Status of Enterprises, Organizations and Institutions under the Union and Union-Republican Subordination Located on the Territory of Georgia’ of 15 September 1991 adopted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, the Government of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To transfer the sanatoriums, recreation houses and summer cottages under former Soviet and Soviet-Republican subordination, located on the territory of the Abkhaz Autonomous Republic, to the State Chancellery of the Government of the Republic of Georgia in accordance with the attached list.
2. To entrust the Ministry of  Economics, Ministry of Finance and the State Committee of State Property Management with the task of carrying out stock-taking of the property included in the attachment and submit proposals for material-technical and financial supply of the given sanatoriums, recreation houses and cottages.
Acting Chairman of the Government
- the Prime Minister of the Republic of Georgia T. Sigua
Acting Head of State Chancellery
of the Government of Georgia K. Gelashvili
Tbilisi, 30 September 1992
(Decrees Issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia, Septemeber, Tb., 1992, p. 243/in Georgian)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA on the issue of Abkhazia
The Parliament of Georgia decrees:
1. Taking into consideration the fact that the Authorities of the Republic of Georgia and the Georgian faction of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia have repeatedly offered the leadership of Abkhazia to return to Sukhumi and fulfil their duties, but to no avail, the Parliament of Georgia takes the note of the correct decision taken by the wider society of Abkhazia on the creation of executive structure – Cabinet of Ministers of Abkhazia and appointment of Mr. Tamaz Nadareishvili as a Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers of Abkhazia.
2. The Parliament of Georgia welcomes the decision made by the progressive part of the Abkhazian society on establishment of the Salvation Committee of Abkhazia.
3. To prolong the term of office of  Mr. Giorgi Khaindrava - the State Minister of Georgia on Abkhazian Issues and define its authority within the Government of Georgia.
4. To establish a Georgian Parliamentary Committee on Abkhazia that will continue working on the report presented by Mr. Eduard Shevardnadze - the Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia and the Head of State and taking into consideration information provided by Mr. Giorgi Khaindrava - the State Minister of Georgia on Abkhazian Issues - will present comprehensive parliamentary document and work out proposals on legal norms for a political status of Abkhazia.
Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia Vakhtang Goguadze
26 November 1992
(Bulletin of the Parliament of Georgia, 1992-1993, # # 1-4, p. 84-85)    


DECREE on restoration of certain original place-names of residential settlements of the Republic of Abkhazia, ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA
on the basis of proposals of the state commission on regulating the names of residential settlements of Abkhazia and proceeding from desire of population, as well as for the sake of restoration of historical justice, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia Decrees:
To rename the following residential settlements of Abkhazia:
City of Sukhumi        as City of Sukhum
City of Tkvarcheli        as City of Tkuarchal
In Gagra Zone:
Gantiadi            as Tsandripsh
village Bagnari            as village Khishkha
village Veli            as village Chigurkha
village Kldekari            as village Amguashkhuda
village Mendeleevo        as village Agkhua
village Ipnari            as village Aspa
village Kolkhida        as village Psakhara
village Alpiyskoe        as village Achypsta
village Zemokhevi        as village Tsanguara
village Gruzinskoe Ushchelie    as village Akhukhshara
village Leselidze        as village Giarchipshch
village Salme            as village Psou
village Sulevo            as village psokhua
village Vashlovani        as village Mpaadrypsta
village Zegani            as village Pshanshchkha
village kldiani            as village Azripshch
village Mukhnari        as village Katsyrkha
village Salkhino            as village Lkyrkha
village Mikelripsh        as village Mkyalrupsh
village Domerchents        as village Khishkhripshc
village Tsabliani        as village Bagripsh
village Tsodinskari        as village Pkhysta
village Chanchkeri        as village Pianchakhu
village Vake            as village Arasadakha
village Imerkhevi        as village Akhurashkua
village Kheivani        as village Amzara
village Kultubani        as village Asabuley
village Tsalkoti            as village Lapstarkha
village Shafranovo        as village Khsyrkhu
village orekhovo        as village Arasakhu
village Grebeshok        as village Anykhansta
village Kholodnaia Rechka    as village Bagripsta
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
City of Gudauta, 4 December 1992
(Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Republic of Abkhazia. 3. Isuue, Sukhum, 1992, p. 94-95/in Russian)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on Implementation of the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of Russian Federation “on Situation in the North Caucasus in the Light of Events in Abkhazia” of 25 September 1992
The Supreme Council of the Russian Federation notes with deep concern that the measures, undertaken by the Russian Federation and conflicting sides aimed at regulating the conflict in Abkhazia still are not sufficient to reach any positive results.
Exacerbation of the situation, first of all connected with the brought down helicopter by terrorist with a large group of citizens on the board, mostly women and children, makes the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation to return to the question of discussing the conflict in that region that infringes on Russia’s interests.
Georgian side grossly violated achieved agreement on legal status of presence of Russian military formations on the territory of the Republic of Georgia.
Peace process effort of the contingent of the armed forces of the Russian Federation aimed at securing the protection of the population and operation of enterprises and transport in demilitarized zone of the conflict was not supported thus failing to use full potential for implementation of the task.
The Supreme Council of the Russian Federation decrees:
1. The president and the Government of Russian Federation shall:
- intensify effort for implementation of cease-fire regime in the conflict zone and separation of forces of conflicting sides;
- assure the security of citizens, first of all of the women and children in the conflict zone in compliance with the international norms;
- continue humanitarian aid to the population victims of the conflict, including the possibilities of the international community to support the refugees from the conflict zone, and if necessary, evacuate the civilians;
- pursue energetically efforts to prevent from penetration of illegal paramilitary formations and delivery of weapons to the conflict zone.
2.  To advise the President of the Russian Federation to charge the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation with a task of taking adequate responsive measures against terrorists and their bases in case of attacks to the humanitarian vehicles.
3.  The Ministry of Foreign Affairs shall inform the UN and the CSCE about terrorist groups acting against Russian transport means, evacuating refugees and also about the facts of attacks to the Russian military unites and the position of Georgian leadership towards these incidents.
4.  The Supreme Council of the Russian Federation urges the leadership of Georgia to launch criminal prosecution against those that are guilty in committing of terrorist acts.  The Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation shall inform the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation on adequate measures undertaking together with the Georgian side.
5. The Government of the Russian Federation shall submit to the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation proposals on possible sanctions against Georgia in case it fails to carry out necessary measures for ensuring the protection of citizens and the property of Russian Federation on the territory of Georgia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation R. Khasbulatov
25 December 1992
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RF and the Supreme Council of the RF, 1991, # 52, p. 184-185)


1993
DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE NORTH OSSETIAN SSR On Appeal  of the Supreme Council of the Republic of South Ossetia to the People’s Deputies of the North Ossetia
Having heard and discussed the Appeal of the Supreme Council of the Republic of South Ossetia to the people’s Deputies of the North Ossetia, the Supreme Council of the Republic of North Ossetia Decrees:
1. To endorse the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Republic of South Ossetia on establishing Inter-parliamentary standing commission on elaboration of concept for socio-economic and cultural integration of the North Ossetian SSR and the Republic of South Ossetia.
2. To entrust the Commission with the task of proposing the draft-concept on socio-economic and cultural integration of the North Ossetian SSR and the Republic of South Ossetia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR A. Galazov
13 January 1993, Vladikavkaz
(Newspaper “Severnaia Ossetia”, # 15, 29 January 1993)


COMMUNIQUE on the Results of Working Visit of the Chairman of the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation Abdulatipov R.G. and the Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation Shakhrai S. M. in the Republic of Georgia.
In the course of frank and constructive negotiations of the Russian delegation with the Head of Georgian State, leadership of the Parliament and the Government, both Russian and Georgian sides confirmed that the existing in Georgia acute ethno-political conflicts, as a result of which hundreds of people have been killed and are still being killed, have extremely negative impact on all spheres of lives of people residing in Georgia, deteriorate the current state of Russian-Georgian relations and make bleak their perspectives. There can be no doubt that the existing tensions in inter-ethnic relations in Georgia- in the zone of Georgian-Ossetian conflict and in Abkhazia, have destabilizing impact on political, economic and social situation in Russia and the Republics of Northern Caucasus, because tens of thousands of refuges of different ethnic groups found themselves homeless and are condemned to material and spiritual sufferings.
The Parties agreed that solution of the existing painful problems in Georgia and the Caucasus in general, including the Russian Federation, calls for unitary, in advance agreed-upon approach. They are genuinely concerned due to the deterioration of relations between the two neighboring states and are trying to demonstrate maximum possible restraint, in order not to prevent further deterioration of these relations.
Time, blood, death and sufferings of thousands of people had proved many times that ethno-political problems and conflicts could not be solved by force, especially when it comes to war. Application of violent means tends to further deepen and complicate such conflicts, therefore supporting and strengthening ultra extremist forces that are bringing the nations to catastrophe.
Both Russian and Georgian sides do believe that solution of existing contradictions in the sphere of inter-ethnic and inter-State relations in the Caucasian region, genuine peace and concord between the peoples and their well-being call for joint, concerted efforts of all interested states- Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and Russia. To be sure, these efforts will be even more productive, if representatives all sides involved in the conflicts in Georgia, as well representatives from Northern Caucasian Republics, Krays and Oblasts of the Russian Federation, play active role in these efforts. To this end, the Russian side has put forward a proposal to organize a similarly to that high level meeting within the framework of one of forthcoming meetings of the Coordination Council of North Caucasus.
The sides favored settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia by peaceful, political means, prompt resumption of negotiation process with due respect to the realities brought about by the Moscow agreement signed on September 3, 1992. Due to this very reason, they deemed it expedient to resume activities of the Control-Inspection Commission on Cease-Fire and Settlement of the Conflict. At the same time, it was deemed by the sides as unacceptable to allow armed formations of the conflicting parties to participate in the work of the commission.
In the course of negotiations, representatives of the Russian delegation expressed their belief that if the Georgian leadership undertook decisive and effective measures aimed at protection of legitimate rights of Russian military personnel stationed in Georgia, as well as rights of ethnic and religious minorities, securing save and timely return of refugees belonging to different ethnic groups to their homes, including to the zone of Georgian-Ossetian conflict, to Abkhazia and other internal regions of Georgia, such actions on the part of Georgian leadership would surely contribute to improvement of the relations between Georgia and Russia.  That would create solid guarantees for normal peaceful life.
The Georgian side believes that settlement of many conflict-related problems, including the problem of return of refugees, is contingent on disarmament of all illegal armed formations active in conflict zones, and deems it essential to decide on withdrawal of Russian military units from the conflict zones, to improve the effectiveness of peace-keeping forces that were set up on the basis of the Sochi agreement and believes that these forces should be involved in protection of Russian-Georgian border in the zone of Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
Both Georgian and Russian sides expressed their firm conviction that principles of peace, good neighborly relations and cooperation shall serve as solid foundation for relationship between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Georgia and surely, conclusion of an inter-state framework agreement, agreement on the status of Russian military units and border guards stationed in Georgia, further expanding and development of inter-Parliamentary links would greatly contribute to better cooperation between our States.
On behalf of the Russian Federation R. Abdulatypov, S. Shakhrai
On behalf of the Republic of Georgia R. Gotsiridze, V. Rcheulishvili, A.    Kavsadze
18 February 1993
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublica”, # 38, 25 February 1993)                     


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA on the Presence of Russian Military Units on the Territory of Abkhazia
The Parliament of Georgia decrees:
1. Further presence of Russian military units on the territory of Abkhazia is deemed unacceptable.
2. To entrust the Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia - Head of State with a task of carrying out negotiations with the President of the Russian Federation on withdrawal of Russian military units from the conflict zone.
Deputy Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia    R. Beridze
25 February 1993
(Bulletin of the Parliament of Georgia, 1993, # # 1-4, p. 362)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA on Communiquй “Results of Working Visit of Chairman of the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation Abdulatipov R.G. and the Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation Shakhrai S.M. in the Republic of Georgia” signed on 18 February 1993
Having considered the communiquй on “Results of Working Visit of Chairman of the Council of Nationality of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation Abdulatipov R.G. and the Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation Shakhrai S.M. in the Republic of Georgia” signed on February 18, 1993, the Parliament of Georgia
Decrees:
1. To deem the position taken by the Georgian delegation on a number of issues during the negotiations with the Russian delegation as deficient, that found its reflection in the joint communiquй.
2. To deem unacceptable the existence of ambiguous provisions in the communiquй relating to the Georgian-Russian agreement signed on 3 September 1992 in Moscow.
3. To deem it mandatory to strictly follow protocol norms during international negotiations and signing agreement. These norms were ignored during the preparation stage of the aforementioned document.
4. Proceeding from the aforementioned, to repudiate the communiquй on “Results of Working Visit of Chairman of the Council of Nationality of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation Abdulatipov R.G. and the Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation Shakhrai S.M. in the Republic of Georgia” signed on February 18, 1993.
5. To entrust the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia with a task of informing the Russian Authorities with this decree of the Parliament of Georgia.
Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia V. Goguadze
4 March 1993
(Bulletin of the Parliament of Georgia, 1993, # # 5-8, p. 22-23)  


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE NORTH OSSETIAN SSR on Recognition of the Republic of South Ossetia
Based on the undeniable right of every nation to self-determination and proceeding from the Concept of social-economic development adopted by the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR and the Supreme Council of the Republic of South Ossetia, taking into account the unity of the ethnic, territory, historical, cul­­t­­ural and spiritual unity of the Ossetian People, the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian Soviet Socialist Re­­public decrees:
1. To recognize the Republic of the South Ossetia.
2. To inform the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation, the President of the Russian Federation, the Parliament of the Republic of Georgia, the Supreme Council of the Republic of South Ossetia on the fact of recognition of the Republic of South Ossetia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR A. Galazov
6 March 1993
(Archive of the OSCE Mission in Tbilisi)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on Decree of the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR “on Recognition of the Republic of South Ossetia”
Having discussed the information of the Commission of the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation on national-state arrangement and international relations on the situation established due to the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR “on Recognition of the Republic of South Ossetia” of 6 March 1993, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation decrees:
To enter on the agenda of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation in March of 1992 the issue regarding the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR of 6 March 1993 “on Recognition of the Republic of South Ossetia”.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR  R. I. Khasbulatov
22 March 1993
(Bulletin of the Assemblies of the Peoples’ Deputies of the RF and the Supreme Council of the RF, M., 1993, # 14, p. 833)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA on Necessary Measures to be Taken to Protect Life and Ensure Security of Peaceful Population in the Armed Conflict Zone
On the part of territory of Georgia, in Abkhazia, controlled by the Gudauta separatist regime with the support of Russian military forces, the policy of ethnic cleansing, assuming the characteristics of genocide directed against the Georgian civil population and civilians of other nationalities is being carried out.
In order to rescue the lives of peaceful population, the Parliament of Georgia decrees:
1. To entrust the Council of National Security and Defense of Georgia with a task of setting up, within the shortest possible time framework, an extraordinary commission on helping peaceful population, hostages and prisoners of war, and this commission, together with the Ministry of Defense’s commission on prisoners of war, shall set out and implement effective measures aimed at solution of the problems within their jurisdiction. If necessary, in order to secure physical survival of people, temporarily evacuate the peaceful population from the territories under the control of Gudauta separatist regime.
2. In order to better understand the situation and work out concrete action-plan and measures to be taken, to dispatch to Abkhazia, without undue delay, delegation composed of members of the Parliament of Georgia, the Council of National Security and Defense and members of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia under the leadership of Mr. Aleksandre Kavsadze - Chairman of the Committee on Human Rights and Inter-Ethnic Relations.
3. Without any delay and in order to put an end to the aggression, to draw the attention of international organizations and world community to the facts of genocide taking place on the part of territory of Georgia with the participation of foreign country.
4. The Council of National Security and Defense and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia shall undertake all the necessary measures for securing save and timely return of forcefully displaced civilians to their permanent residences and shall create conducive environment and conditions to this end.
Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia V. Goguadze
1 April 1993
(Bulletin of the Parliament of Georgia, 1993,  # # 5-8, p. 105-106)


PROTOCOL of Negotiations Between the Governmental Delegations of the Republic of Georgia and the Russian Federation
On 6-9 April 1993, negotiations between the Governmental Delegations of the Republic of Georgia - headed by the Prime Minister Mr. T. I. Sigua, and the Russian Federation –headed by the Minister of Defence P. S.  Grachev ware held in Sochi.
The Parties to the conflict, seeking to put an end to the dragged out bloodshed and to take a constructive step towards settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia and proceeding from the provisions of the Final Moscow Document of 3 September 1992, expressed their strong determination to immediately and without any preconditions, introduce a cease-fire regime and denounce usage of military force against each other, and the Parties believe that such steps would pay the way for the transitional period, in the course of which a number of confidence-building measures between the opposing Parties will be elaborated and implemented.
Any settlement of the conflict should envisage the commitments not to resume hostilities, undertaken by the Parties to the conflict, and denounce any military offence and building of utilities of military infrastructure.
The Commission for Control and Inspection in Abkhazia (CCI), composed of representatives appointed by the Georgian Authorities, including the Abkhazian ones, and the Authorities of the Russian Federation, shall resume their activities. The Commission guarantees compliance with the cease-fire regime.
Immediate de-mining, restoration of destroyed, as a result of hostilities, segments of railways and highways, shall be monitored and promoted by the Commission, as well as securing safe access to them and their proper functioning.
A special group shall be set up within the jurisdiction of the Commission, which shall address the issues related return and accommodation of refugees and internally displaced persons.
The population that suffered as a result of the conflict shall be rendered a humanitarian aid.
A number of measures, aimed at strengthening the fight against criminal underworld and protection of human rights of ethnic minorities, shall be undertaken in full conformity with the international law.
The Russian Side declared about its readiness to discuss these and other issues with representatives of Abkhazia. In particular, issues related to conservation of seismic and other scientific equipment located in the Eshera laboratory #24, shall be addressed during the meetings with representatives of Abkhazia. The Laboratory with a radius of 200 meters from the center, occupies 1250 square meters and is a access-restricted zone and to be protected through application of engineer and military-technical means. The Russian side believes that security in this zone should be guaranteed by mixed Russian, Georgian and Abkhazian military contingent, number of personnel of which should be agreed upon in advance.
From the point of view of the Georgian side, it is essential to carry out the process of withdrawal of Russian military unit that protects the seismic laboratory located in the conflict zone.
The Parties to the conflict pledge do not undertake offences in the zone where the laboratory is located.
Within the context of settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia, the presence of Georgian and international observers in the zone of Bombora military airdrome shall be positively decided upon.
The Parties to the conflict shall undertake additional effective measures in order to prevent infiltration into the conflict zone of illegal military formations, individuals, weapons and ammunitions.
These and other problems need to be addressed in detail by representatives of Georgia, Abkhazia and Russia in the course of negotiations, in order to pave the way for a new Summit within the format of the Final Document adopted on September 3, 1992.
The Russian and Georgian sides spoke in favor of more active involvement of the United Nations and the OSCE in the conflict settlement process.
As far as the Georgian-Ossetian conflict is concerned, the Delegations agreed to render support the OSCE endeavors aimed at setting going the dialogue between the Parties to the conflict, in order to secure a peaceful and comprehensive settlement of the conflict.
The Sides failed to reach an agreement on a number of issues that have been discussed in the course of negotiations. Among such issues was an issue of presence of Russian military units in Gudauta. Consultations on the aforementioned and other issues shall be continued in the future.
Head of the Governmental Delegation of the Republic of Georgia T. I. Sigua
Head of the Governmental Delegationof the Russian Federation P. S. Grachev
9 April 1993
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA on Withdrawal of Russian Military Units from the Conflict Zone in Abkhazia
Taking into consideration that:
The contingent of Armed Forces of the Russian Federation stationed on the territory of Abkhazia are actively involved in military actions against the Republic of Georgia and the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation have adopted a number of resolutions that have grossly violated the sovereignty of the Georgian state,
Russia had violated the Moscow Agreement of September 3, 1992, and as a result of obstructionist position taken by the Russian delegation during the negotiations in Sochi, negotiations between Russia and Georgia yielded no tangible results; The Russian side has repeatedly ignored the legitimate claims of the Georgian side on withdrawal of Russian Military units from the territory of Abkhazia, which is under control of Russian troops and the Abkhaz separatists and where facts of ethnic cleansing of Georgian populations occurred. These claims were laid down in the statements and decrees issued by the Head of the Georgian State and the Parliament of Georgia (17 December 1992, 25 February, 16-18 March, 1 April 1993 and others).
The Parliament of Georgia, believing that root cause of the tragic events unfolding in Abkhazia, Georgia is the Russian Federation’s attempt to annex a part of the territory of Georgia, decrees:
1. The Head of State of Georgia shall appeal to the President of Russian Federation to withdraw Russian Troops from Abkhazia.
The Parliament of Georgia hopes that the President of Russian Federation, having achieved a substantial success in the referendum held on 25 April 1993, will apply the power entrusted to him and very soon will take a decision on withdrawal of troops from Abkhazia.
2. In case of non-implementation of this demand, to consider the Abkhaz conflict zone-north-west to the river Gumista up to the Russian-Georgian border as a territory occupied by the Russian Federation. In this regard, the Head of State of Georgia, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Georgia, Representative of the Republic of Georgia to United Nations shall bring to the attention of the UN Security Council and other international organizations the issue of bringing into motion of those mechanisms and legal instruments provided by the international law.
Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia V. Goguadze
27 April 1993
(Bulletin of the Parliament of Georgia, 1993, # # 5-8, p. 135-137)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF NATIONALITIES OF THE SUPREME COUCNICL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on implementation of the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation “on the situation in the North Caucasus in connection with the events in Abkhazia” of 25 September 1992 and “on implementation of the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation “on the situation in the North Caucasus in connection with the events in Abkhazia of 25 September 1992” of 25 December 1992
Having discussed the implementation of the decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation “on the situation in the North Caucasus in connection with the events in Abkhazia” of 25 September 1992 and “on implementation of the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation “on the situation in the North Caucasus in connection with the events in Abkhazia of 25 September 1992”, the Council of nationalities of the supreme Council of the Russian Federation notes that the measures undertaken by the federal authorities aimed at termination of military conflict in Abkhazia destabilizing public-political situation in the North Caucasus, failed to reach expected results.
The recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation to stop transferring of weapons, military technique and ammunitions to the Georgian side before regulation the conflict also is not implemented.
Still the standing commission of the people’s deputies of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation, set up for investigation of facts of human rights violation on the territory of Abkhazia is not operating.
The leadership of Georgia, taking advantage of the inconsequence of conduct of the federal agencies of the Russian Federation in Abkhazia, uses forcible measures accusing Russian in violating of neutrality.
All the aforementioned leads to the large-scale military operation in the region and increases discontent of the population of the North Caucasus and Cossacks making them demand more radical actions from the government.
The Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Russian federation decrees:
1. Reaffirming its adherence to the political methods of settlement of the inter-state and inter-ethnic problems, welcoming the Appeal of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia to the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation of 23 March 1993 on willingness of the people of Abkhazia to join or come under the protectorate of the Russian Federation, striving for peaceful regulation of the conflict in Abkhazia, and in order to secure stability in the North Caucasus - advises the President of the Russian federation and the Government of the Russian Federation to intensify the talks with the leadership of the Republic of Georgia on the appeal of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia to the Supreme Council of the Russian federation aimed at normalization of the situation in Abkhazia and protecting of human rights and rights of nations on self-determination based on the norms of the International law.
2. To recognize that the measures, undertaken by the government of the Russian Federation on implementation of the decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation “on the situation in the North Caucasus in connection with the events in Abkhazia” of 25 September 1992 and the decree of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation “on implementation of the decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation “on the situation in the North Caucasus in connection with the events in Abkhazia” of 25 September 1992" of 25 December 1992 are not sufficient.
To advise the President and the government of the Russian Federation to carry out additional measures for implementation of the mentioned decrees.
To continue humanitarian aid to the population in the conflict zone.
3. The Chairman of the Council of nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation, in cooperation with the parliament of the Republic of Georgia and the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia shall secure the operation of the standing commission of the people’s deputies of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation entitled to carry out the function of mediator.
4.  The Committees of the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation on Foreign Affairs and Foreign-economic Relations, on Inter-state Relations, Regional Policy and Cooperation. on Human Rights - shall establish contacts with the missions of the CSCE and the UNO in Georgia in order to determine material damage to the population and public economics and to facilitate the return of refugees.
5.  The Council of nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation appeals to the parliament of Georgia to carry out the control on the investigation of the criminal acts against Russian military servicemen and their families, as well as the objects at the possession of the Russian Federation on the territory of Georgia.
The Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation calls upon the Parliament of the Republic of Georgia and the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia to give realistic assessment to the established situation and pursue the peaceful and fair resolution of the conflict based on the protection of human rights of all nationalities.
Chairman of the Council of Nationalities
of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation R. G. Abdulatypov
30 April 1993
(Bulletin of the Assemblies of the RF and the Supreme Council of the RF, 1993, # 20, p. 1214-1215)


COMMUNIQUE  On Russian-Abkhaz Consultations
On 5-6 May 1993, the Russian-Georgian consultations on the issue of settlement of the armed conflict in Abkhazia took place in the town of Maykop.
The Russian Delegation was headed by Mr. B.N. Pastukhov Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the Abkhaz Delegation was headed by Mr. S.R.Jinjolia – Deputy Chair of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia.
Participants of the consultation meeting were welcomed by Mr. A.A.Jamarov – President of the Republic of Adigea.
Carrying out the functions of mediator, the delegation of the Russian Federation informed the representatives of Abkhazia about results of negotiations between the representatives of Russian and Georgian delegations, that took place on 6-9 April in the city of Sochi. At the negotiations, the Russian delegation was headed by Mr. P.S.Grachev- Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, and the Georgian Delegation was headed by Mr.T.I.Sigua- Prime Minister of the Republic of Georgia.
The Abkhaz side, expressing on principal issues agreement with provisions of the Sochi Agreement on necessity to put an end to hostilities and to find lasting and comprehensive solution to the conflict, at the same time presented withdrawal of military formations of the Republic of Georgia from the conflict zone as a necessary precondition for any peaceful settlement, except for minimum number of military forces necessary for protection of strategically important utilities, as a part of tripartite forces that would act within the jurisdiction of the Control Commission on Abkhazia.
Participants of the meeting emphasized the necessity for a new meeting at the highest level within the format of Final document adopted in September 1992. Such a meeting should be preceded by intensive work and consultation of experts. The participants touched upon those issues that might be reflected in such a meeting.
Representatives of Abkhazia expressed their satisfaction with regard the readiness of the Russian side to offer humanitarian aid to the starving and suffering population, irrespective of their ethnic origin and religious affiliation, trapped in the conflict zone. An agreement has been reached on necessity to take immediate and concerted steps aimed at removal of threat of explosion of gas methyl hydride in the Tkvarcheli mines.
Participants of the meeting expressed their gratitude to the leadership of the Republic of Adigea for providing good conditions for the meeting.
Maykop, 6 May 1993
(Personal Archive of the Author)   


RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE SECOND CONGRESS OF THE OSSETIAN PEOPLE
The Second Congress of the Ossetian people has been convened in the situation of deep political, social-economic and cultural crisis.  Permanent threats from south and east pose the real wide-scale conflicts endangering not only the territorial integrity of the North and South Ossetia, but also the historical prospective of the Ossetian people.
(...)
Base on the resolution of the First Congress of the Ossetian people, the Second Congress decrees:
(...)
- to reaffirm historical expediency of joining of the unified Ossetia to Russia;
(...)
- to establish defence system of Ossetia in order to ensure protection of the population obtaining the military units of the Republic under the jurisdiction of the state law-enforcement agencies;
- to consider the programme adopted by the parliaments of the North and South Ossetia on economic and cultural integration as an important instrument on the way of development of Ossetia’s statehood;
- to consider inadmissible further procrastination of elaboration and implementation of the complex programme for regulation the problems of refugees;
(...)
- to establish unified energy system aimed at further economic integration of the South and North Ossetia;
- to establish unified cultural environment of the South and North Ossetia through coordinating all cultural and language programmes.
(...)
Vladikavkaz, 21-22 May 1993
(Newspaper “Severnaia Ossetia”, # 108, 8 June 1993)   


RESOLUTION 849 (9 July 1993) adopted by the Un Security council
The Security Council,
Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of 1 July 1993 (S/26023 and Adds.2),
Recalling the statements made by the President of the Security Council on 10 September 1992, 8 October 1992 and 29 January 1993 concerning the situation in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia (S/24542, S/24637 and S/25198),
Recalling the Moscow Agreement of 3 September 1992 (S/24523),
Endorsing the approach set out in the Secretary-General’s letter of 5 May 1993 to the President of the Security Council (S/25756),
Noting with concern the recent intensification of fighting around Sukhumi,
Reaffirming the statement made by the President of the Security Council on 2 July 1993 (S/26032), which called in particular on all parties to respect the cease-fire agreement of 14 May 1993,
Stressing the importance it attaches, in the context of the deployment of military observers, to the existence and implementation of a cease-fire and a peace process with the effective involvement of the United Nations,
1) Notes with appreciation the observations contained in the Secretary-General’s report;
2) Requests the Secretary-General to send his Special Envoy to the region to assist in reaching agreement on the implementation of the cease-fire, and to begin immediately the necessary preparations, including contacting Member States which may be able to make observers available and sending a planning team to the area, for the dispatch of 50 military observers to Georgia once the cease-fire is implemented;
3) Further requests the Secretary-General to notify the Council, for its decision, when the cease-fire has been implemented and in his view conditions permit the deployment of the observers, and to make recommendations at the stage for their mandate, and declares its readiness to act expeditiously upon such notification;
4) Welcomes in this context the Secretary-General’s continuing efforts to launch a peace process involving the parties to the conflict and with the participation of the Government of the Russian Federation as a facilitator.
5) Supports the Secretary-General’s continuing cooperation with the Chairman-in-Office of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) in their efforts to bring peace to the region;
6) Calls on the Government of the Republic of Georgia to enter expeditiously into discussion with the United Nations on a status of forces agreement to facilitate early deployment of observers when the Council so decides;
7) Decides to remain seized of the matter.
(www. un. org/docs)


AGREEMENT on ceace-fire and the mechanisms of  its implementation in abkhazia
The representatives of the conflicting sides  with the mediation of the Russian Federation agreed upon the following:
1. The conflicting sides resume the regime of cease-fire and non-resumption of hostilities against each other agreed on 20 May of this year from 12.00h of  28 July 1993.
Usage of aviation, artillery, navigation and other military equipment is strictly prohibited.
The additional forces shall not be dispatched to the conflict zone (on the territory of Abkhazia); the mobilization shall not be announced; military equipment and ammunition shall not be delivered without agreement, as well as the construction of objects for military infrastructure.
2. Georgian-Abkhaz-Russian interim monitoring groups (3-9 people) shall start operation from 29 July 1993. The sides shall agree the composition and personnel of the groups.
Interim monitoring groups shall observe cease-fire regime.  They will be dislocated in Sukhumi, Gulripshi, Ochamchire, Gudauta, Novi Afon, Tkvarcheli, Gagra and Gali, an if necessary, upon agreement of the sides, such groups will be dislocated in other places as well.  The monitoring groups are authorized to enter any place of the conflict of their interest after informing the sides about their intention.  The conflicting sides shall secure protection of monitoring groups and provide them with adequate living conditions and means of transportation.
The monitoring groups may consider appeals of citizens on different issues.
After arrival of International observers, interim monitoring groups are to establish close cooperation with them.
3. The sides of the conflict commit themselves to prevent any violation of the cease-fire agreement and take immediate and effective measures to implement the recommendations and suggestions of the monitoring groups.
The UN and the OSCE shall be informed about the breach of commitments pledged by the sides under this Agreement.
4. The joint Commission on conflict settlement shall be set up before 5 August 1993. Its Regulations shall be approved by the Sides. The participation of the UN and the OSCE representatives will be agreed upon with the Sides to the conflict.
5. The sides shall consider necessity of inviting international observers and peacekeepers to the conflict zone. If the sides agree, the number of peacekeepers and structure shall be determined through the consultations with the UN Secretary-General and the Security Council.
6. Stepwise demilitarization shall be implemented.
Immediate delivery of international observers is carried out and in 10-15 days after cease-fire is in force, the Georgian military formations shall be withdrawn from the territory of Abkhazia.
Concurrently all armed formations, groups and individuals shall be withdrawn from the conflict zone.
In accordance with the Moscow Final Document signed on 3 September 1992, the Unit of Interior Forces of Georgia shall be created from the local population in the conflict zone in order to protect rail and motor roads and important objects. The unit will be accommodated in barracks.  Later on  this unit will be included in the multinational Internal Troops of Abkhazia.
Armed formations of Abkhazia will be included in the Regiment of Interior Troops that will exercise the barracks regime of operation and perform the function of internal troops until comprehensive settlement of the conflict (Protection of rail and motor roads, protection of important objects).
All of these activities are carried out under the strict control of the Joint Commission.
Since the cease-fire regime is observed, the multinational militia shall be created to maintain public order in the conflict zone; the number of personnel will be decided by the sides.
The International peacekeeping forces will be used to observe cease-fire and protect public safety, as well as the Russian military contingent deployed in Abkhazia upon the consultations with the UNO.
The Sides to the conflict shall secure protection of multi-ethnic population.
The measures for returning of refugees to the places of their permanent residence will be carried out.  In order to solve the problems relating to the refugees the Joint Commission shall set up special group.
7. Russian military troops, temporary deployed on the territory of Abkhazia, keep the strict neutrality.
The status of temporary presence of the Russian military troops and border troops, the conditions of their withdrawal and terms shall be determined by certain documents.
The Sides shall secure protection of the Russian military servicemen and their families.
8. The Sides shall comply with local laws and regulations and shall not impede the functioning of the local administration pursuant to the Moscow Final Document signed on 3 September 1992.
9. The Sides to the conflict shall continue negotiations under the aegis of the United Nations with the facilitation of the Russian Federation aimed at comprehensive settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia.
The agreement shall reflect conflict zone demilitarization and establishment of peace as well as the investigation of crimes, crimes against humanity and serious criminal offences as defined by international law and bring the perpetrators to justice.
10. The Sides hereby commit themselves not to use the provisions of this Agreement, cease-fire regime - for the actions that may damage the interests of the Sides.
On behalf of Georgia V. Goguadze
On behalf of Abkhazia S. Jinjolia
On behalf of Russian Federation A. Kozirev
27 July 1993
(www.un.org/russian)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS - THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on urgent measures on Implementation of the Agreement on Cease-fire in Abkhazia and the Mechanisms of the control over its implementation of  27 July 1993
In accordance with the Order issued by the President of the Russian Federation of 29 July 1993, and in order to secure the implementation of the Cease-fore Agreement of 27 July 1993,
the Council of Ministers - the Government of the Russian Federation decrees:
1. To approve the attached list of the composition of the Russian part of the Joint Commission on Regulation in Abkhazia (hereinafter Joint Commission).
2. The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, State Committee of the Russian Federation on Emergency Situations and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters shall select agreed number of military units of the Russian Federation for participation and implementation of the Cease-fire Agreement in Abkhazia with further inclusion in the structure of the UN peacekeeping forces.
3. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation shall:
- carry out adequate work at the UNO relating to the deployment of the international observers and peacekeeping forces to the conflict zone and assign necessary number of interpreters for the Joint Commission;
- negotiate with the competent agencies of the Republic of Georgia the procedures on delivering and withdrawal of special communication equipment for Joint Commission and of the staff that shall operate this equipment;
- continue talks for preparation of the draft Agreement on comprehensive political settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia.
4. Federal Service of Migration of the Russian Federation shall secure organizational measures on return of refugees from the territory of the Russian Federation to the places of their permanent residence.
The financial means for supporting the refugees at the places of temporary settlements and their transportation on the territory of the Russian Federation in the course of their return shall be secured by the Federal Service of Migration within the funds from the state budget of the Russian Federation assigned for the assistance of refugees.
5. The Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation, The Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation shall provide necessary number of vehicles upon the request of the Joint Commission for transportation of refugees, members of the Russian part of the Joint Commission and humanitarian cargo.
6. The Ministry of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation shall facilitate the Joint Commission to receive the necessary amount of fuel for securing the movement of interim controlling groups and peacekeeping forces, as well as refugees and delivery of humanitarian cargo.
9. To consider that from 29 July 1993 the persons included in the Joint Commission, its working bodies, interim controlling groups are under the conditions of armed conflict.
The salary of officers, midshipmen and additional servicemen included in the Joint Commission, its working bodies and interim controlling groups, as well as of assigned military servicemen shall be determined upon the assignment and military rank in a doubled amount.
(…)
10. To assign to the State Committee of the Russian Federation on Emergency Situations and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters from the reserve funds of the Government of the Russian Federation 600 million roubles for forming and delivery humanitarian cargo aimed at eliminating of emergency situations.
(…)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers- the Government of the Russian Federation
V. Chernomirdyn
5 August 1993
(Collection of Acts of the President and Government of the RF, M., 1993, #  32, p. 3363-3365)


RESOLUTION 854 (6 AUGUST 1993) ADOPTED BY THE UN  SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council,
Recalling its resolution 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, which reserved to the Council a decision on the deployment of military observers, following implementation of a cease-fire,
Welcoming the signing on 27 July 1993 of the agreement establishing the cease-fire in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia,
1. Approves the Secretary-General’s proposal as contained in his letter of 4 August 1993 to the President of the Security Council (S/26254) that an advance team of up to ten United Nations military observers be deployed to the region as soon as possible to begin to help to verify compliance with the cease­
fire as envisaged in the cease-fire agreement, the mandate of the team to expire within three months, and contemplates that this advance team will beincorporated into a United Nations observer mission if such a mission is formally established by the Council;
2. Looks forward to the report of the Secretary-General on the proposed establishment of a United Nations observer mission, including in particular a detailed estimate of the cost and the scope of this operation, a time-frame for its implementation, and the projected conclusion of this operation;
3.  Decides to remain seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


RESOLUTION 858 (24 AUGUST 1993) ADOPTED BY THE UN  SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council,
Recalling its resolution 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, which reserved to the Council a decision on the deployment of observers, following implementation of a cease-fire,
Welcoming the signing of the Cease-fire Agreement of 27 July 1993 between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia,
Recalling its resolution 854 (1993) of 6 August 1993, in which the Council approved the deployment of an advance team of observers for a period of three months,
Having considered the Secretary-General’s report,
Reaffirming previous statements which underscored the vital importance of the maintenance of cease-fire agreements, in particular the statement of the President of the Security Council on 2 July 1993 (S/26032),
Determining that continuation of the conflict in Georgia threatens peace and stability in the region,
Noting that the parties to the conflict have committed themselves to withdrawal of forces from Abkhazia and that this withdrawal is at present under way,
1. Welcomes the Secretary-General’s report of 6 August 1993 (S/26250);
2. Decides to establish a United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) in accordance with the above-mentioned report comprising up to eighty-eight military observers, plus minimal staff necessary to support UNOMIG, with the following mandate:
a)  (a)  To verify compliance with the Cease-fire Agreement of 27 July 1993 with special attention to the situation in the City of Sukhumi;
b) To investigate reports of cease-fire violations and to attempt to resolve such incidents with the parties involved;
c) To report to the Secretary-General on the implementation of its mandate including, in particular, violations of the Cease-fire Agreement;
3. Decides that UNOMIG is established for a period of six months subject to the proviso that it will be extended beyond the initial ninety days only upon a review by the Council based on a report from the Secretary-General whether or not substantive progress had been made towards implementing measures aimed at establishing a lasting peace;
4. the Secretary-General to report as appropriate, but in any event within three months, on the activities of UNOMIG;
5. Decides to keep under constant review the operational arrangements to implement the mandate contained in this resolution, in the light of any further recommendations that the Secretary-General may make in this regard;
6. Welcomes the proposed deployment of mixed interim monitoring groups of Georgian/Abkhaz/Russian units designed to consolidate the cease-fire, and requests the Secretary-General to facilitate cooperation between the United Nations observers and these units within their respective mandates;
7. all parties to respect and implement the Cease-fire Agreement of 27 July 1993 and to cooperate fully with UNOMIG and ensure the safety of all United Nations personnel and all other peace-keeping and humanitarian personnel within Georgia;
8. Calls on the Government of the Republic of Georgia to conclude ex­­pe­­ditiously with the United Nations a status of forces agreement to facilitate dep­loyment of UNOMIG;
9. Requests the Secretary-General to pursue energetically, through his Special Envoy, efforts to facilitate the peace process and negotiations, starting as soon as possible, towards the achievement of a comprehensive political settlement;
10 Expresses its continuing support for the Secretary-General’s ongoing cooperation with the Chairman-in-Office of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) in efforts to bring peace to Georgia and elsewhere in the region;
11. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS - THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on Further Measures for Regulation of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict
In compliance with the decree issued by the President of the Russian Federation of 29 July 1993 #539, and for the implementation of the decree issued by the Government of the Russian Federation of 5 August 1993, and also respecting the developments in Abkhazia that calls for comprehensive settlement of the conflict and restoration of normal environment for social-political activities after separation of forces and establishment of the cease-fire regime,
the Council of Ministers - the Government of the Russian Federation decrees:
1. To approve the attached list of the Russian part of the Commission on regulation the conflict in Abkhazia.
2. To take a note of the information that under the aforementioned Decree issued by the President of the Russian Federation, Mr. Shoigou - the Chairman of State Committee on Emergency Situations and Elimination of Consequences of natural Disasters was discharged from the responsibilities of acting head of Russian part of the Joint Commission on Regulation of the conflict in Abkhazia.
3. To appoint Mr. Shouykov Valeriy Averkievich, the Chairman of the sub-committee of the Security and Defence of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation as a head of Russian part of the Joint Commission with the consent of the Chairman of the Council of Nationalities Mr. Abdullatipov R.G.
4. The Ministries and agencies enumerated in the Decree of the Council of Ministers- the Government of the Russian Federation of 5 August 1993 #754 shall continue implementation of the measures under their jurisdiction that require the time due to the task character.
5. The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation shall bring up to strength the military unites of the Russian Troops disclocated on the territory of Abkhazia.
6. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation:
- shall carry out necessary work to speed up the process of decision making at the UN and Security Council regarding the mandate of the Russian military units dislocated in Abkhazia and the status of Peace-keeping forces of the UN
- shall hold the consultations with the conflicting sides and the CIS participating States on the issue of dispatching the peace-keeping forces of these states to the conflict zone.
Chairman of the Council of Ministers - the Government of the Russian Federation V. Chernomirdyn
13  September 1993
(Collection of Acts of the President and Government of the RF, 1993, # 39, p. 4042)


AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Restoration of Economy in the Zone of Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
In order to secure economic revival of the regions located in the zone of Georgian-Ossetian conflict and create proper conditions for return of refugees to their permanent residences, the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Georgia agreed on the following:
Article 1
The parties agreed those financial resources, necessary for comprehensive economic revival of those damaged regions in the Georgian-Ossetian conflict zone amounts to 34,2 billion rubles at the prices existing by 15 June 1992.
Article 2
The Georgian side shall cover two thirds of the aforementioned expenditure and the Russian side shall cover one third of the whole expenditure. The Parties to the agreement commit themselves to allocate money in the course of 1993-1997, to this end, annually no later than February, Parties shall work out program of reconstruction works. The Russian Federation, within the framework of its financial commitments, shall provide material-technical resources and in accordance with the list agreed upon by the Parties, shall carry out complete construction of dwelling houses and other buildings or in association with the construction organizations of Georgia.
In order to address material-technical, as well as other issues, mentioned in this article, the Parties are setting up a joint Executive organ that shall coordinate its activities with the Joint Control Commission, established pursuant to the Agreement on “Principles of Settlement of Georgian-Ossetian Conflict, signed on 24 June 1992.
Article 3
The Parties to the Agreement commit themselves to support the initiatives of the ministries and agencies, enterprises and organizations of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Georgia aimed to render support in terms of restoration works.
Article 4
The Parties to the Agreement shall secure safe delivery of written correspondence from the zone of Georgian-Ossetian conflict to the Russian Federation and the Republic of Georgia proper, and shall contribute to return of refugees to their permanent residences and restoration of their property rights.
Article 5
This agreement shall come into force on the very day it is signed,
Agreement is concluded in Moscow on 14 September 1993.
On Behalf of the Government of the Russian Federation A. Shokhin
On Behalf of the Government of the Republic of Georgia O. Patsatsia
14 September 1993
(Journal “Diplomaticheskiy Vestnik” M, 1993, # # 23-24, p. 44)
 

RESOLUTION 876 (19 OCTOBER 1993) ADOPTED BY THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of 6 August 1993 and 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993,
Recalling the statement made by the President of the Council on 17 September 1993 (S/26463), in which the Security Council expressed its extreme concern for the situation in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia, and urged all countries to encourage the resumption of the peace process,
Having considered the letter from the Chairman of the Parliament, Head of State of the Republic of Georgia, dated 12 October 1993 (S/26576, annex),
Having also considered the Secretary-General’s report of 7 October 1993 (S/26551),
Deeply concerned at the human suffering caused by conflict in the region, and at reports of “ethnic cleansing” and other serious violations of international humanitarian law,
Determining that continuation of the conflict in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia, threatens peace and stability in the region,
1. Affirms the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia;
2. Reaffirms its strong condemnation of the grave violation by the Abkhaz side of the Cease-fire Agreement of 27 July 1993 between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia, and subsequent actions in violation of international humanitarian law;
3.  Condemns also the killing of the Chairman of the Defence Council and Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia;
4. Demands that all parties refrain from the use of force and from any violations of international humanitarian law, and welcomes the decision of the Secretary-General to send a fact-finding mission to the Republic of Georgia in this regard, in particular to investigate reports of “ethnic cleansing”;
5.  Affirms the right of refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes, and calls on the parties to facilitate this;
6. Welcomes the humanitarian assistance already provided, including by international aid agencies, and urges Member States to contribute towards the relief efforts;
7.  Calls for unimpeded access for international humanitarian relief assistance in the region;
8. Calls on all States to prevent the provision from their territories or by persons under their jurisdiction of all assistance, other than humanitarian assistance, to the Abkhaz side and in particular to prevent the supply of any weapons and munitions;
9. Reiterates its support for the efforts of the Secretary-General and his Special Envoy, in cooperation with the Chairman-in-Office of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and with the assistance of the Government of the Russian Federation as a facilitator, to carry forward the peace process with the aim of achieving an overall political settlement;
10. Notes the provisional steps the Secretary-General has taken with regard to the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG), and welcomes his intention to provide a further report both on the future of UNOMIG and on the political aspects of the United Nations role in trying to end the conflict
in Abkhazia;
11. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


RESOLUTION 881 (4 NOVEMBER 1993) ADOPTED BY THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL
Security Council,
Reaffirming its resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of 6 August 1993, 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993 and 876 (1993) of 19 October 1993,
Recalling in particular resolution 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993, in which the Council decided to establish a United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG), Having considered the Secretary-General’s report of 27 October 1993 (S/26646) concerning the situation in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia,
Noting with concern that the original mandate of UNOMIG has been overtaken by the military developments of 16 to 27 September 1993, Expressing its serious concern that continuation of the conflict in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia, threatens peace and stability in the region,
1. Welcomes the Secretary-General’s report of 27 October 1993;
2. Welcomes also the continued efforts of the Secretary-General and his Special Envoy, in cooperation with the Chairman-in-Office of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and with the assistance of the Government of the Russian Federation as facilitator, to carry forward the peace process with the aim of achieving an overall political settlement, and in particular to bring both parties together in late November 1993 in Geneva;
3. Reiterates the demand in its resolution 876 (1993) that all the parties to the conflict in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia, refrain from the use of force and from any violation of international humanitarian law, and looks forward to the report of the fact-finding mission sent by the Secretary-General to the Republic of Georgia in this regard;
4. Approves the continued presence of UNOMIG in Georgia until 31 January 1994 comprising up to five military observers plus minimal support staff, with the following interim mandate:
(a) to maintain contacts with both sides to the conflict and military contingents of the Russian Federation;
(b) to monitor the situation and report to headquarters, with particular reference to any developments relevant to the efforts of the United Nations to promote a comprehensive political settlement;
5. Decides that UNOMIG will not be extended beyond 31 January 1994 unless the Secretary-General reports to the Council that substantive progress has been made towards implementing measures aimed at establishing a lasting peace or that the peace process will be served by the prolongation of its mandate, and requests the Secretary-General to report as appropriate, but in any event by late January 1994, on the activities of UNOMIG;
6. Requests the Secretary-General to take planning steps which would enable, upon a further decision by the Council, prompt deployment of additional personnel within the originally authorized strength of UNOMIG if the Secretary-General reports that the situation on the ground and in the peace process warrants it;
7. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING between the Georgian and the Abkhaz sides  at the negotiations in Geneva
From 30 November to 1 December 1993 in Geneva, the first round of negotiations on a comprehensive settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict took place under the aegis of the United Nations with the Russian Federation as facilitator and a representative of the CSCE.
The negotiations were held in accordance with Security Council Resolutions 849 of 9 July 1993, 854 of 6 August 1993, 858 of 24 August 1993, 876 of 19 October 1993 and 881 of 4 November 1993.
Agreement was reached concerning the following:
1. In accordance with the main provisions of the Sochi Agreement of 27 July 1993 on the cease-fire in Abkhazia and the mechanism for monitoring its observance, the parties commit themselves not to use force or the threat of force against each other for the period of the continuing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive political settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia.
2. The parties consider that the maintenance of peace would be promoted by an increase in the zone of conflict of the number of international observers and by the use of international peacekeeping forces subject to agreement by the Security Council and the United Nations Secretary-General.
3. As a gesture of good will, the parties before 20 December 1993 will exchange prisoners-of-war in accordance with the principle of all for all without any preconditions. Urgent measures will be taken to find those missing, for which purpose the parties will give each other the appropriate lists. In addition, measures will be taken for the reburial of the dead.
4. The parties consider it their duty to find an urgent solution to the problem of the refugees and displaced persons. They undertake to create conditions for the voluntary, safe and speedy return of refugees to the places of their permanent residence in all regions of Abkhazia. The apartments, houses, plots of land and property which they left shall be returned to all those refugees who return.
The parties express the hope for participation in the solution to the problem of refugees by the UNHCR.
5. The parties appeal to the international community to render assistance in re-establishing basic supply system to the population in the conflict zone, and to render all victims of the conflict various types of humanitarian assistance.
6. The parties express the wish that for purposes of promoting economic recovery in the conflict zone an international commission be established with the participation of international and national organizations.
7. To prepare recommendations on the political status of Abkhazia, a group of experts including representatives of the parties, the United Nations, the United Nations, the Russian Federation and the CSCE will begin work in Moscow in early December 1993. The group will submit its report to the next round of negotiations.
8. The next round of negotiations for a comprehensive settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict under the aegis of the United Nations, with the Russian Federation as facilitator and with the participation of the CSCE representatives will begin on 11 January 1994 in Moscow or Geneva.
For the Georgian side Jaba Ioseliani
For the Abkhaz side Sokrat Jinjolia
In the presence of:
For the United Nations Edouard Brunner
For the Russian Federation Boris Pastukhov
For the CSCE Vincenzo Manno
1 December 1993
(Archive of the OfFice of the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General in Georgia)


RESOLUTION 892 (22 December 1993) adopted by the un Security council
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of 6 August 1993, 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993, 876 (1993) of 19 October 1993 and 881 (1993) of 4 November 1993,
Also reaffirming its resolution 868 (1993) of 29 September 1993 concerning the security of United Nations operations,
Having considered the Secretary-General’s letter of 16 December 1993 concerning the situation in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia (S/26901),
Noting the letter of 9 December 1993 from the Permanent Representative of Georgia to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General, transmitting the Memorandum of Understanding between the Georgian and Abkhazian sides signed in Geneva on 1 December 1993 (S/26875),
Welcoming the signature of the Memorandum of Understanding (S/26875),
Taking note that the parties to the Memorandum of Understanding consider that the maintenance of peace would be promoted by an increased international presence in the zone of conflict,
Taking note also of the first expert level talks held between the parties in Moscow on 15 and 16 December 1993 and of the intention to convene a new round of negotiations in Geneva on 11 January 1994 with a view to achieving a comprehensive political settlement of the conflict,
Noting that encouraging progress has been achieved in the negotiations between the parties, which justifies the deployment of additional United Nations military observers,
Noting also the decisions of the ministerial meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) held in Rome on 30 November and 1 December 1993 (S/26843), and welcoming further the continuing cooperation between the United Nations and the CSCE in this matter,
Deeply concerned at the humanitarian situation in Georgia, in particular at the number of displaced persons and refugees,
1. Welcomes the Secretary-General’s letter of 16 December 1993 (S/26901);
2. Authorizes the phased deployment of up to 50 additional United Nations military observers to UNOMIG as recommended by the Secretary-General in his letter (S/26901) to perform the functions described in paragraph 4 of Security Council resolution 881 (1993) and in this manner to contribute to the implementation by the parties of the provisions of the Memorandum of Understanding of 1 December 1993; and requests the Secretary-General to inform the Council on the duties of new observers as additional deployments beyond the initial 10 referred to in the Secretary-General’s letter (S/26901) are undertaken;
3. Notes the intention of the Secretary-General to plan and prepare for a possible further expansion of UNOMIG to ensure prompt deployment should the situation on the ground and the course of negotiations warrant it;
4. Expresses its willingness to review the existing mandate of UNOMIG taking into account any progress achieved towards the promotion of a comprehensive political settlement and in the light of the report of the Secretary-General due late January 1994; this report should cover, inter alia, the specific activities UNOMIG will undertake, prospects for the mission, and anticipated costs, in light of the situation on the ground and in the negotiations;
5. Urges the parties to comply fully with all the commitments they have undertaken in the Memorandum of Understanding, and in particular with the commitments undertaken in accordance with the main provisions of the cease-fire agreement of 27 July 1993, set out in paragraph 1 of the Memorandum of Understanding;
6. Urges also the parties to take all steps necessary to ensure the security of UNOMIG personnel and welcomes the readiness of the Government of the Russian Federation to assist the Secretary-General in this regard;
7. Urges also the parties fully to comply with their undertakings in the Memorandum of Understanding to create conditions for the voluntary, safe and speedy return of refugees to the places of their permanent residence and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance to all victims of the conflict;
8. Urges also the parties not to take any political or any other steps that could aggravate the existing situation or hinder the process towards a comprehensive political settlement;
9. Encourages donor States to make contributions in response to the United Nations humanitarian appeal;
10. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


1994
COMMUNIQUE on the second round of negotiations between the Georgian and Abkhaz sides in Geneva
The second round of negotiations on a comprehensive settlement to the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict took place on 11-13 January 1994 in Geneva under the aegis of the United Nations with the facilitation of Russia and with the participation of a representative of the OSCE and a representative of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
The negotiations were held in accordance with Security Council resolutions 849 of 9 July 1993, 854 of 6 August 1993, 858 of 24 August 1993, 876 of 19 October 1993, 881 of 4 November 1993 and 892 of 22 December 1993.
It was noted that the provisions of the Memorandum of Understanding of 1 December 1993 are, for the most part, being implemented.
An exchange of prisoners has taken place on the principle of  “all for all”.
Representatives of UNHCR have undertaken a first preparatory visit with a view to examine the feasibility of voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons to their places of permanent residence.
There had been an increase in the number of international observers in the conflict zone.
On 15-16 December 1993 in Moscow a meeting took place of the group of experts consisting of representatives of the parties to the conflict, the United Nations, the Russian Federation and an observer of the OSCE to prepare recommendations on the political status of Abkhazia.
At the same time it was noted that hostilities took place in individual areas of the zone of conflict carried out by uncontrolled armed groups, as a result of which part of the population experienced new privations.
Work to find the missing and dead had not yet begun.
During the course of the second round of negotiations in Geneva the Parties emphasized the need to continue efforts for the early achievement of a comprehensive settlement of the conflict.
(1) The Parties reaffirmed their commitment not to use force or the threat of force against each other.
(2) The Parties agreed that the establishment of favourable conditions for further progress towards a political settlement and the practical implementation of agreements will be promoted by the deployment of a full-scale peacekeeping operation in Abkhazia. They have appealed to the UN Security Council at its forthcoming consideration of the activities of the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIC) for an appropriate expansion of its mandate, inter alia, to entrust it with control of the non-resumption of hostilities in the zone of conflict. The Parties continued to favour the deployment in the conflict zone of UN peacekeeping forces or other forces authorized by the United Nations. They expressed their mutual consent to the use of a Russian military contingent as part of such forces.
Within five days after deployment in the zone of conflict, in accordance with a decision of the UN Security Council, of an additional number of international observers and following the arrival of peacekeeping forces the Parties shall carry out the withdrawal of all armed units, with their weapons and military equipment, from the Inguri River and other possible lines of active confrontation in the conflict zone to a distance to be determined by the officers commanding the peacekeeping forces and UNOMIC, with the agreement of the parties. Simultaneously, international observers and peacekeeping forces will enter the areas thus formed.
There shall be complete disarmament and withdrawal of all kinds of volunteer units and individuals participating the conflict. Inspections by international observers are permitted at crossing points on the Psou River.
The Parties appeal to the Security Council for an intensification of the international civilian presence in the conflict zone and for this purpose it would be necessary to deploy appropriate civilian experts who will assist in resolving the problems of refugees and other humanitarian issues.
(3) In the view of the Parties a resolution of the problems of a settlement would be promoted by the establishment of a special voluntary fund under the aegis of the United Nations.
(4) The Parties will continue to work out a Quadripartite Agreement on the voluntary return and repatriation to Abkhazia of refugees and displaced persons.
The Parties have agreed to establish a special commission on refugees consisting of the Parties, the UN and the Russian Federation which will begin work on 25 January 1994.
The Parties agreed to begin on 10 February 1994 the implementation of the phased process of the return of refugees and displaced persons to Abkhazia, and as a first step to the Gali region. The Parties will take necessary measures to ensure the safety of refugees, displaced persons and personnel involved in this operation. The Abkhaz side has the primary responsibility for the reception and security of the refugees and also of the above-mentioned personnel. Moreover, to render them assistance in creating a safe environment conductive to the return of refugees and displaced persons.
The Parties are counting on effective assistance from UNHCR and, inter alia, on the commencement as soon as possible of operations in the zone of conflict by an interim division of UNHCR.
(5) The Parties recognize that the primary objective is a comprehensive political settlement of the conflict and that all efforts are contributions to its achievement. They agreed to continue discussions of the problem of the political status of Abkhazia taking into account mutual interests. The next meeting of experts on this issue will take place in Moscow beginning on 8 February 1994. Their report will be considered at the next meeting of the parties and will be sent to the UN and the OSCE.
The UN, The OSCE and the Russian Federation call upon the parties to proceed from the need to observe the territorial integrity of Georgia and fully to ensure the interests of the entire multinational population of Abkhazia, this being the fundamental principles of a comprehensive settlement.
(6) The Parties expressed their interest in the establishment no later than 15 February of an international commission to assist in economic recovery in Abkhazia with the participation of international and national organizations. Among its highest priorities must be the restoration of vital facilities, transport, communications, airports, bridges and tunnels.
(7) The Parties to the negotiations agreed to hold their next meeting on 22 February 1994 in Moscow or Geneva.
For the Georgian side J. Ioseliani
For the Abkhaz side S. Jinjolia
In the presence of:
From the UN E. Brunner
From the Russian Federation B. Pastukhov
From the OSCE V. Manno
13 January 1994
(www.un.org/russian; Personal Archive of the Authors)


RESOLUTION 896 (31 JANUARY 1994) ADOPTED BY THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of  6 August 1993, 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993, 876 (1993) of 19 October 1993,  881 (1993) of 4 November 1993 and 892 (1993) of 22 December 1993,
Also reaffirming its resolution 868 (1993) of 29 September 1993 concerning  the security of United Nations operations,
Having considered the report of the Secretary- General of 25 January 1994  concerning the situation in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia,
Welcoming the Communiquй on the second round of negotiations between the  Georgian and Abkhaz sides signed in Geneva on 13 January 1994 (S/1994/32),
recalling the Memorandum of Understanding signed in Geneva on 1 December 1993  (S/26875), and emphasizing the importance of implementation by the parties of  the obligations to which they have committed themselves,
Taking note that the parties, in the Communiquй, state that they continue  to favour the deployment in the zone of conflict of United Nations peace-keeping  forces or other forces, subject to authorization by the United Nations,
Taking note also of the next expert level talks to be held between the  parties in Moscow on 8 February 1994 and of the intention of the Special Envoy  of the Secretary-General to convene a new round of negotiations in Geneva on  22 February 1994,
Recognizing the grave situation in the Republic of Georgia created by the  presence of almost 300,000 persons displaced from Abkhazia,
Noting again the conclusions of the ministerial meeting of the Conference  on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) held in Rome on 30 November and  1 December 1993 (S/26843), and welcoming the continuing cooperation between the  United Nations and the CSCE in this matter,
1. Takes note of the report of the Secretary-General of 25 January 1994;
2. Welcomes the continued efforts of the Secretary-General and his  Special Envoy, in cooperation with the Chairman-in-Office of the Conference on  Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and with the assistance of the  Government of the Russian Federation as facilitator, to carry forward the peace  process with the aim of achieving an overall political settlement, and welcomes  in particular the progress achieved so far;
3. Urges the parties to resume the negotiations as soon as possible and  to demonstrate stronger willingness to achieve progress towards a comprehensive  political settlement;
4. Calls upon all concerned to respect the sovereignty and territorial  integrity of the Republic of Georgia, and stresses the importance it attaches to  such respect;
5. Stresses that substantive progress must be made immediately on the  political status of Abkhazia, respecting fully the sovereignty and territorial  integrity of the Republic of Georgia, if the negotiations are to succeed and  further conflict is to be avoided;
6. Approves the continuation of UNOMIG’s mandate until 7 March 1994  within the numbers authorized in resolution 892 (1993);
7. Declares its readiness, within this period, to consider promptly any  recommendation from the Secretary-General to further increase the strength of  UNOMIG up to the limit specified in resolution 858 (1993) should the Secretary-General so recommend;
8. Takes note of the options described by the Secretary-General in his  report (S/1994/80) for possible establishment of a peace-keeping operation in  Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia;
9. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council  immediately following the third round of negotiations between the parties on  progress, if any, made in the negotiations and on the situation on the ground,  with special attention to circumstances which might warrant a peace-keeping  force and on the modalities for such a force;
10. Underlines the importance of substantive progress towards a political  settlement at the next round of negotiations for further consideration by the  Council of possible establishment of a peace-keeping force in Abkhazia, Republic  of Georgia;
11. Recognizes the right of all refugees and displaced persons affected by  the conflict to return, without preconditions, to their homes in secure  conditions, calls upon the parties to honour the commitments they have already  made in this regard, and urges the parties to come to an expeditious agreement,  including a binding timetable, that would assure the rapid return of these  refugees and displaced persons in secure conditions;
12. Condemns any attempts to change the demographic composition of  Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia, including by repopulating it with persons not  previously resident there;
13. Calls upon the parties to comply fully with the cease-fire to which  they have committed themselves;
14. Urges the parties to take all steps necessary to ensure the security  of UNOMIG personnel and welcomes the readiness of the Russian Federation to  assist them in this regard;
15. Encourages donor States to assist the Republic of Georgia to enable it  to overcome the consequences of the conflict and to make contributions in  response to the United Nations humanitarian appeal;
16. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


RESOLUTION 901 (4 MARCH 1994) ADOPTED BY THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of  6 August 1993, 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993, 876 (1993) of 19 October 1993,  881 (1993) of 4 November 1993, 892 (1993) of 22 December 1993 and 896 (1994) of  31 January 1994,
Noting the letter dated 28 February 1994 from the Permanent Representative  of Georgia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security  Council (S/1994/234) transmitting the statement of the Chairman of the  Parliament, Head of State of the Republic of Georgia,
Noting also the resumption in New York on 7 March 1994 of the negotiations  held in Geneva from 22 to 24 February 1994 between the Georgian and Abkhaz  sides,
Urging the parties to achieve as soon as possible substantive progress  towards a political settlement based on the principles set out in its previous  resolutions so that the Security Council may adequately consider the possible  establishment of a peace-keeping force in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia,
1. Decides to extend UNOMIG’s mandate for an additional interim period  terminating on 31 March 1994;
2. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council by  21 March 1994 on whatever progress has been made in the negotiations and on the  situation on the ground, with special attention to circumstances which might  warrant a peace-keeping force and on the modalities for such a force;
3. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA on Legislative Practice of Apartheid and Racism in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia
The Abkhaz separatists, acting in alliance with external reactionary and mercenaries, having seized the part of the territory of Georgia in the region of Abkhazia by violent means, continues the unprecedented for modern civilized world the policy of ethnic cleansing, extermination of civilian Georgian population. The process of turning hundreds of thousands of people into refuges and full-scale policy of genocide continue to persist.
The principles of international law, legislation of Georgia and universally recognized human rights are grossly violated.
The aforementioned tragic events can be largely attributed to the policy of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR. This body of State power, expected to protect interests of all ethnic groups residing in the Autonomous Republic based on the principles of equality, in fact, turned itself into a legal instrument of Abkhazian fascism, political leverage of apartheid, racism and genocide.
The Law of the Abkhaz ASSR adopted on 9 July 1991 on “Elections of Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR” (with amendments introduced on 27 August 1991).
The aforementioned law provided representatives of Abkhaz nationality, making up only 18 percent of the whole population of the Autonomous Republic, with guaranteed parliamentary majority –28 seats, while the aborigine Georgian population, making up 47,6 percent of Abkhazia- got only 26 seats, and the rest of national minority groups were given –11 seats.
The aforementioned norm of electoral law runs counter to requirements laid down in articles 2, 7, and 21 of “Universal Declaration on Human Rights” (1948), articles 2, 25, and 26 of “International Convention on Civil and Political Rights” (1966) and other international legal documents, defining equality of all individuals before the law, equal rights and obligations, the right to participate in elections based on the principles of equal suffrage and participation in public affairs, regardless of ethnic origin and other considerations.
The establishment of practice of repression of political rights, based on ethnic affiliation, put Georgians-aborigine population of Abkhazia, comprising nearly half of the whole population of Abkhazia - as well as Russians, Armenians, Greeks and other ethic groups- in unprecedented discriminatory situation and has acquired the form of racial discrimination.
Article 1 of the International Convention of 7 March 1966 “Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination” recognizes as racial discrimination any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.
Moreover, anti-Georgian, anti-State policy has been purposefully carried out through gross violation of Georgian legislation and the Constitution of Abkhazia. The leadership of the Abkhazian ASSR, having illegally declared state sovereignty of Abkhazia, continued persistent implementation of legislative and organizational measures that aimed at violation of territorial integrity of Georgia and separation of Abkhazia from Georgia.
The separatist policy and anti-Constitutional measures undertaken by the separatist forced Georgian deputies, as well as several deputies representing ethnic minorities of Abkhazia, to quit the Supreme Council of the Abkhazian ASSR. As a result, this highest body of state power of the Autonomous Republic- Supreme Council and its Presidium became mono-ethnic formation.
The Presidium, vast majority of which were ethnic Abkhazs, in gross violation of the article 103 of the Constitution of Autonomous Republic continued legislative activities, being not authorized to do so.
For example in 1991-1992 the Presidium adopted several normative acts that declared a number of laws of the Republic of Georgia as having no legal force on the territory of Abkhazia. In the same anti-constitutional manner, the so-called Custom Service of Abkhazia was established, while the Prosecutor’s Office and the Ministry of Interior was subordinated to the Presidium. The Presidium assumed the power of making decisions on personnel policy; a decision was made on temporary termination of the process of “propiska” (registration) on the territory of Abkhazia. Moreover, state borders were delimitated and the rules of leaving the territory of the Republic of Abkhazia were drawn up. The establishment of new illegal armed groups, acting under the immediate jurisdiction of the Presidium, further deteriorated the situation and deepened the conflict in Abkhazia.
Having usurped the power, the Abkhaz legislators, being agitated by chauvinistic feelings and sentiments, on 24 June 1992 made a decision, according to which the Constitution of Abkhaz ASSR, adopted in 1978 was declared as null and void and they restored the Constitution of Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic, allegedly adopted in 1925. In reality, this Constitution was not adopted in 1925. In fact, at that time there was only draft to the aforementioned law. In 1992, the Abkhaz legislators grossly ignored the constitutional principles, according to which two/thirds of votes are necessary for making decision on similar issues.
The Supreme Authorities of State Power of Georgia, in order to maintain unitary legislation throughout the country, consequently would repeal, suspend or declare null and void those anti-constitutional and anti-democratic acts that aimed at establishment and legal endorsement of the regime of apartheid, the Abkhaz domination over other people living in Abkhazia.
In fact, by pursuing such kind of legislative policy, the Abkhaz political leaders have committed crime against peace and humanity – apartheid, considered as extreme form of racism by the article 2 of the Convention adopted in 1974.
Illegal, anti-constitutional actions of extremist politicians of the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR, including encroachment on the Constitution of Abkhazia, gross violation of universally recognized human rights, unprecedented policy of racial discrimination and apartheid can not be left without adequate reaction and legal assessment on the part of the Georgian Authorities and the international community.
The Parliament of Georgia decrees:
1.  In accordance with the imperative principles of the International Law and paragraph 4 of the article 6, as well as the last paragraph of the article 7 of the law of the Republic of Georgia on “State Power”, to repeal the law of the Abkhazian ASSR on “Elections of Deputies of the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR” (with amendments introduced on 27 August 1991) adopted on 9 June 1991.
2. To dissolve the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR elected on the basis of the aforementioned law.
3. To deprive members of the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR of immunity from persecution.
4. To entrust the Procurator’s Office of Georgia with a task of initiating criminal case against those former Deputies of the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR who have committed crime against peace and humanity.
5. To grant to the Council of Ministers of Abkhazia a status of temporarily evacuated organ; until relevant legislative acts are adopted and new elections are held in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, to entrust the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia with a task of exercising the functions of the Supreme body of State power in Abkhazia.
6. To declare null and void all the legislative and normative acts that are at variance with the legislation of Georgia and have adopted by structures that are under the control of the separatist regime or in alliance with the separatists.
7. To declare null and void all the decisions, as well as civil-legal deals that violate the ownership rights on the territory of Abkhazia.
8. Those individuals who have illegally penetrated into the territory of Abkhazia, registered there, grabbed accommodation and land, other material valuables, represent illegal migrant and in accordance with the legislation of Georgia, in case of refusal on their part to voluntarily leave the Republic of Georgia, they shall be expelled from the country.
9. Foreigners, who participated in the hostilities against Georgia, as perpetrators of war crimes directed against peace and humanity, shall be held responsible in accordance with the penal law of the Republic of Georgia.
In accordance with the International law, the period of limitation, right to seek refugee in any country they maybe, shall not apply to the aforementioned individuals, and they shall be subject of extradition to the Georgian Authorities for punishment.
10. Any form of financial or material technical assistance rendered to the Abkhaz separatists shall be considered by the Parliament of Georgia as violation of territorial integrity and political sovereignty of the Republic of Georgia.
11. To ask the United Nations to send its fact-finding mission to Georgia in order to study the facts mass genocide in the Abkhazian region and prepare materials for submission to the International Tribunal.
Deputy Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia V. Rcheulishvili
10 March 1994
(Bulletin of the Parliament of Georgia, 1994, # 16, p. 24-29)


RESOLUTION 906 (25 MARCH 1994) ADOPTED BY THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of  6 August 1993, 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993, 876 (1993) of 19 October 1993,  881 (1993) of 4 November 1993, 892 (1993) of 22 December 1993, 896 (1994) of  31 January 1994 and 901 (1994) of 4 March 1994,
Having considered the reports of the Secretary-General on the situation in  Abkhazia (Republic of Georgia) of 3 March 1994 (S/1994/253) and 18 March 1994  (S/1994/312 and Add.1),
Regretting that no agreement on a political settlement and on the return of  refugees and displaced persons has so far been reached in the negotiations  between the Georgian and Abkhaz sides,
Welcoming the letter from the Permanent Representative of the Republic of  Georgia of 24 March 1994 (S/1994/343) informing of the readiness of the Georgian  Government to continue the negotiations on a comprehensive political settlement,
Stressing again the grave situation in the Republic of Georgia created by  the presence of large numbers of persons displaced from Abkhazia, Republic of  Georgia,
Deploring in particular the violence which occurred in early February,
1. Takes note of the reports of the Secretary-General of 3 and  18 March 1994 (S/1994/253 and S/1994/312);
2. Calls upon once again all concerned to respect the sovereignty and  territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia;
3. Stresses the right of all refugees and displaced persons to return to  their homes in secure conditions, throughout Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia, and urges the parties to come to an expeditious agreement with a view to  facilitating the effective realization of this right;
4. Urges also the parties to resume the negotiations as soon as possible  and to achieve substantive progress towards a political settlement, including on  the political status of Abkhazia, respecting fully the sovereignty and  territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia, based on the principles set  out in its previous resolutions, so that the Security Council may adequately consider the possible establishment of a peace-keeping force in Abkhazia,  Republic of Georgia;
5. Encourages donor States to assist the Republic of Georgia to enable it  to overcome the consequences of the conflict, and to make contributions in  response to the United Nations huma­­ni­­tarian appeal;
6. Decides to extend the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission  in Georgia (UNOMIG) for an additional interim period terminating on  30 June 1994;
7. Urges the parties to take all necessary steps to ensure the security  of UNOMIG personnel and its freedom of movement throughout the territory of the  Republic of Georgia;
8. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council on whatever  progress is made in the negotiations as soon as it is achieved, and in any case  no later than 21 June 1994, and on the situation on the ground, with special  attention to circumstances which might warrant a peace-keeping force and on the  modalities for such a force;
9. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


QUADRIPARTITE AGREEMENT on voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons
The Abkhaz and Georgian sides, hereinafter referred to as the Parties, the Russian Federation and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Recalling Security Council resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of 6 August 1993, 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993, 876 (1993) of 19 October 1993, 881 (1993) of 4 November 1993, 892 (1993) of 22 December 1993, 896 (1994) of 31 January 1994, 901 (1994) of 4 March 1994 and 906 (1994) of 25 March 1994,
Recognizing that the right of all citizens to live in and to return to their country of origin is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,
Noting conclusions 18 (XXXI) and 40 (XXXVI) of the Executive Committee of the Programme of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, which constitutes internationally agreed principles governing the repatriation of refugees,
Acting in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding signed by the Parties on 1 December 1993 and especially paragraph 4, under which Parties expressed their willingness to create conditions for the voluntary, safe and dignified return of displaced persons to their permanent places of residence in all regions of Abkhazia,
Recalling that resolution 428 (V) of 14 December 1950, by which the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, ascribes to the High Commissioner the function of providing international protection to refugees and of seeking permanent resolution for the problems of refugees by promoting and facilitating their voluntary return,
Given the responsibility entrusted to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to act, under the Secretary-General’s authority, as the international lead agency for the repatriation of displaced persons to Abkhazia,
Noting the desire of the Parties to cooperate with each other to achieve full observance of the principles and safeguards governing voluntary repatriation,
Considering the need, therefore, to establish a framework to define modalities of such cooperation for implementation of the repatriation,
Noting that the Parties agree that a repatriation operation to Abkhazia will imply, prior to its implementation, that the security and living conditions in the areas of return are guaranteed. Have agreed on the following:
1. The Parties agree to cooperate and to interact in planning and conducting the activities to safeguard and guarantee the safe, secure and dignified return of people who have fled from areas of the conflict zone to the areas of their previous permanent residence.
2. For the purpose of the present agreement, the Parties will guarantee the safety of refugees and displaced persons in the course of the voluntary repatriation and rehabilitation operations to be organized.
3. In implementing this voluntary repatriation programme, the Parties undertake to respect the following principles:
a) Displaced persons/refugees have the right to return voluntarily to their places of origin or residence irrespective of their ethnic, social or political affiliation under conditions of complete safety, freedom and dignity;
b) The voluntary character of the repatriation shall be ascertained and respected through appropriate arrangements;
c) Displaced persons/refugees shall have the right to return peacefully without risk of arrest, detention, imprisonment or legal criminal proceedings.
Such  immunity shall not apply to persons where there are serious evidence they have committed:
- war crimes and crimes against humanity as it is determined in international documents; or  - heavy crimes; or
- have previously taken part in the hostilities and are currently serving in armed formations, preparing to conduct military operations in Abkhazia.
Persons falling into these categories should be informed through appropriate channels of the possible consequences they may face upon return;
d) The Parties shall ensure that returnees, upon return, will enjoy freedom of movement and establishment including the right to return to the areas where they lived prior to leaving the conflict zone or to the area of their choice;
e) The Parties shall ensure that refugees and displaced persons, upon return, will get their expired documents (propiska, passport) extended and validated for their previous place of residence or the elected place of return;
f) The Parties shall ensure that repatriants, upon return, will be protected from harassment, including unauthorized charges or fees and threat to life or property;
g) Returnees shall, upon return, get back movable and immovable properties they left behind and should be helped to do so, or to receive whenever possible an appropriate compensation for their lost properties if return of property appears not feasible.
The Commission mentioned in paragraph 5 below will establish a mechanism for such claims. Such compensation should be worked out in the framework of the reconstruction/rehabilitation programmes to be established with a financial assistance through the United Nations Voluntary Fund;
h) Displaced persons/refugees who choose not to return to Abkhazia shall continue to be assisted and protected until acceptable alternative solutions are found for such cases;
i) In accordance with the fundamental principle of preserving family unity, where it is not possible for families to repatriate as units, a mechanism shall be established for their reunification in Abkhazia. Measures shall also be taken for the identification and extra care/assistance for unaccompanied minors and other vulnerable persons during the repatriation process;
j) The Parties agree that refugees and displaced persons will be guaranteed unimpeded access to all available information on the situation in the areas where repatriation will take place. Such an information should  be provided in the framework of a campaing to be launched by the Commission as mentioned in paragraph 9 (b)  below.
4. For the purpose of the implementation of voluntary return of displaced persons and refugees to Abkhazia, a quadripartite Commission is hereby established.
5. The principle tasks of the Commission shall be to formulate, discuss and approve plans to implement programmes for the safe, orderly and voluntary repatriation of the refugees and displaced persons to Abkhazia from Georgia, the Russian Federation and within Abkhazia and for their successful reintegration. Such plans should include registration, transport, basic material assistance for a period of up to six months and rehabilitation assistance.
In order to create the conditions for the return of refugees and displaced persons, the Commission will establish a working group of experts to undertake an assessment of the level of damage to the economic and social infrastructure in Abkhazia, the availability of housing and the extent of damage to houses in the areas of return as well as the projected needs in rehabilitation/reconstruction, with financial implications. This survey should be undertaken region by region according to the plan of return to be worked out and accepted by the Parties, bearing in mind that the Parties have agreed to start the repatriation operation with the Gal[i] region.
6. The Commission shall be composed of four members, one being designated by each of the Parties and two representing the Russian Federation and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
In addition, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) will designate a representative to attend the Commission’s meetings in an observer capacity. If circumstances do not allow the designated CSCE representative to attend such meetings, the Commission will keep the CSCE mission in Georgia informed on a regular basis on the progress of the Commission’s work.
7. Any member of the Commission may, when attending any meeting of the Commission, be accompanied by such advisers as the Party designating that member may deem necessary. Where a member of the Commission is unable to attend any meeting of the Commission, the Party concerned may designate a substitute.
8. The Commission shall meet as often as required, but no less frequently than once every month. Meetings of the Commission may be convened at the request of any of the members and shall be held on the territory of the Russian Federation, except as the members of the Commission may otherwise agree. The Parties agree to guarantee the personal security of the members of the Commission and personnel involved in the activities agreed.
The first meeting of the Commission shall be scheduled as soon as possible and no later than one week after the adoption by the Security Council of a resolution on a mechanism ensuring the security conditions in the areas of  return.
9. During its first meeting, the commission will set out the medalities of the assessment mentioned in paragraph 5 above and will establish a plan concerning:
a) The areas where repatriation will be primarily conducted according to the level of guaranteed security and preparedness;
The implementation of an information campaign amang the displaced person/refugee
population encourage voluntary return;
c) The registration process of persons expressing their willingness to return;
d) The activities needed to safeguard the safety or returnees based on the principles set out in paragraph 3 (a-j);
e) The needs for financial, transport and basic material assistance to displaced persons/refugees as well as projected needs for rehabilitation/reconstruction of the areas of return as mentioned in paragraph 5 above.
10. The Parties agree that representatives of refugees and displaced persons shall be provided with facilities to visit the areas of return and to see for themselves arrangements made for their return.
11. In the event of disagreement within the Commission regarding the application and interpretation of this Agreement, where such disagreement cannot amicably be settled among the members of the Commission, the Commission shall refer such disagreements to the Parties and to the Russian Federation and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
The Parties, the Russian Federation and the United Nations High Commissioner For Refugees agreed:
a) UNHCR shall have direct and unhindered access to all displaced persons/refugees from Abkhazia in order to undertake activities essential to the discharge of its mandate and operational monitoring responsibilities;
b) Travel shall be facilitated between and within all areas where refugees and displaced persons are located and areas of return for the personnel of the United Nations and other relevant international and non-governmental agencies cooperating with the United Nations in repatriation, reintegration and rehabilitation programmes. It shall include the free use of airspace and authorized airstrips and airports for relief flights and the exemption from taxes and duties of all goods imported for use in the voluntary repatriation programmes of displaced persons/refugees from Abkhazia and for the provision of relief integration and rehabilitation assistance to the Abkhazian region by the United Nations and cooperating agencies, as well as the expeditious clearance and handling of such goods;
c) The Russian Federation will guarantee unimpeded transit of humanitarian supplies through its territory for the purposes of the present Agreement;
d) UNHCR shall establish local offices, as deemed appropriate, at locations to be approved by the Parties concerned, to facilitate voluntary repatriation, reintegration and rehabilitation;
e) The security of the staff and property of the United Nations and the cooperating agencies shall be guaranteed;
f) The allocation and continued use by the Parties, the United Nations and the cooperating agencies of particularly designated radio frequencies for radio communications between their offices, vehicles, and staff, in areas where refugees and displaced persons are located and in areas of return, shall be provided.
This agreement shall enter into force with immediate effect and shall remain in force for the period required for the effective voluntary return of the displaced persons/refugees.
In witness whereof, the authorized representatives of the Abkhaz and Georgian sides, the Russian Federation and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, have signed the present agreement.
Done at Moscow, 4 April 1994 in four original copies, three in Russian language, and one in English language, at that the four texts are equally authentic but the English text will be authoritative for interpretation purposes.
For the Georgian side: A. Kavsadze
For the Abkhaz side: S. Dzhindzholia
For the Russian Federation: B. Pastukhov
For the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: J. Amunategul
(www.un.org/docs)


DECLARATION on measures for a political settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict
1. The third round of negotiations on a comprehensive settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict took place from 22 to 25 February 1994 in Geneva, from 7 to 9 March 1994 in New York and from 29 to 31 March in Moscow under the  auspices of the United Nations with the facilitation of the Russian Federation and with participation of representatives of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
2. The negotiations were held in accordance with the Security Council resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of 6 August 1993, 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993, 876 (1993) of 19 October 1993, 881 (1993) of 4 November 1993, 892 (1993) of 22 December 1993, 896 (1994) of 31 January 1994, 901 (1994) of 4 March 1994 and 906 (1994) of 25 March 1994.
3. By signing this declaration, the sides have committed themselves to a strict formal cease-fire from this date and also reaffirm their commitment to the non-use of force or threat of the use of force against each other pursuant to the Communiquй of 13 January 1994.
4. The sides have agreed and signed a quadripartite agreement, a copy of which is attached to the present Declaration, on the voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons. The agreement ensures the return of refugees and displaced person in accordance with existing international practice, including the practice of the UNHCR.
A special commission on refugees/displaced persons, which shall include representatives of the sides, the UNHCR, the Russian Federation, and the CSCE as an observer, shall begin its work in Sochi in mid April 1994. The implementation of the agreement shall begin upon the deployment of a peacekeeping force.
5. The sides reaffirm their request for the early deployment of a peacekeeping operation and for the participation of a Russian military contingent in the United Nations peacekeeping force, as stated in the Memorandum of Understanding of 1 December 1993 and the Communiquй of 13 January 1994. The plan for carrying out the peacekeeping operation shall be agreed with the sides to the conflict.
The realization of the peacekeeping operation should also promote the safe return of refugees and displaced persons.
The sides call on again the United Nations Security Council to expand the mandate of the United Nations Observers’ Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG).
6. Abkhazia has its own Constitution and legislation and appropriate state symbols, such as anthem, emblem and flag.
7. The sides discussed the issues on distribution of powers respecting the fact that any agreement on this issue is part of a comprehensive settlement and will only be fulfilled when the final settlement of the conflict is reached.
At this stage, the sides have reached mutual understanding regarding the authority for joint action in the following fields:
a) Foreign policy and forging economic relations;
b) Border-guard arrangements;
c) Customs;
d) Energy, transport and communication;
e) Ecology and elimination of the consequences of natural disasters;
f) Ensuring human and civic rights and freedoms and the rights of national minorities.
8. The sides to make continuous efforts in order to achieve a comprehensive settlement.
The sides will set up an appropriate committee, which will work on a standing basis, respecting the decisions of the Security Council under the chairmanship of the United Nations, with participation of representatives of the CSCE and the Russian Federation and with the involvement of international experts. This body will meet alternatively in Moscow and Geneva. Its first meeting will be held in Geneva on 19 April 1994. A phased action programme will be worked out and proposals on the reestablishment of state and legal relations will be elaborated.
9. The sides agreed to carry out additional measures aimed at search for missing persons and the reburial of the deceased.
10. Based on the principle of inevitability of punishment of persons, those who committed war crime and crime against humanity, as well as other heavy crimes, and as it is determined by international and national law - the sides agreed to intensify the investigation of such crimes and bring the perpetrators to justice.
Inevitable punishment shall also be resorted against the persons who try or will try to undermine the peace process in Abkhazia by using the arms.
For the Georgian side: J. Ioseliani
For the Abkhaz side: S. Dzhindzholia
From the United Nations: E. Brunner
From the Russian Federation: B. Pastukhov
From the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe: A. Manno
4 April 1994
(www.un.org/docs)


DECLARATION on the results of the First Meeting of the Quadripartite Commission on the issues of voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons
Proceeding from the Quadripartite Agreement of 4 April 1994 signed in Moscow on voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons the first meeting of the quadripartite Commission was held on 8-9 of April in Sochi.
In the course of the meeting the schedule of the work of quadripartite Commission was discussed, including activity of experts on certain issues.
It was decided to hold the next meeting of the Commission on 26 April 1994.
The sides agreed that before the next meeting of the quadripartite Commission the UNHCR Mission would pay a working visit to Gali region of Abkhazia and the places of settlement of refugees in order to elaborate the plans for triggering the measures on return of refugees and displaced persons.
The sides reaffirmed their readiness to pursue principles and proposals of the Moscow Agreement of 4 April 1994 on voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons proceeding from the fact that the process of return would be connected with deployment of the peacekeeping forces.
At the same time the sides assume that concrete steps for preparatory work on return of refugees and displaced persons shall be started expeditiously.
On behalf of Georgian side V. Vashakidze
On behalf of Abkhaz side L. Lakerbaia
On behalf of Russian side N. Chulkov
On behalf of UNHCR A. Verwey
Sochi, 9 April 1994
(Newspaper “Svobodnaia Gruzia”, # 57, 12 April 1994)


DECLARATION on observing sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of  borders of the CIS member-states
The heads of State of the CIS
Based on the aspiration of the Peoples of the CIS member states to maintain and strengthen traditional close cooperation and good-neighbourly relations,
Stressing the crucial importance of the problems related o the strengthening of peace and security on the territories of the CIS member-countries in the context of common European and international security, observing sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders of the CIS member-countriesDeeply concerned about the military conflict of different characters,
Being guided by norms of international law, goals and principles of the UN Charter, CSCE and fundamental documents of the CIS,
Respecting the sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders of the CIS member-states,
Realizing the interrelated security of the CIS member-countries Being adherent to the common goal of strengthening the CIS
declare, that the member states of the CIS:
Shall secure the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders in their relations.
1. Confirm, that when establishing friendly relations, the state refrain themselves from military, political, economic and other forms of pressure, including blockade against each-other; they shall not support and use separatism against territorial integrity and inviolability, as well as political independence of any other member-state of the CIS.
2. Assert that forcible seizure of the territory shall not be recognized and the occupation of the territory of the state shall not be used for international recognition or imposing the changing of a legal status.
3. Express firm belief that observing principles of the policy of non-intervention to the affairs of each-other is the key precondition for establishment of friendly relations and partnership between the member-states of the CIS.
4. Shall eliminate pursuant to their national legislation creation and operation of organizations and groups, as well as the activity of certain individuals against the independence and territorial integrity of a member-state of the CIS.
5. Confirm the readiness to encourage the regulation of disputes and conflicts through reconciled mechanisms provided by the relevant documents adopted within the frame of the CIS, the UN and the CSCE.
6. Shall discuss implementation of fundamental documents of the CIS, international treaties and agreements related to the issues of this Declaration at the regular summits of the Heads of States of the CIS in order to assure their effective application.
7. Done at Moscow, 15 April 1994, in one original copy in Russian.
15 April 1994
(Newspaper “Svobodnaya Gruzia”, # 62, 19 April 1994)


DECLARATION OF THE PARTICIPANTS OF THE SECOND MEETING OF THE QUADRIPARTITE COMMISSION on the issues of voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons
In the course of meeting the Protocol of the First Meeting of the Commission, held on 8-9 April 1994 in Sochi was signed.
The composition of the experts for working groups on elaboration of recommendations and rules and establishment of conditions for voluntary and safe return of refugees/ displaced persons was determined, as well as for information campaign, issues of registration and elaboration of the return programme.
The report by the UNHSR on the visit in western regions of Georgia and Gali region of Abkhazia was heard.
The draft project on registration procedures of refugees and displaced persons was heard.
The Agenda for the next meeting was set up that will be held on May 11 in Sochi.
The Commission notes that at the absence of peacekeeping forces the deployment of which is a key moment for establishment of conditions for the return considered in Moscow Agreement of 4 April 1994, its activity can be limited with preparatory work.
The meeting was held in constructive environment and mutual understanding.
For the Georgian side V. Vashakidze
For the Abkhaz side L. Lakerbaia
For the Russian Federation  N. Chulkov
For the UNHCR T. Rahman
Sochi, 27 April 1994
(Newspaper “Svobodnaia Gruzia”, # 71, 4 May 1994)
    

ANNEX TO THE REPORT OF THE UN SECRETARY- GENERAL on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia; Proposals for political and legal elements for a comprehensive settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict
1. Abkhazia will be a subject with sovereign rights within the framework of a union State to be established as a result of negotiations after issues in dispute have been settled. The name of the union State will be determined by the parties in the course of further negotiations. The parties acknowledge the territorial integrity of the union State, created as indicated above, within the borders of the former Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic on 21 December 1991.
2. Abkhazia will have its own Constitution and legislation and appropriate State symbols, such as anthem, emblem and flag.
3. Structures of power of the union State will be created for carrying out mutually delegated competences in the following areas of joint activity already agreed by the parties:
a) Foreign policy and foreign economic relations;
b) Border services;
c) Customs services;
d) Energy, transport and communications;
e) Ecology and measures to eliminate the consequences of natural disasters;
f) Protection of human and civic rights and freedoms and the rights of national minorities.
Additions to the areas of joint activity may be made by agreement between the parties. Within the areas of joint competence, issues of interest specific to Abkhazia will be decided only with the consent of Abkhazia.
4. Outside the areas of joint competence, Abkhazia will enjoy the full measure of State power, including measures to ensure public order. Police and law-enforcement bodies in Abkhazia will be established on a multi-ethnic basis.
5. In international relations, including membership of international organizations, the union State will be represented as a single subject, with the participation of Abkhazia. In the areas of its competence, Abkhazia will have the right to conclude international treaties.
6) The parties agree to give appropriate constitutional status to the political and legal principles of comprehensive settlement agreed by them.
7) The parties appeal to the United Nations and the Russian Federation to guarantee the agreement reached by them and agree to comply with decisions taken by the guarantors.
3 May 1994
(www.un.org/docs)


Proposal For The Establishment of  a Coordinating Commission, signed in Moscow on 11 May 1994
1. Both parties to the conflict agree to establish a Coordinating Commission to discuss practical matters of mutual interest (energy, transport, communications, ecology and so on). The Commission will be established for the transitional period until the conflict has been resolved.
2. The Coordinating Commission will work in the town of Sochi. At its first meeting, which will take place on 1 June 1994, the Commission will be chaired by a representative of the Russian Federation. Further meetings will be chaired alternately by representatives of both parties, unless agreed otherwise.
3. Both parties to the conflict will each designate four representatives of their choice to the Coordinating Commission. Both parties invite representatives of the United Nations, the Russian Federation and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe to participate as observers in the work of the Commission. In discussion of matters affecting both the interests of the parties and territory of the Russian Federation, the representatives of the latter will take part in the work of the Commission with the rights of a delegation.
4. By the first meeting of the Coordinating Commission the parties to the conflict will prepare proposals for the programme of work of the Coordinating Commission, including those to be discussed at its first meeting. Both parties welcome the readiness of the observers to present their proposals for the programme of work of the Commission.
5. Proposals for the work of the Coordinating Commission will be prepared taking into account the provisions of paragraphs 3, 5 and 6 of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Georgian and the Abkhaz sides of 1 December 1993 (S/26875, appendix).
6. The Commission will act without prejudice to the work of the standing committee agreed on in the Moscow declaration of 4 April 1994 (S/1994/397, annex I).
7. Both parties agree to take all decisions by consensus of delegations.
8. Participation in the Coordinating Commission will not prejudge the legal positions of both parties with regard to the future status of Abkhazia.
For the Georgian side: (Signed) J. Ioseliani
For the Abkhaz side: (Signed) S. Jinjolia
In the presence of:
From the United Nations: (Signed) E. Brunner
From the Russian Federation: (Signed) B. Pastukhov
From the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe: (Signed) V. Manno
(www.un.org/docs)


AGREEMENT  on a Cease-fire And Separation of  Forces
In the statement on Measures for a Political Settlement of the Georgian–Abkhaz Conflict, signed in Moscow on 4 April 1994, the Sides committed themselves to strict compliance with a formal cease-fire from that date, and once again reaffirmed their commitment to the non-use of force or threat of the use of force against each other, as expressed in their Communiquй dated 13 January 1994. That commitment remains in force. This Agreement on a Case-fire and Separation of forces lays the official basis to this commitment.
1. The sides shal formly observe the cease-fire on land, in the sea and in the air and shal refrain from all military actions against each other.
2. The armed forces of the sides shal be separated in accordance with the following principles:
1) The area berween  lines B and D on the attached map shall encompass a security zone. There shall be no armed forces or heavy military equipment within this zone. The territory between lines A and B and lines D and E shall constitute a restricted-weapons zone. There shall be no heavy military equipment within this zone. The local civil authorities shall function in the security zone and the restricted-weapons zone. The police militia employed  for this purpose may carry personal arms.
Heavy military equipment includes:
- All artillery and mortars of a caliber exceeding 80 mm;
- All tanks;
- All armored vehicles;
2) The peacekeeping force of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the military observers, in ac­­co­­rdance with the Protocol to this Agreement, shall be deployed in the security zone to monitor compliance with this Agreement;
3) The heavy military equipment to be withdrawn from the security zone and the restricted-weapons zone shall be stored in designated areas to be determined by the parties and shall be monitored by the United Nations military observers;
4) Under the supervision of representatives of the peace-keeping force of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the United Nations observers, with the participation of representatives of the sides from the Kodori gorge, the troops of the Republic of Georgia shall be withdrawn to their places of deployment beyond the frontiers of Abkhazia;
A regular patrol of the peace-keeping force and international observers shall be organized concurrently in the Kodori gorge.
5) All volunteer formations made up of persons outside of the frontiers of Abkhazia shall be disbanded and withdrawn;
6) The movement of units and sub-units of the peace-keeping force and of the international observers outside the security zone in the relevant areas shall be subject to agreement with the sides;
7) United Nations military observers shall also monitor the coastal waters and airspace between lines A and D;
8) In the event of an attack or a direct military threat against the peacekeeping force, it shall take appropriate measures for its safety and self-defence.
3. The precise demarcation on a detailed map and a plan for the separation of forces in the initial phase of the deployment of the peace-keeping force shall be worked out by the command of the peace-keeping force with the participation of the sides in the context of a stage-by-stage, comprehensive settlement, with a continuation of the return of refugees and displaced persons and in compliance with this Agreement, in a working group, which shall begin its work to this end in Moscow within five days after the signing of this Agreement. It shall complete this task within five days. Disengagement shall commence five days after the working group has completed its task. The process of disengagement shall be completed no later than 10 days after it has commenced.
4. A map 3B and 3OB indicating the security zone and the restricted-weapons zone is contained in the appendix.
The Protocol concerning the peacekeeping force of the Commonwealth of Independent States is as follows:
The sides agree that:
The function of the peacekeeping force of the Commonwealth of Independent States shall exert its best efforts to maintain the cease-fire and to see that it is strictly observed. Furthermore, its presence should promote the safe return of refugees and displaced persons, especially to the Gali region. It shall supervise the implementation of the Agreement and the Proticol thereto with regard to the security zone and the restricted-weapons zone in carrying out its mission, the force shall comply with local laws and regulations and shall not hamper the functioning of the local civil administration. It shall enjoy freedom of movement in the security zone and the restrected-weapons zone and freedom of communicatins, and other facilities needed to fulfil its mission.
 The peackeeping force of the commonwealth of indepedent States shall operate under the interim Unified Command and the Commander of the Peackeeping Force.
5. The process of achieving a comprehensive political settlement shall be continued.
6. The sides appeal to the United Nations Security Council to expand the mandate of the United Nations military observers in order to provide their participation in the above mentioned operations.

 7. On the basis of the statement by the Council of Heads of State of the Commonwealth of Inde­­pe­­­ndent States of 15 April 1994 the parties appeal to the Council to take a decision on the use of a co­­lle­­­­­­ctive peacekeeping force in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone.
For the Georgian side:  J. Ioseliani
For the Abkhaz side:  S. Jinjolia
14 May 1994
(www.un.org/docs)


STATEMENT OF THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA
The Parliament of Georgia voices its dismay with certain clauses in the recent documents submitted by the Secretary-General of the UN Boutros Boutros Ghali to the Security Council on 3 May of the current year and the report regarding the peace negotiations on conflict settlement in the region of Abkhazia and the status of Abkhazia in state arrangement of Georgia (Annex II).  Such development of the peace process and escalation of social-political tension in Georgia represent a real threat to the territorial integrity of the country and its centuries-old statehood.  All the aforementioned jeopardizes the process of peace negotiations that may entail a new wave  of military confrontation in the Caucasus Region.
The Parliament of Georgia, considering necessary continuation of the process of peaceful regulation of the conflict with participation of International Organizations and interested sides, welcomes the effort towards the return of refugees and displaced people in the region. At the same time, the Parliament of Georgia declares, that from the point of national interests, the political status of Abkhazia within the Republic of Georgia is the issue of paramount importance.  it shall be decided with respect of rights of the multi-ethnic population of Abkhazia to realization of the function of the autonomous management, as well as with respect of necessary competence of the central power of Georgia, which, in compliance with the world standards, is the fundamental for existing state institutions.
The Parliament of Georgia deems necessary to maintain within the competence of unified republic the basic elements: compliance of the Constitution of Abkhazia with the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia; unified monetary system; borders; army; foreign policy of the central power; clear separation of certain issues under the joint competence in the field of human rights, environment protection and others.
Expressing once again its hope to the peaceful settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia, the Parliament of Georgia, being one of the legitimate organ bearer of the will of the population of Georgia, declares, that it will not reconcile with dissolution of the unified state of Georgia and any agreement, which jeopardizes the territorial integrity and state sovereignty of Georgia, will be considered as having no legal force.
Tbilisi, 24 May 1994  
(Bulletin of the Parliament of Georgia, 1993, # 18, p. 236-237/in Georgian)


JOINT  STATEMENT
On the initiative of the CSCE Mission to Georgia and as a follow up to the meeting that took place on 12 May 1994, on 14 June 1994, a regular meeting between the Parties, that aimed at further search for ways that would lead to peace and reconciliation, took place in Vladikavkaz.
These officials took part in the meeting.
Georgia: Vazha Khachapuridze, Nodar Lomouri, Giorgi Nikolaishvili, Gocha Guniava, Givi Mtvarelidze.
South Ossetia: Znaur Gasiev, Dimitry Medoev, Boris Chochiev, Iuri Dzitsoity.
North Ossetia: Teimuraz Kusov, Anatoly Kachmazov.
CSCE: Hans-Iorg Ayiff, Michael Vaigant, Laslo Beladiy, Fransua de Lavarey.
The Parties agreed upon the following:
1. To carry out joint activities aimed at stabilization of the situation in the zone of conflict;
2. To carry out joint struggle against the organized crime, especially in the sphere of drug-business;
3. To restore auto and railway communications between Tskhinvali and other towns;
4. To start cooperation on economic recover aimed at revival of agriculture and industry;
5. To carry out joint activities aimed at restoration of residential buildings and corresponding infrastructure;
6. To set up a joint committee composed of responsible officials of healthcare sector, in order to identify needs of the population and take adequate steps aimed at improving the healthcare services of the population;
7. To secure safe movement in the zone of conflict;
8. To resume the work of Mixed Control Commission or set up a new quadripartite joint body (Russia, Georgia, South Ossetia, North Ossetia) with participation of CSCE in both cases;
9. To contribute to maintenance of peace and stability in the zone of conflict through observation activities of the CSCE Mission;
10. Through joint efforts, to create material and legal basis for speedy return of refugees and appeal to the peace-keeping forces to create necessary conditions that would guarantee security of refugees, as well as secure support from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees;
11. To start a  process of elaboration of issues of political settlement of the conflict;
The Parties also agreed, in order to evaluate achieved results and future steps to be taken,  to hold the next meeting in the nearest future that shall be organized by the CSCE Mission.
On behalf of Georgia V. Khachapuridze
On behalf of the South Ossetia Z. Gassiev
On behalf of the North Ossetia T. Kusov
On behalf of the CSCE H. Eiff
14 June 1994
(Newspaper “Svobodnaia Gruzia”, # 98, 18 June 1994)


RESOLUTION 934 (30 June 1994) adopted by the UN Security Council
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of 6 August 1993, 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993, 876 (1993) of 19 October 1993,881 (1993) of 4 November 1993, 892 (1993) of 22 December 1993, 896 (1994) of 31 January 1994, 901 (1994) of 4 March 1994 and 906 (1994) of 25 March 1994,
Having considered the Secretary-General’s report of 16 June 1994
Recalling the letter of 16 June 1994 from the President of the Security Council to the Secretary-General,
Noting the letter of 21 June 1994 from the Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation to the Secretary-General Noting that talks between the parties on a comprehensive political settlement will resume shortly and urging the parties to achieve substantive progress towards a political settlement consistent with the principles set out in its previous resolutions,
1. Welcomes the Secretary-General’s report of 16 June 1994;
2. Notes with satisfaction the beginning of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) assistance in the zone of conflict, in response to the request of the parties, on the basis of the 14 May 1994 Agreement on a Cease-fire and Separation of Forces, in continued coordination with the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG), and on the basis of further coordinating arrangements with UNOMIG to be agreed by the time of the Council’s consideration of the Secretary-General’s recommendations on the expansion of UNOMIG;
3. Decides to extend until 21 July 1994 the existing mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) at its current authorized strength, within which period the further expansion of UNOMIG as recommended in the Secretary-General’s report of 6 June 1994 will be addressed;
4. Requests the Secretary-General, in the light of the letter of 16 June 1994 from the President of the Security Council, to report to the Council on the outcome of discussions between UNOMIG, the parties and the CIS peace-keeping force designed to reach an agreement on the arrangements which would exist on the ground for coordination between an expanded UNOMIG and the CIS peace-keeping force;
5. Reaffirms its readiness to consider detailed recommendations on the expansion of UNOMIG along the lines of the ideas set out in paragraph 7 of the Secretary-General’s report of 6 June 1994;
6. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


PROTOCOL OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION TO THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on Economic Restoration of the Regions Located in the Zone of Georgian-Ossetian Conflict, Signed on 14 September 1993.
In order to secure elaboration and implementation of the annual programs of restoration works in the zone of Georgian-Ossetian conflict, as laid down in the article 2 of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Georgia and the Government of the Russian Federation on Economic Restoration of the Regions Located in the Zone of Georgian-Ossetian Conflict, Signed on 14 September 1993, the Parties agreed on the following:
Article 1
The Parties shall create a joint executive body aimed at solving the problems related to financing, material-technical provision and organization of construction works.
Article 2
The Georgian part of the Joint Executive Body shall be represented by the Republican Coordination Center for Material-technical Provision and Organization of Construction Works in the Tskhinvali region ( Head - O.V.Kiknadze).
The Russian side of the Joint Executive Body shall be represented by the Russian Commission on the Issues of Economic Recovery of Regions of South Ossetia (Chair – A.A.Babenko)
Article 3
The Head of the Republican Coordination Center for Material-technical Provision and Organization of Construction Works in the Tskhinvali region and Chairman of the Russian Commission on the Issues of Economic Recovery of Regions of South Ossetia are co-chairs of the Joint Executive Body.
Article 4
The Joint Executive Body shall coordinate its work with the Mixed Control Commission and hold joint plenary sessions when deemed necessary, but no less than once in a quarter.
Article 5
The present Protocol shall come into effect as soon as it is signed.
Concluded on 5 July 1994 in two copies and both of them are of equal value.
On behalf of the Government of Georgia I. Menagarishvili
On behalf of the Russian Federation A. Shokhin
(Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia)


RESOLUTION 937 (21 July 1994) ADOPTED BY THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of  6 August 1993, 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993, 876 (1993) of 19 October 1993,  881 (1993) of 4 November 1993, 892 (1993) of 22 December 1993, 896 (1994) of  31 January 1994, 906 (1994) of 25 March 1994 and 934 (1994) of 30 June 1994,
Recalling the letter of 16 June 1994 from the President of the Security  Council to the Secretary- General (S/1994/714),
Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of 12 July 1994  (S/1994/818 and Add.1),
Reaffirming its commitment to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of  the Republic of Georgia, and the right of all refugees and displaced persons  affected by the conflict to return to their homes in secure conditions, in  accordance with international law and as set out in the Quadripartite Agreement  on voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons (S/1994/397, annex II),  signed in Moscow on 4 April 1994,
Welcoming the Agreement on a Cease-fire and Separation of Forces signed in  Moscow on 14 May 1994 (S/1994/583),
Recognizing the importance of consistent and full compliance with the  Declaration on measures for a political settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz  conflict (S/1994/397, annex I) and the Quadripartite Agreement,
Stressing the crucial importance of progress in the negotiations under the  auspices of the United Nations and with the assistance of the Russian Federation  as facilitator and with the participation of representatives of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) to reach a comprehensive political  settlement of the conflict, including on the political status of Abkhazia,  respecting fully the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of  Georgia, based on the principles set out in its previous resolutions,
Stressing also that this progress would allow the Council to reconsider the  possible establishment of a peace-keeping force in Abkhazia, Republic of  Georgia, as proposed in the letter of 7 September 1993 from the Ministers for  Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Georgia and of the Russian Federation to the  Secretary-General (S/26478),
Stressing further the need to prevent any resumption of hostilities in the  area,
Deeply concerned about the humanitarian situation, and the dangers which  could arise within the region if the large numbers of refugees and displaced  persons are not able to return to their homes in secure conditions,
Taking note of the address of the Head of State of the Republic of Georgia  of 16 May 1994, and that of the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia of  15 May 1994, to the Council of the Heads of State of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and recognizing that the deployment of a CIS  peace-keeping force to the area is predicated upon the request and consent of  the parties to the conflict,
Noting the statements in the letter of the Minister for Foreign Affairs of  the Russian Federation to the Secretary-General of 21 June 1994 (S/1994/732,  annex) concerning the mandate of the CIS peace-keeping force and its duration,
Noting with satisfaction the readiness of the Russian Federation to  continue to inform the members of the Security Council on the activities of the  CIS peacekeeping force,
Welcoming the closer cooperation and coordination envisaged between the  Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Chairman-in-Office of the CSCE,  in particular as regards their efforts to achieve a comprehensive political  settlement in the Republic of Georgia,
Underlining the importance of the relevant provisions of the documents of  the Helsinki Summit of the CSCE of 1992 (S/24370) and of the ministerial meeting  of the CSCE held in Rome on 30 November and 1 December 1993 (S/26843), including  those concerning peace- keeping activities in the CSCE area,
Noting the assurances given by the parties and the representatives of the  CIS peace-keeping force concerning the full freedom of movement for the United  Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) in the performance of its mandate,  both within the zone of operations of the CIS peace-keeping force and in other relevant parts of the territory of the Republic of Georgia,
1. Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General of 12 July 1994;
2. Calls upon the parties to intensify their efforts to achieve an early  and comprehensive political settlement under the auspices of the United Nations  with the assistance of the Russian Federation as facilitator and with the  participation of representatives of the CSCE, and welcomes the wish of the  parties to see the United Nations continue to be actively involved in the  pursuit of a political settlement;
3. Commends the efforts of the members of the CIS directed towards the  maintenance of a cease-fire in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia, and the promotion  of the return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes in accordance  with the Agreement signed in Moscow on 14 May 1994 in full cooperation with the  United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and in accordance with the  Quadripartite Agreement;
4. Welcomes the contribution made by the Russian Federation, and  indications of further contributions from other members of the CIS, of a  peace-keeping force, in response to the request of the parties, pursuant to the  14 May Agreement, in coordination with UNOMIG on the basis of the arrangements  described in the Secretary-General’s report of 12 July 1994, and in accordance  with the established principles and practices of the United Nations;
5. Decides to authorize the Secretary-General to increase the strength of  UNOMIG, as required, up to 136 military observers with appropriate civilian  support staff;
6. Decides also that the mandate of an expanded UNOMIG, based upon the  recommendations in the Secretary-General’s report, shall be as follows:
(a)To monitor and verify the implementation by the parties of the  Agreement on a Cease-fire and Separation of Forces signed in Moscow on  14 May 1994;
(b)To observe the operation of the CIS peace-keeping force within the  framework of the implementation of the Agreement;
(c)To verify, through observation and patrolling, that troops of the  parties do not remain in or re-enter the security zone and that heavy military  equipment does not remain or is not reintroduced in the security zone or the  restricted weapons zone;
(d)To monitor the storage areas for heavy military equipment withdrawn  from the security zone and the restricted weapons zone in cooperation with the  CIS peace-keeping force as appropriate;
(e)To monitor the withdrawal of troops of the Republic of Georgia from  the Kodori valley to places beyond the boundaries of Abkhazia, Republic of  Georgia;
(f)To patrol regularly the Kodori valley;
(g)To investigate, at the request of either party or the CIS peace-keeping force or on its own initiative, reported or alleged violations of the  Agreement and to attempt to resolve or contribute to the resolution of such  incidents;
(h)To report regularly to the Secretary-General within its mandate, in  particular on the implementation of the Agreement, any violations and their  investigation by UNOMIG, as well as other relevant developments;
(i)To maintain close contacts with both parties to the conflict and to  cooperate with the CIS peace-keeping force and, by its presence in the area, to  contribute to conditions conducive to the safe and orderly return of refugees  and displaced persons;
7. Notes the Secretary- General’s intention to write to the Chairman of  the Council of Heads of State of the CIS on the respective roles and  responsibilities of UNOMIG and the CIS peace-keeping force and requests the  Secretary-General to establish an appropriate arrangement to that effect, and  requests the commanders of UNOMIG and the CIS peace-keeping force to conclude  and implement the appropriate arrangements on the ground described in the  Secretary-General’s report of 12 July 1994 (S/1994/818) for coordination and  cooperation between UNOMIG and the CIS peace-keeping force in the implementation  of their respective tasks;
8. Calls upon the parties to the conflict to extend full support,  necessary protection and freedom of movement to UNOMIG in the performance of its  mandate both within the zone of operations of the CIS peace-keeping force and in  other relevant parts of the territory of the Republic of Georgia for it to  fulfil its mandate, and requests that a status of mission agreement with the  Government of the Republic of Georgia and necessary arrangements with the Abkhaz  authorities be concluded without delay;
9. Reaffirms its support for the return of all refugees and displaced  persons to their homes in secure conditions, in accordance with international  law and as set out in the Quadripartite Agreement, calls upon the parties to  honour the commitments they have already made in this regard and to accelerate  the process as far as possible, and requests UNHCR to give its full assistance  to the implementation of the Quadripartite Agreement on the return of refugees  and displaced persons;
10. Requests the Secretary-General to establish a voluntary fund for  contributions in support of the implementation of the Agreement on a Cease-fire  and Separation of Forces signed in Moscow on 14 May 1994 and/or for humanitarian  aspects including demining, as specified by the donors, which will in particular  facilitate the implementation of UNOMIG’s mandate, and encourages Member States  to contribute thereto;
11. Decides on this basis to extend the mandate of UNOMIG to  13 January 1995;
12. Requests also the Secretary- General to report within three months of  the adoption of this resolution on the situation in Abkhazia, Republic of  Georgia, and on the implementation of all aspects of the above-mentioned agreements;
13. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


UNOMIG Mandate, adopted by the Security council Resolution 937, 21 July 1994
The mandate of an expanded UNOMIG, based upon the recommendations in the Security Genaral’s report, shall be as follows:
(a) To monitor and verify the implementation by the parties of the Agreement on a Case-fire and Separation of Forces signed in Moscow on 14 May 1994;
(b) To observe the operation of the CIS peace-keeping force within the framework of the implementation of the Agreement;
(c) To verify, through observation and patrolling, that troops of the parties do not remain in or re-enter the security zone and that heave military equipment does not remain or is not reintroduced in the security zone or the restricted weapons zone;
(d) To monitor the storage areas for heavy military equipment withdrawn from the security zone and the restricted weapons zone in cooperation with CIS peace-keeping force as appropriate;
(e) To monitor the withdrawal of troops of the republic of Georgia from the Kodori valley to place beyond the boundaries of Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia;
(f) To patrol regularly the Kodory valley;
(g) To investigate, at the request of either party or the CIS pece-keeping force or on its own initiative, reported or alleged violation of the Agreement and to attempt to resolve or contribute to the resolution of such incidents;
(h) To report regularly to Secretary-General within its mandate, in particular on the implementation of the Agreement, any violations and their investigation by UNOMIG, as well as other relevant developments;
(i) To maintain close contacts with both parties to the conflict and to cooperate with the CIS peace-keeping force and, by its presence in the area, to contribute to conditions conducive to the safe and orderly return of refugees and displaced persons.
(www.un.org/docs)


AGREEMENT  on Friendship and Cooperation Between the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of Tatarstan
The Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Abkhazia, hereinafter referred as “Contracting Parties”,
Respecting the state sovereignty of both republics, based on the commonality of goals and tasks on strengthening their statehood,
Striving for the further development and strengthening of the cooperation in the political, social, environmental, cultural and other fields…
Respecting priorities of fundamental human rights and freedoms, expressing the readiness to contribute to the settlement of pressing economic and social issues,
Decided to conclude this Agreement on friendship and cooperation and
agreed upon the following:
Article 1
Contracting Parties shall develop their relations based on the principles of equality, non-interference in internal affairs, mutual respect and cooperation.
Contracting parties shall extend the exchange of experience on democratic developments in the states and economic issues respecting the diversity of forms, as well as national features and specific conditions of each of the republic;
Article 3
Contracting parties shall refrain themselves from the acts that run counter to the political, economic, environmental or other interests.
(…)
Article 5
Contracting parties shall cooperate in the field of state building…
Article 9
Contracting Parties consider necessary to establish plenipotentiary missions in the cities of Kazan and Sukhum of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Abkhazia accordingly.
(…)
Article 10
This Agreement shall come into force as soon as it is signed.
This agreement is concluded for five years term…
(…)
This Agreement is concluded in two copies, each in Tatar, Abkhaz and Russian languages…
For the Republic of Abkhazia the Chairman of the Parliament V. G. Ardzinba
For the Republic of Tatarstan President M. Sh. Shaymiev
17 August 1994
(Archive of the Office of the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General in Georgia)


AGREEMENT  on Friendship and Cooperation Between the Republic of Abkhazia and the
Republic of Bashkortostan
The Republic of Bashkortostan and the Republic of Abkhazia, hereinafter referred as “Contracting Parties”,
Based on the commonality of goals and tasks on strengthening their statehood,
Striving for the further development and strengthening of the cooperation in the political, social, environmental, cultural and other fields…
Expressing the readiness to contribute to the settlement of pressing economic and social issues,
Decided to conclude this Agreement on friendship and cooperation and
agreed upon the following:
Article 1
Contracting Parties, recognizing the sovereignty of the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of Bashkortostan, shall develop their relations based on the principles of equality, non-interference in internal affairs, mutual respect and cooperation.
(…)
Article 2
Contracting parties shall refrain themselves from the acts that run counter to the political, economic, environmental or other interests.
(…)
Article 3
Contracting parties shall develop and promote trade, economic and scientific cooperation coordinating the economic activities in order to settle more effective forms and directions of bilateral cooperation.
Contracting parties shall consider the possibility to establish the most favorable conditions for each other through mutual commodity circulation in compliance with the legislation of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Republic of Abkhazia.
Article 5
Contracting parties shall cooperate in the field of state building…
Article 7
The sides shall attach the necessary effort for strengthening of peace on their territories.
Article 9
Contracting Parties consider necessary to establish representation offices in the cities of Ufa and Sukhum of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Abkhazia accordingly.
(…)
The Procedures of the exchange of representatives and their status shall be regulated by the Agreement between the Sides
Article 10
This Agreement is concluded for five years term…
Article 11
This Agreement is signed in the city of Ufa on 18 August 1994 in two copies..
For the Republic of Abkhazia the Chairman of the Parliament V. G. Ardzinba
For the Republic of Bashkortostan President M. Rakhimov
18 August 1994
(Newspaper “Abkhazia”, # 2, 17 August 1994)


DECISION  OF THE COUNCIL OF THE CIS HEADS OF STATES on usage of Collective Forces to maintain peace in the conflict zone of Georgian-Abkhaz conflict
The heads of states of the CIS,
Expressing a deep concern about the aggravation of situation in the conflict zone of Georgian-Abkhaz conflict,
Taking into account Appeal of the President of the Russian Federation and the Chairman of the parliament-Head of State of Georgia to the Secretary General of the UN Organization of 3 February 1994,
Expressing its adherence to the territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia, comprehensive and peaceful settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia securing the interests of multi-national population of Abkhazia and its statehood,
Striving for further development of cooperation with the UNO and the CSCE in peace activities aimed at regulating the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict,
Considering the Appeal of the Abkhaz side of 15 May 1994 and  Georgian side of 16 May of 1994 on immediate deployment of collective peacekeeping forces in the conflict zone and in accordance of the Agreement on cease-fire and separation of forces signed by Georgian an Abkhaz sides on 14 May 1994…
decided:
1. To deploy in Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone the Collective Force composed of military contingents of interested states - members of the CIS of 2-3 thousand of people, as well as military observers in order to maintain the peace …  Russian military contingent, already deployed to the conflict zone shall be used as the basis for collective force for maintaining the peace.  The plan of operations on deployment of the collective force shall be approved by the conflicting sides in compliance with the Agreement on cease-fire and separation of forces of 14 May 1994.
2. To set up Interim Unified Command composed of representatives of states sending their contingents to the Collective Force in the conflict zone.
The representative form Russian Contingent shall be appointed as the Commander of collective peacekeeping force.
3. The Collective Forces shall be dislocated within the boundaries determined in the Agreement on cease-fire and separation of forces of 14 May 1994.
4. The procedures of cooperation of Collective Force with the military forces of Georgia and military formations of Abkhazia shall be decided upon provisions of the Agreement on the Groups of Military Observers and the Collective Force issued by the CIS of 20 march 1992 and if necessary, by certain agreement concluded between the Interim Unified Command and the Sides.
5. Within the term of effect of this Decision, the Collective Force shall carry out the following tasks:
a) to ensure the protection of cease-fire regime, establish peace and prevent from resumption of military operations in the conflict zone through separation of military formations of the conflicting sides;
b) to establish the necessary conditions for security and return of displaced persons to their places of residence, as well as observance of other provisions set up in the Quadripartite Agreement on Voluntary Return of Refugees and Displaced persons of 4 April 1994, including the operation of Quadripartite Commission established pursuant to the Agreement mentioned above;
c) to monitor the agreement reached between the sides, in particular, provisions of the Memorandum of Understanding of 1 December 1993, Communiquй on the Second Round of Talks of 13 January 1994 on measures for a political settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict of 4 April 1994, and other possible agreement the sides may reach in due course of the comprehensive political settlement of the confict;
d) to facilitate restoration of regions damaged in time of conflict, including the humanitarian aid, mine clearing and renovation of the principal systems of public life;
e) to ensure the protection of international norms of humanitarian and human rights;
f) to establish close cooperation with the staff of the UN MIssion to Georgia and other officials of the UNO in the region.
7. This decision comes into effect the day it is signed.
Done in one original copy in russian language...
Signed by the heads of States of the CIS
22 August 1994
(Collection of Documents Relating to the Issue of Conflict Settlement in Abkhazia, Georgia adopted in 1992-1999, Author G. Uridia, Tbilisi, 1999, p. 40-42/in Russian)


STATEMENT  on Voluntary Return of Refugees - Internally Displaced Persons
1. During the Geneva meeting that took place 31 August -1 September, the Georgian and Abkhaz sides discussed issues of voluntary return of refugees-internally displaced persons and the work of Quadripartite Commission.
2. The sides recalled their declaration of 4 April 1994, in which they had agreed that implementation of quadripartite agreement would start after deployment of peace keeping forces and noted that such a deployment was carried out through the deployment of peace-keeping forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
3. The Parties also expressed their points of view toward the agreement on cease-fire regime and separation of forces, signed on 14 May 1994, by virtue of which, in particular, it was agreed upon that the Troops of the Republic of Georgia would be withdrawn to the places of their permanent deployment beyond the territory of Abkhazia and that all voluntary military formations, composed of non-residents of Abkhazia, would be disbanded and withdrawn from the territory of Abkhazia.
4. Both Parties, confirming their commitments to these provisions of the Agreement and further agree that they shall participate in the next meeting of the Quadripartite Commission to be held in Sochi on 6 September 1994 and shall continue to do their utmost to prepare, as soon as possible, all the necessary documents for return of refugees and internally displaced persons and thereby to lay foundation to their actual return in the immediate future.
5. The Parties conceded, that as a part of the process of repatriation, the returnees shall be informed by the UNHCR that the Abkhaz side shall demand from them to observe the laws of Abkhazia that do not run counter to provisions of the Quadripartite Agreement, and internationally recognized human rights, fundamental freedoms and human dignity.
6. The Parties noted the readiness of the UNHCR to render assistance to those people who have returned spontaneously and those who have returned in an organized manner as soon as the processes of organized return starts.
7. In addition to the aforementioned, the Parties agreed to set up a working group that shall deal with the issues of search for bodies of the perished and their re-burial.
On behalf of Georgian Side A. Kavsadze
On behalf of Abkhazian Side S. Jinjolia
In the presence of:
From the Russian Federation G. Fedosov
From the UN E. Brunner
From CSCE G. Baldocci
From UNHCR J. Horekens
2 September 1994
(Newspaper “Svobodnaia Gruzia”, # 142, 7 September 1994)


DECREE on restoration of certain original names of residential settlements of the Republic of Abkhazia, ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA
on the basis of proposals of the state commission on regulating the names of residential settlements of Abkhazia and proceeding from desire of population, as well as for the sake of restoration of historical justice, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia Decrees:
To rename the following residential settlements in Gali District:
Bulishkhinji (Achagvara village)    as Apskhapdzykh
Ganakhleba            as Gagida
Repo-Etseri            as Riap
Kolonia                as Achandara
Sabchota Chai            as Atoura
To confirm transcription of the following changes:
City of Gali        - Gal
village Agvavera    - Aguauara
Akvareikva        - Akuareikua
Achigvara        - Achguara
Gudava            - Gudaa
Akvaga            - Akuaga
Bargebi            - Bargiap
Gumurishi        - Gumrish
Lekumkhara        - Alakumkhara
Lkumi            - Uakum
Tsarche            - Tsarcha
Chkhortoli        - Chkhuartal
Shashikvara        - Shchashikuara
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
City of Sukhum, 9 September 1994
(Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Republic of Abkhazia. 3. Isuue, Sukhum, 1995, p. 73/inRussian)


STATEMENT OF THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA
To His Excellency, the President of the Russian Federation Mr Boris Yeltsin
To the participants of Sochi meeting of the Quadripartite Commission of Georgian-Abkhaz Conflict Regulation
To His Excellency, Head of OSCE Mission to Georgia Mr Hans-Jorgen Eiff
To His Excellency, Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary Ambassador of the Russian Federation to Georgia Mr Vladimir Zemskiy
To His Excellency, Head of the UN Mission in Georgia me Theodor Starcevic
To His Excellency, Commander of the Peace-Keeping Forces of the Russian Federation in conflict zone General-Major Vasil Iakushev
The situation has been acerbated again in the Georgina-Abkhaz conflict zone that is a consequence of policy carried out by the Abkhaz side aimed at protracting the negotiations and putting the bar  to the return of thousands of refugees to their own dwellings.
The Abkhaz side linked the return of refugees to the withdrawal of Georgian military formations from Kodori Gorge.  Though these two issues, according to the signed agreement, have no links with each other, the Georgian side made a compromise and carried out inspection in Kodori Gorge thereby confirming that the Georgian side was observing the commitments pledged in the course of bilateral negotiations.
Despite the widely applied International practice, the representatives of Abkhaz separatists have accepted as few applications from refugees that practically it was demonstration of frustrating the process of peaceful return of refugees.
In addition, the separatists resort to provocations to impede the peaceful settlement of the conflict.  On September 17 of the current year the Abkhaz pirates kidnapped fishing boat and a barge of Poti.  The people who were on the board are released, including two servicemen of Russian Army, but the fate of 9 Georgian members of a crew is still unknown.
Despite the obligations on security guarantees, the Abkhaz side constantly breeds the atmosphere of threat and terror aimed at disrupting the process of return of refugees, especially through punitive expeditions in Gali district.  Assassinations, raping and robbing are often applied there.  Georgian population is persecuted and mining of country-roads is still in practice.  Under the pretext of anti-crime activity, on behalf of so called ‘Abkhaz Police’ the Abkhaz boeviks burnt down more than 100 houses and unlawfully arrested innocent citizens in the villages of Nabakevi and Otobaia.  These operations were led by the minister of Interior of the separatist power.  It should be mentioned that all of the aforementioned facts have been reported in the ‘security zone’, which is under the control of the peacekeepers of the Russian Federation.
The Parliament of Georgia will never reconcile with separation of Abkhazia from the state of Georgia and continue protecting the rights of the population of Abkhazia.  The Parliament of Georgia calls the International organizations involved in the peace process and the government of the Russian Federation for unconditional release of the kidnapped people and property and for firm resistance against attempt of Abkhaz side to collapse the peace process.
12 October 1994, Tbilisi
(Bulletin of the Parliament of Georgia, 1994,  # # 21-22, p. 353-354/in Georgia)


DECISION OF THE COUNCIL OF THE CIS HEADS OF STATES on approval of the Mandate on Peace-keeping Operation in the Georgian-Abkhaz Conflict Zone
The Council of the CIS Heads of States,
Taking into account the request of the Republic of Georgia,
Based on the Decision on using of the Collective forces for maintaining the peace in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone and stressing on the task aimed at establishing of conditions to the secure return of refugees and resolution of the problem regarding the status of Abkhazia with the condition of retaining the territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia,
decided:
1. To approve the Mandate on peace-keeping operations in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone (attached), proceeding from the statement that each republic will independently decide the form and scope of participation in the peace-keeping operations in compliance with national legislation.
2. To entrust the Council of the CIS Heads of States with the task of determining the procedures of material-technical and financial ground of the peace-keeping operation in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone.
3. This Decisions comes into force from the day it is signed.
Done at Moscow on 21 December 1994 in one original copy in Russian…
The Decisions is signed by the Heads of States.
The Republic of Moldova, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine haven’t signed the decision.
21 October 1994
(Collection of Documents Relating to the Issue of Conflict Settlement in Abkhazia, Georgia adopted in 1992 -1999, p. 43-44)


Annex to the Decision  OF THE COUNCIL OF THE CIS HEADS OF STATES on approval of
the Mandate on Peace-keeping Operation in the Georgian-Abkhaz Conflict Zone of 21 0ctober 1994
MANDATE On peacekeeping operation in the Georgian-Abkhaz Conflict Zone
In compliance with the Decision taken by the Council of the heads of States of the CIS on use of collective forces for peacekeeping operation in the Georgian-Abkhaz Conflict Zone signed in June-August 1994, and the Decision taken by the Heads of States of the CIS on approval of the Mandate on peacekeeping operation in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone of 21 October 1994
(…)
6. The Commander of the Collective peacekeeping forces in the Georgina-Abkhaz conflict zone (hereinafter the Commander) is subordinate to the Council of the heads of States of the CIS on the issues that need operative decision;  he has the consultations with the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Defence of the CIS participating states; personally leads the peacekeeping operations and acts in a capacity of direct commander for all staff of the Collective Peacekeeping Forces.
9. The function of the Commander of the Collective peacekeeping forces consists as follows:
to secure the realization of decisions taken by the Council of the heads of States of the CIS on peacekeeping operations in the conflict zone;
to report the Heads of States and the Ministers of Defence on implementation of agreements on cease-fire and separation of forces by the conflicting Sides;
to manage the Collective peacekeeping forces in preparation for and realization of peacekeeping operations in the conflict zone;
to organize and maintain interaction with the leadership of hosting country, conflicting sides, Ministries of Defence of the member-states set out in the Mandate, the headquarter on coordination of military cooperation of the CIS member-states, representatives of the UN, OSCE and other international organizations in the conflict zone;
to hold the negotiations with the conflicting sides;
to assure the protection of communication means and official meetings between the conflicting sides;
to manage appropriation of financial and material-technical means assigned for securing the operation of the PKF of the CIS.
21 October.1994
(Collection of Documents Relating to the Issue of Conflict Settlement in Abkhazia, Georgia adopted 1992-1999, p. 44-46)


AGREEMENT on Further Development of the Process of Peaceful Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict and the Joint Controlling Commission
Referring to the Agreement on Principles of Settlement of Georgian-Ossetian Conflict,
Working for comprehensive settlement of relationships between the Parties to the conflict,
Confirming commitment to the principles of International Law,
Acting in the spirit of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as rights of ethnic minorities,
Stating that in the course of two years after the conclusion of the Sochi Agreement, no substantial achievements in terms of promotion of political dialogues have been achieved,
Taking into account the sheer necessity of comprehensive settlement of the Georgia-Ossetian conflict,
The Parties took a decision to further develop the process of peaceful settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
1. In this regard, the Parties note that:
 a) The Mixed Control Commission (MCC), created with a view of implementation of the Agreement of 24 June 1992, has largely carried out its functions of monitoring the regime of cease fire, withdrawal of armed formations and maintenance of the security regime, thereby having initiated the process of political settlement of the conflict;
b) Maintenance of peace is secured by the mixed peace keeping forces, created under the jurisdiction of MCC in accordance with the agreement signed on 24 June 1992;
c) The MCC must be transformed into a permanent mechanism, called upon to participated in a planned and coordinated manner in the process of solution of different aspects of the conflict settlement: political, military (peace-keeping), economic, humanitarian and others.
2. In order to promote the process of comprehensive, political settlement of the conflict and seeking improvement of coordination of actions between the mixed peace keeping forces and CSCE and other international organizations, to speed up the process of practical solution of problems related to economic recovery of the suffered regions, as well as to promote the process of return of refugees, the Parties agreed to clarify the fun­­ctions of MCC, to renew and expand its personnel.
3. The Parties adopted the Rules of Procedure of the Mixed Control Commission on Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict (find attachment).
4. The Commission is a permanent organ composed of four sides, participating in the process of settlement of the conflict and liquidation of its consequences.
The CSCE mission to Georgia participates in the work of CMM. This Commission cooperates in a very close manner and coordinates its activities with the organs of local authorities.
5. The Parties to the conflict reiterate pledged commitments to settle all the disputable issues exclusively by peaceful means, without resort to force or threat of resorting to force.
On behalf of the Georgian Side I. Menagarishvili, V. Khachapuridze
On behalf of the South Ossetian Side V. Gabaraev
On behalf of the North Ossetian Side S. Khetagurov
On behalf of the Russian Side N. Medvedev, Pastukhov
In the presence of Representative of CSCE H. Eiff
31 October 1994
(Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia)


REGULATION On the Joint Control Commission for the Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
The Joint Control Commission (JCC) was formed and will act in accordance with the Agreement of 24 June 1992 on the principles for settling the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, and with the minutes of JCC meetings, with the aim of ensuring the monitoring of the ceasefire through the withdrawal of armed formations, the dissolution of self-defense forces, and the assurance of a security regime in the zone of conflict, as well as through the maintenance of peace, the prevention of a renewal of military actions, and the carrying out of coordination of the joint activities of the parties for the stabilization of the situation, for the political settlement of the conflict, for economic restoration of the afflicted zones, and for the return and reestablishment of refugees and forced resettlers.
1. The  Joint  Control  Commission  is  the  permanently operational organ of the four sides which are  taking part in the settlement  of   the  conflict   and  the   liquidation of   its consequences.  The  highest organizational instance of  the Joint Control  Commission will be  the sessions of  the plenipotentiary representatives of the  sides in the person of the  chiefs of the representation offices of the parties and of other members of the JCC.
2. On the staff of the Joint Control Commission, there will be special  representatives (at  the discretion  of the  parties) named by the state organs  of the parties, empowered to implement coordinated  decisions  on  all  questions  about the  full-scale settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
3. The CSCE Mission in Georgia will  take part in the work of the JCC.
4. Various  international  organizations  can  assist  the activity of the JCC.
5. The following functions  and tasks are assigned  to the Joint Control Commission:
a) monitoring of  the implementation of  the agreement and understanding of the sides on the settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, the drafting of proposals, and the adoption of purposeful measures for carrying them through;
b)  working  out and  implementation  of  measures for
creating conditions for the resolution of political, military (peacekeeping), law enforcement, economic, humanitarian, informational, and other problems;
c)  help  in the further development of  dialogue and in promotion of a political settlement of the conflict;
d)  participation in  elaborating and realizing  complex measures, affirmed by the parties, for the return, reception, and reestablishment of refugees (forcibly resettled persons) with the collaboration  of  the Office  of  the UN  High  Commissioner for Refugees.
e)     examination  and  assistance   for. the  practical realization  of economic rehabilitation  in the districts  in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict;
f) organization   of   supervision  concerning   the observation of human  rights and national minorities  in the zone of conflict.
6.The JCC will create the necessary working groups for the implementation  of the above-noted functions and for the solution of tasks on the basic directions of work from among the number of corresponding specialist-representatives of the parties.
7. The  working  groups  will perform  their  work by  the preparation   of  analytical  materials  and  of  drafts  of  JCC decisions,  and by the conduct  of  talks  concerning questions related to  their competency.   In case  of necessity,  they will have the  right to summon  experts to work on  specific questions and   to   demand   and   receive  essential   information  from corresponding state departments and institutions.
8. The conclusions and proposals of the working groups will be examined at JCC sessions for the adoption of final decisions.
9. The coordination  of the activities of  the peacekeeping forces  and of  the  observers designated  by  the parties  falls within the competence  of the Joint Control Commission.   The JCC will  maintain  a  permanent link  with  the  peacekeeping forces present  in  the  zone  of   conflict  and will  take  decisions concerning their future use.
10. On the basis of the mandate in the Agreement on the principles for the settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict and of the minutes of its meetings, the command of the peacekeeping forces will work out and implement necessary measures for the maintenance of peace and law enforcement, for preventing the renewal of combat actions, and for the disarming of illegal militarized formations; and will introduce through an established procedure proposals relating to the operational use and improvement of the organization of the peacekeeping forces in the zone of conflict.
11. The  Joint Control Commission will  examine and evaluate the situation evolving in  the zone of conflict  on the basis  of data which,  at its request,  will be furnished by  the competent organs of the parties.
12. With the aim of objectively informing the  public, the JCC will  present  materials to  the mass media concerning  the course оf the settlement process.
13. The  members of the Joint Control  Commission will enjoy diplomatic immunities and privileges in accordance with the norms of international law.
14.   The members  of the Joint  Control Commission have the right of free movement on the territory of  the zone of conflict. The representatives of the parties  on the spot will  assist the members of the JCC and assure their safety.
15. The  sites for conducting plenary sessions  of the Joint Control Commission will be determined by agreement of the sides.
16. The  sessions of the Joint Control  Commission will take place on the basis of need, but not less than once per quarter. By mutual agreement, one of the leaders of the representations of the parties in the JCC will act as chairman of the session. Decisions of the JCC will be taken on the basis of a consensus of the parties.
17. A secretariat will  be  created to carry out  current organizational work and the maintenance of operational  links among the parties.
18. The financing of  the Joint Control Commission will be carried out by the parties on the basis of equal shares.
19. The working language of the Joint Control Commission and the language of its documents will be Russian.
20. The Joint Control Commission will terminate its activity after the achievement of a full-scale settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
Adopted in accordance with the Agreement on the Further Development of the Process for the Peaceful Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict and on the Joint Control Commission of 31 October 1994. Moscow
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues)


FROM THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH OSSETIA (adopted on 12 November 1994)
Article 16.  
The Republic of North Ossetia establishes its relations with the Republic of South Ossetia on the basis of ethnic, national and historic-territorial unity, social-economic and cultural integration.
(…)
12 November 1994
(Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia, Vladikavkaz, 1994, p. 6)


STATEMENT on the issue of refugees and displaced persons
1. Having discussed the implementation of the Quadripartite Agreement on Voluntary Return of Refugees and Displaced Persons of 4 April 1994, the representatives of the UNO, Russian Federation and the CSCE state that as a result of the intensive work of the UNOMIG, Quadripartite Commission and the effort of the PKF of the CIS in October of this year the organized return of refugees and displaced persons
to Gali District of Abkhazia has started.
2. At the same time the slow pace of repatriation and artificial impediments to the return of refugees and displaced persons is the subject of deep concert.  Even the small quotas of return are not regularly used due to the lack of relevant organizational and preparatory work among refugees and displaced persons.
3. We firmly condemn inadmissible procrastination of the return of refugees and displaced persons, terrorist acts and armed provocations in the security zone of the conflict.
4.  We consider necessary:
- to speed up the discussion of the applications of refugees and displaced persons; to assure the return of not less than 3,000 people before 1 January 1995;
- to work on registration of spontaneous returnees (according to the estimation about 20000 people); to provide them economic, medical and other humanitarian assistance;
- to learn the possibility of additional measures aimed at securing the protection of returnees and strengthening of public order;
- to call upon the sides to prevent penetration of any armed groups and formations to the security zone that terrorizes the population and commit attacks to the peace keeping forces;
- to foster information campaign among refugees and displaced persons aimed at encouraging voluntary return in compliance with the Quadripartite Agreement signed on 4 April 1994;
- to endorse time-table of return of refugees and displaced persons in Gali district for 1995 at the next meeting of the Quadripartite Commission;
- to secure continuity of activities of the local Quadripartite Committees and creation the Groups for Security and Development in the Gali District.
5. We appeal to the UNOMIG to enlarge the number of its personnel in the conflict zone, extend the scope of material aid to the refugees.
6. We call upon the World Community to increase its contribution to the humanitarian assistance to the population and the regions affected in time of war.
7. We anticipate that the conflicting sides will do everything in their power for early and mass return of refugees and displaced persons on the basis of previous agreements.
Special Representative of the UN Secretary - General E. Brunner
Personal Representative of the President of Russian Federation B. Pastukhov
From the CSCE R. Toskano
Geneva, 18 November 1994
(Personal Archive of the Author)


CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA
(...)
Article 1
The Republic of Abkhazia (Apsny) shall be a sovereign democratic state based on law, which has histori
Article 10
          The Republic of Abkhazia shall have its own symbols: a national flag, a National Emblem, and a national anthem…
(…)
Article 37
The Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia shall consist of 35 members... The Parliament’s termof office shall be five years.
(…)
Article 47
The Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia shall:
1. Pass the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Abkhazia.
3. Hear the Presidential messages on the situation in the country, the principle aspects of domestic and foreign policy of the state and methods of their implementation;
7. Establish state awards, honorary titles and military ranks of the Republic of Abkhazia.
8. Ratify and denounce the inter-state treaties of the Republic of Abkhazia;
13. Grant amnesties;
14. Decide upon the declaration of war and the conclusion of peace.
Article 48
The Eecutive Power in the Republic of Abkhazia shall be granted to the President of the Republic of Abkhazia.
The President of the Republic of Abkhazia shall be the head of the State.
Article 49
The elections of the President of the Republic of Abkhazia shall be based on the universal, equal and direct suffrage. The President shall be elected by secret vote for five years.
Any person of Abkhaz nationality who is citizen of the Republic of Abkhazia and who is not younger than 35 years and not older than 65 years, having the right to vote, is eligible to be elected President of the Republic of Abkhazia.
(…)
Article 53
The President of the Republic of Abkhazia shall:
1. Ensure the observance of human rights and freedoms, the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Abkhazia, as well as its international obligations;
2. Define basic directions of the internal and foreign policy;
3. Officially represent the State in international affairs;
4. Sign inter-state treaties;
5 Take measures to ensure the security and territorial integrity of the Republic of Abkhazia, form and head the Security Council, the status of which shall be defined by law;
6. Approve the military doctrine of the Republic of Abkhazia;
7. Be Commander-in-Chief of the Military Force of the Republic of Abkhazia.;
8. Appoint and recall diplomatic representatives of the Republic of Abkhazia in foreign countries and international organizations.
Article 74
The courts of the Republic of Abkhazia make the judgement on behalf of the Republic of Abkhazia
Article 76
The Attorney General of the Republic of Abkhazia shall be appointed or removed from the office by the Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia on a representation by the President of the Republic of Abkhazia.
(…)
26 November 1994
(www.apsny.org)


FROM THE RESOLUTION OF THE CSCE BUDAPEST SUMMIT
Georgia
1. Faced with the alarming situation in the Republic of Georgia, which has been even further aggravated by the recent events in Abkhazia, the participating States reiterated their strong support for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Georgia within its internationally recognized borders. On the basis of these principles, a settlement of the conflicts in Georgia must be reached. The interests of the multi-ethnic population in the areas of conflicts must also be taken into account.
2. The participating States expressed their concern about the unilateral acts of 26 November 1994 by the authorities of Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia. This undermines both United Nations and CSCE efforts to promote a peaceful political settlement through negotiations between the conflicting parties in Georgia.
They expressed their deep concern over “ethnic cleansing”, the massive expulsion of people, predominantly Georgian, from their living areas and the deaths of large numbers of innocent civilians.
They expressed their hope that the efforts conducted under the auspices of the United Nations and with the assistance of the Russian Federation as facilitator and with the participation of representatives of the CSCE will improve the situation in Abkhazia and thus permit the early return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes in safety and with dignity. In this context, they called on the parties to the conflict to adhere strictly to the principles and recommendations set forth in the relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions as well as in agreements reached in the course of the negotiating process.
3. The participating States noted with satisfaction that certain positive steps have been taken towards a peaceful resolution of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, building upon the work accomplished by the joint peacekeeping forces (established under the Sochi Agreement as Joint Peacekeeping and Law Enforcement Forces, JPLEF) in maintaining the cease-fire in the conflict area.
The activities of the CSCE Mission to Georgia and the efforts of the Russian Federation facilitated these encouraging developments. The participating States encourage the Mission to persevere in its efforts to promote political dialogue between all parties to the conflict, thus contributing to reconciliation and the preparation of a broader political framework in which a lasting settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict can be achieved on the basis of CSCE principles and commitments.
They take note of the activities of the joint peacekeeping forces, established under the Sochi Agreement of 24 June 1992, and welcome the present negotiations to achieve further progress toward a political solution, with the participation of the CSCE Mission. They call upon the CSCE Mission to continue to fulfil its mandate with respect to monitoring the activities of the joint peacekeeping forces.
The participating States welcomed the agreement of all the parties reached on 31 October 1994 to reconvene the Joint Control Commission (JCC) in which the Mission will actively participate.
4. The participating States expressed their appreciation for the efforts undertaken by the Government of Georgia to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, to build legal and democratic institutions and to assure full transition to a market economy. The Mission will remain actively engaged in assisting the Georgian authorities in these efforts. They urge appropriate governments and international organizations to provide political support and humanitarian and technical assistance to the Republic of Georgia.
5. The participating States consider that it may be desirable to convene at the appropriate time international conferences under the auspices of the CSCE and the United Nations, and with the participation of other international organizations and interested States, to review progress towards settling the conflicts and the development of a democratic society in Georgia.
Budapest, 6 December 1994
(www.osce.org)


PROTOCOL 3 OF THE MEETING OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION FOR THE SETTLEMENT OF THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT
6 December 1994, Moscow
Chaired By:
N. P. Medvedev, Russian deputy minister of cooperation,head of the Russian part of the Joint Control Commission
Agenda
I. On the forces for the support of peace in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict;
Rapporteur Colonel Y.G. Ivanov (Russian Defense Ministry).
II. On the return of refugees from Georgia's internal regions; Rapporteur – T. E. Kusov, chairman of the Committee for National Affairs attached to the government of the Republic of North Ossetia, member of the JCC.
III. On economic rehabilitation in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict;
Rapporteur – A. A. Babenko, first deputy minister for construction of the Russian Federation, chairman of the RF Commission for the Issues of Economic Rehabilitation of Districts of South Ossetia, member of the JCC.
IV. On the venue, date, and agenda of the next the JCC meeting.
Y. Miscellaneous.
I. On the forces for the support of peace in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict
(Y. G. Ivanov, I. A. Menagharishvili, V. N. Khubulov, G. S. Kozayev, H. Ayiff, N. P. Medvedev)
Decided:
1. To adopt the following documents elaborated by the working group (annexed):
a) Decision of the JCC "On the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace" (4 pages)
And annexes to it:
- Regulations concerning the basic principles of operation of the military contingents and of the groups of military observers designated for the normalization of the situation in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict (7 pages) with the annexed document on the rights and obligations of the commander of the Joint Forces (1 page);
- List of the members of the commission for the testing of the personnel (1 page);
- Plan for the organization of service at outposts and checkpoints (1 page);
- The structure of the organization and the staff of the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace (1 page).
b) the JCC decision on financing the Ossetian battalion (1 page).
2. To task the commander of the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict to submit at the next the JCC meeting proposals regarding:
a) the Georgian side's request to withdraw from the conflict zone and conserve infantry fighting vehicles of both the Ossetian and Georgian battalions;
b) the South Ossetian side's request to establish an additional checkpoint in Leningori.
3. To take into account the CSCE representative's statement that his signature under the aforementioned documents should not be regarded as his assent to the manner of actions of the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace that is beyond the sphere of use of the CSCE peacekeeping principles.
II. On the return of refugees from Georgia's internal regions
(T. E. Kusov, D. Everts, B. Nakhaylov, G. S. Kozayev, I. A. Menagharishvili, G. G. Khugayev, V. M. Kolyuchev, N. P. Medvedev)
Decided:
a) To adopt the decision "On the resolution of the problem of the refugees from Georgia's internal regions who are now residing on territory of the Republic of North Ossetia."  The decision is annexed;
b) To continue the consideration of the issue at the next the JCC meeting.
III. On economic rehabilitation in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict
(A. A. Babenko, I. A. Menagharishvili, N. P. Medvedev, G. S. Kozayev, O. Kiknadze, B. N. Pastukhov)
Decided:
a) To adopt the decision "On economic rehabilitation in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict" (decision annexed);
b) To continue the consideration of the issue at the next the JCC meeting.
IV. On the venue, date, and agenda of the next the JCC meeting
(B. N. Pastukhov, G. G. Khugayev, N. R. Malikova, N. P. Medvedev)
Decided:
a) To hold the next the JCC meeting in Moscow in February 1995;
b) To consider the following issues at the next the JCC meeting:
1. The course of the implementation of the JCC decisions on the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace and the financing of the Ossetian battalion;
Rapporteur: Lieutenant General A.G. Gerasimov, member of the JCC
2. The course of building and reconstruction work in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict;
Rapporteur: A. A. Babenko, member of the JCC
3. The possibilities for the return and provision of living conditions for the refugees from the internal districts of the Republic of Georgia;
Rapporteur: T. E. Kusov, member of the JCC
4. The working group for coordination of the issues linked to rendering humanitarian assistance to South Ossetia;
Rapporteur: N. R. Malikova, member of the JCC
5. Approaches to the political settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict and the creation of a working group for the consideration of the issue of the political and legal status of South Ossetia.
6. The venue, date, and agenda of the next the JCC meeting.
7. Miscellaneous
1. The South Ossetian delegation made a statement concerning the problem of returning to the South Ossetian law enforcement bodies their official property and weapons that the Georgian authorities had taken away in 1991.  The South Ossetian side needs them to ensure the security of the JCC members and representatives of international organizations who regularly visit the conflict zone.
The text of the statement was handed over to Georgian delegation head I.A. Menagharishvili for perusal and essential answer to the South Ossetian side.
2. On the South Ossetian side's request, Georgian delegation head I.A. Menagharishvili reported about the fate of Vichenov, the abducted serviceman of the Ossetian battalion of the Joint Forces.  He said that the hostage was not in the hands of the official authorities and the problem of his release was being studied.
N. Medvedev,
Chairman of the meeting, Head of the Russian part of the JCC
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian/in Russian)


DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION FOR THE SETTLEMENT OF THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT On the Forces for the Support of Peace
Moscow, 6 December 1994
Having heard at its 22 November 1994 meeting in Vladikavkaz the report of Lieutenant General A.G. Gerasimov, chairman of the JCC working group, on the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace (JFSP) in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, the information by Major General N.I. Tatarashvili, first deputy defense minister of the Republic of Georgia, Major General V. S. Konstantinov, chief military commander of the Russian peacekeeping forces, and Colonel G.Y. Jioyev, commander of the North Ossetian peacekeeping forces, after a detailed study of the situation on the spot, and the discussion of the matters on 6 December 1994 in Moscow, the Joint Control Commission concluded that the situation remains complicated in the conflict zone and adjacent districts.
At the same time, the Joint Control Commission stated that the conflict zone has not expanded over the past period and there is a trend of its diminution as a result of the peaceful aspirations of the parties to the conflict.
There are substantial shortcomings in the organizational and personnel structures, equipment, and activities of the Georgian and Ossetian battalions of the peacekeeping forces.  It is necessary to improve their material, technical, and financial conditions.  The sides admit the need for the maintenance of the peacekeeping forces.
The Russian battalion of the peacekeeping forces is the guarantor of relative stability in the conflict zone.
The sides are unanimous in the opinion that, along with the unresolved nature of political issues and the dire economic situation, it is the drastic deterioration of the crime situation and the presence of a big number of unregistered weapons among the population of both parties to the conflict that have a direct destabilizing effect on the situation in the region.
The armored vehicles and heavy weapons that are not meant for a peacekeeping mission but are at the disposal of the Georgian and Ossetian battalions also cause well-grounded concern.
The Joint Control Commission decided:
1. To establish the post of the commander of the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace from the Russian side and to define his status for the purpose of coordinating actions and raising the effectiveness and efficiency of the peacekeeping forces.  The posts of the chief military commanders of the Russian, Georgian, and Ossetian sides shall also be maintained.
The nomination for the commander of the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict will be submitted by the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation and appointed by the JCC.  Chief military commanders for the sides shall be appointed on the basis of the decisions made by the leaderships of respective sides.
2. To approve Regulations concerning the basic principles of operation of the military contingents and of the groups of military observers designated for the normalization of the situation in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict (annexed).
3. To recommend the leadership of the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace to remove, in coordination with the sides, from the Georgian and Ossetian battalions those people who have discredited the dignity of peacekeepers
To approve a commission comprising 12 people (three from each of the sides) for the testing of the personnel of these battalions.  The commission shall be chaired by the commander of the JFSP (the list of members is annexed).
To conserve by 1 February 1995 the infantry fighting vehicles and heavy weapons belonging to the Ossetian battalion, ensuring appropriate protection and monitoring from the Joint Staff.
In the same time frames, the infantry fighting vehicles belonging to the Georgian battalion shall be replaced by light equipment and heavy weapons shall be withdrawn from the subunit.
For the purpose of ensuring vital activity of remote outposts, each side shall be allowed to use in the winter seasons four infantry fighting vehicles with removed arming.  Military observers of the sides shall monitor their use.
4. To approve the submitted scheme for the organization of service at outposts and checkpoints with participation of military observers of the three sides (annexed).
5. To envision the rotation of the personnel in the Ossetian and Georgian battalions in six months time and at outposts -- in one or two months.
6. To recommend to the sides in conflict to establish close coordination and cooperation between respective law enforcement bodies and the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace.
7. To approve from 1 January 1995 a new organizational and personnel structure of the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict (annexed).
8. To request the government of the Russian Federation to consider without delay issues of material and technical improvement and financing of the Ossetian contingent of the Joint Forces for the Support of Peace at the expense of the Russian side.
On behalf of the Russian side                
On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the North Ossetian side                
On behalf of the South Ossetian side
In the presence of the CSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Annex N1 to JCC  Decission of 6-12-1994
REGULATION Concerning the Basic principles of Operation of the Military Contingents and of the Groups of Military Observers Designated for the Normalization of the Situation In the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
Article 1. Military contingents and groups of military observers of the parties taking part in the settlement of the conflict were created in accordance with the Agreement on the Principles for the Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, signed in Sochi on 24 July 1992 by the President of the Russian Federation, B. N. Yeltsin, and the Chairman of the Parliament and Head of State of the Republic of Georgia, E. Shevardnadze.
They have been earmarked for the support of peace in the zone of conflict, and for its resolution by peaceful, political means.
They have the responsibility of assuring control of the situation in the zone of conflict and in the localities adjacent to it, which have been determined by agreement of the sides.
Article 2. The military contingents and the military observers are subordinate to the united military command which consists of the representatives of the Russian, Georgian, and Ossetian sides. The united military command is headed by a commander from the Russian side.
A decision on the use of the military contingents and military observers in case the conditions of the ceasefire are violated by one of the sides will be taken by the commander of the JPFK with the aim of restoring peace; and the JCC will be notified.
The groups of military observers created by agreement of the sides, and guided by the common status adopted for them, are subordinated to the united military command.
Article 3. The military contingents and the military observers resolve the following tasks:
- they decisively block the activity and disband any military formations not controlled by the sides, and rapidly settle all types of conflicts among groups, including armed groups;
-  they carry out measures for introducing and supporting a heightened regime of security in the zone of conflict, and, if necessary, also in the localities adjacent to it;
- they maintain control over the fulfillment of the agreement
On the removal of heavy technology and weapons from the zone of conflict;
- They bar entry into the zone of conflict of armed groups and other  uncontrolled  formations  capable  of  destabilizing  the situation by their actions;
-  they do not permit, without appropriate permission, the transit in the zone of conflict and the removal through it (from it) of weapons, armaments, military technology, other military property, as well as explosive and poisonous substances and of other materials which could be used for terrorist and diversionary purposes and also for conducting military activities;
- They carry out the passage of persons, transport, and cargo into the zone of conflict and out of it through established points, and, if needed, the limit the movement of means of transport in the zone and carry out its inspection; and
- They assist law enforcement organs in the establishment of law and order and in the battle with crime in the zone of conflict and in localities adjacent to it.
Article 4. Military contingents and military observers in the zone of conflict have the right
-  to make use of military details (patrols, inspectors, observation posts, control posts, etc.), to stop movement on roads (to set up barriers), and, by decision of the united military command, to move about any sectors of the locality, without causing damage to dwellings, buildings, gardens, crops, roads, and other installations;
- to pursue, detain, and, in case of armed opposition, destroy armed band formations, groups, and persons, who do not carry out and do not submit themselves to the requirements of the regime of the state of emergency in the zone.  The pursuit and conduct of combat operations with criminal elements beyond the borders of the zone of conflict will be carried out with obligatory notification of the local and law enforcement organs.
- To carry out military operations with the means available to motorized firing units in accordance with the orders of the united military command;
-   to  check  citizens'  documents,  certifying  identity, concerning the right of entry, exit, and movement, as well as to carry out the  inspection of persons,  cargos,  and means  of transport;
-  to hold citizens violating the established rules of the regime of the state of emergency with their subsequent transfer to law enforcement organs on the basis of the legislation in effect.
Article 5. The organizational-personnel structure of the military contingents and military observers has been confirmed by the JCC.  Changes in it are permitted only with JCC permission.
The places of deployment of the military contingents and of the groups of military observers will be determined by the JCC, which will proceed from the necessity of assuring the ceasefire regime in the zone of conflict.
Article 6. In their daily activity, the military contingents and the military observers will be guided by the requirements of the present Decision, by the decisions of the JCC, and by the orders and directives of the united military command.
Article 7. In their daily activity, the members of the military contingents and of the military observers are obliged to show maximum attentiveness and correctness in relation to the local population, and to refrain from any actions and statements contradicting their status and mission. They fall under the exclusive jurisdiction of their sides in regard to any violation of law, which might have been committed by them.
Article 8. The military observers will have uniform insignia, and the military contingents will also have their uniform flag and symbols, which will be confirmed by the JCC and remain valid for the whole period in which they carry out the functions envisaged in the present Decision.
The established insignia showing affiliation with the military contingent and with the observers will be drawn on the means of transport, cm control posts, and on other technical items and equipment relating to the given contingents.
Article 9. The Joint Control Commission will assure the manufacture and issuance to every member of the military contingents and military observers of a badge of uniform model with photograph, sequential number, military title, family name, given name, middle name, and the number of the assigned weapon.
Article 10. The JCC working groups, military contingents, and military observers have the right in their discretion to use stationary and mobile radio stations with the aim of assuring effective and reliable communications.
Besides radio communications, they will possess as a priority right the use of telephone, telegraph, radio relay, and other communications to carry out their direct obligations.
Article 11. Billeting for the military contingents and military observers, as well as for JCC working groups who arrive, and arranging for their daily living conditions during their stay and activity will be assured by organs of the local authorities.
Article 12.  The JCC and the united military command will take
All necessary measures to assure order and discipline among the personnel of the military contingents and military observers.
By agreement of the sides participating in the work of the JCC, a joint (united) military procuracy will be created with 2 persons from each side.
Article 13. The military contingents and the groups of military observers are staffed by the sides on a volunteer basis by contract from among persons subject to the draft who have gone through military service and from among those presently serving, who have not been convicted of a crime, who are between 18 and 50 years old, who have done military service, whose health condition is good, and who (if possible) did not take part in armed clashes during the period of the conflict.
Persons expressing a desire to join military contingents will present to a selection commission of their own side the following documents: declaration, passport, military card or identification paper as a serviceman, character recommendation from the place of service, of work, or of the organ of local administration, and the conclusion of a medical commission in the established form.
Military observers will be selected exclusively from among the officers and warrant officers of active and reserve ranks of the sides.
Article 14. The senior military chiefs from each side will be appointed by the appropriate organs for a term of not less than 6 months.
The commander of the joint forces for maintaining peace will be appointed by the JCC on the recommendation of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. He is the senior military chief of the united military command and will coordinate the activities of the senior military chiefs of the sides.
Article 15. Persons recognized as fit for service in the military contingents and as military observers will conclude a contract with the commander of their side for a term of six months with the right of its subsequent extension on the basis of need. The term of service is counted from the day of enrollment of the serviceman by order of the military unit.
All privileges envisaged by decisions of the corresponding organs of the executive authority of the sides will be preserved for him (put at his disposal).
Article 16.  The validity of the contract will cease
- at the expiration of the contract's term;
-  in connection with a violation of the conditions of the contract;
-  for health reasons;
- for family obligations;
-  for incompatibilities of service;
-  in case of a reduction of personnel; or
-  in connection with conviction for committing a crime.
In case of an early abrogation of the contract at the initiative of the command without a legitimate reason, and also in case of a reduction of personnel or for health reasons, the serviceman will be paid severance pay in the amount determined by legislation (rules of the Ministry of Defense) of the sides. If the contract is annulled ahead of time by the fault of the serviceman without a legitimate reason, then he will be deprived of the severance pay.
Service in the military contingents and groups of military observers will be counted as an uninterrupted period of working service in the ratio of 1 to 3.
Article 17. The personnel of the military contingents and military observers are obliged
- To comply with the requirements of the present Decision and the established procedures in the zone of conflict;
- To uphold peace bravely and skillfully in the zone of conflict; and
- To carry out all commands and orders of the united military command, as well as of immediate commanders and superiors.
Article 19. Oversight of the legality of the activity of the military contingents and military observers will be carried out by organs of the Procuracy of each of the sides.
(NOTE: One article of the draft of this Decision was combined with another in the final document; Article 19 should thus really be numbered "18".)
Annex No. 1
to the Decision Concerning the Basic Principles of Operation of the Military Contingents and of the Military Observers Designated for the Normalization of the Situation in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
Rights  and  Obligations
of the Commander of the Joint Forces for the Maintenance of Peace in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
1.   Coordination of the operations of the Joint Forces with the leadership of the sides, and organization of cooperation with local law enforcement organs.
2.   The organization, through the senior military chiefs of the sides, of mutually agreed operations to carry out the tasks placed upon the Joint Forces.
3.   Verification of the execution of the "Decision" by the service personnel of the peacekeeping forces of the sides.
4.  Organization of methodical work with the command staff of the Joint Forces regarding the practical implementation of their functional obligations.
5.   through the senior military chiefs of the sides, the adoption of disciplinary measures to influence the servicemen of the Joint Forces in accordance with the "Decision".
6.  The adoption of decisive measures against the inadmissible taking of hostages by any one of the sides in conflict.
7.  The combined use of the units of the Joint Forces in case of the threat of the outbreak of armed conflict in the zone of responsibility.
8.   Systematic reporting to the JCC about the situation of affairs in the  zone of  the Georgian-Ossetian conflict,  and preparation, together with the senior military chiefs of the aides, of proposals for improving the activity of the Joint Forces.
(Archive of the OSCE Mission to Tbilisi)


Annex № 1 to the decision Concerning the Basic Principles of Operation
of the Military Contingents and of the Military Observers Designated for the
Normalization of the Situation in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict. 6. 12. 1994
Rights and Obligations of the Commander of the Joint Forces for the Maintenance of Peace in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
1. Coordination of the operations of the Joint Forces with the leadership of the sides, and organization of cooperation with local law enforrcement organs.
2. The organization, through the senior military chiefs of the sides, of mutually agreed operations to carry out the tasks placed upon the Joint Forces.
3. Varification of the execution of the “Decision” by the service personnel of the peacekeeping forces of the sides.
4. Organization of methodical work with the command staff of the Joint Forces regarding the practical imlementation of their functional obligations.
5. Through the senior military chiefs of the sides, the adoption of disciplinary meesures to influence the servicemen of the Joint Forces in accordance with the “Decision”.
6. The adoption of decisive measures against the inadmissible taking of hostages by any one of the sides in conflict.
7. The combined use of the units of the Joint Forces in case of the threat of the outbreak of armed conflict in the zone of responsibility.
8. Systematic reporting to the JCC about the situation of  affairs in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, and preparation, together with the senior military chiefs of the sides, of proposals for improving the activity of the Joint Forces.
(Archive of the OSCE Mission in Tbilisi)


DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION FOR THE SETTLEMENT OF THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT On economic rehabilitation in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict
Moskow, 6 December 1994
1. Take into account the information provided by Russian Commission Chairman A. A. Babenko on the course of the building and reconstruction works in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
2. Deem it expedient to address the governments and parliaments of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Georgia with the proposal to envision in respective 1995 budgets minimum resources (20 and 30 billion rubles respectively) necessary for the building and reconstruction works in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
3. Recommend to the Joint Administrative Body (A. A. Babenko and O. V. Kiknadze) to organize before the end of this year the redesign and adoption of a coordinated program for the building and reconstruction works in the given region for 1995 and specify the mechanism for its financing and monitoring.
On behalf of the Russian side                
On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian side                
On behalf of the North Ossetian side
In the presence of the CSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION FOR THE SETTLEMENT OF THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT On measures for the resolution of the problem of refugees from internal districts of the Republic of Georgia who are now residing on territory of the Republic of North Ossetia
Moskow, 6 December 1994
Some 33.6 thousand refugees from internal districts of the Republic of Georgia, including 5.2 thousand pensioners, invalids and veterans of the Great Patriotic War, 9.2 thousand children of preschool and school age, have been registered on territory of the Republic of North Ossetia.
This category of refugees is special.  These people who took no part in the Georgian-Ossetian conflict and were even not related to the zone where it took place suffered violence or threats of violence and were forced to leave the places of their permanent residence.
Taking into account that the comprehensive resolution of the problem of the people who became refugees as a result of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict largely depends on the political normalization of relations between the Georgian and South Ossetian sides and understanding the need for urgent measures regarding the refugees from internal districts of the Republic of Georgia, and on the basis of the good will of the Georgian side, the Joint Control Commission decided:
1. To propose to the Georgian side to study in a month's time the authenticity of the lists of names of the refugees submitted by the North Ossetian side and to submit specified data before 1 February 1995 to the Migration Service of the Republic of North Ossetia.  The submission of the information shall be formalized by appropriate acts.
2. To create before 15 December 1994 a commission comprising representatives of the Russian, Georgian, and North Ossetian sides for the purpose of studying conditions in Ossetian villages and housing estates and terminate this work in two months time.
3. On the basis of the results of specifying the lists and studying housing estates, to consider at the February 1995 meeting of the Joint Control Commission the issue linked to the possible return of and provision of housing for refugees from internal districts of the Republic of Georgia.
4. For the purpose of a more efficient and objective consideration of the issues linked to the refugees from internal districts of the Republic of Georgia and in coordination with the Russian Foreign Affairs Ministry and the Federal Migration Service, a representative of the Migration Service of the Republic of North Ossetia will work at the Embassy of the Russian Federation in Georgia.
On behalf of the Russian side                
On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian side                
On behalf of the North Ossetian side
In the presence of the CSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION FOR THE SETTLEMENT OF THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT
Moscow, 6 December 1994
For the eight months in 1994, a backlog has accumulated in the estimates for the maintenance of the Ossetian contingent within the peacekeeping forces in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
The Joint Control Commission for the Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict decided:
1. To address the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation with a proposal to consider the given issue and find the means to pay off the debts in December 1994.
2. To request the government of the Russian Federation to resolve the issues of financing the Ossetian contingent of the peacekeeping forces from 1 January 1995.
On behalf of the Russian side            
On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian side            
On behalf of the North Ossetian side
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on the measures of temporary restriction of crossing state borders between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia
For the purpose of securing the security of the Russian Federation due to the conflicting situation in the territory of the Republic of Chechnya in compliance with the article 9 of the law of Russian Federation “on State Borders of the Russian Federation” the Government of the Russian federation decrees:
1.  Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation, State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation,  the Ministry of Transportation of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Communications  of the Russian Federation through the cooperation with the Ministry of Interior of the Russian Federation and Federal Service of Counterintelligence of the Russian Federation, from 00h December 21 of 1994:
shall temporarily terminate of letting pass individuals, vehicles, cargoes and goods from the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia through Russian border save in case they are returning at their places of permanent residence.
(…)
3.  The Ministry of Transportation of Russian Federation shall temporarily terminate:
air and maritime communication with the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia from the airports of the Republic of Ingusheti, Republic of Dagestan, Republic of the North Ossetia, Krasnodar and Stavropol Regions, Astrakhan and Rostov Oblasts, as well as from the seaports of the Russian Federation in the Black Sea coast, Azov and Caspian Seas;
air communication from the airports of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia that are closed for international flights.
6. The Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation shall temporarily terminate railway and motor-car communication with the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia except shipment to the Russian military units dislocated in the territory of the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Georgia.
(…)
Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation V. Chernomirdyn
19 December 1994
(Collection of Legislation of the RF, M., 1994, # 35, p. 5235-5237)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on lifting certain restrictions established by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 19 December 1994 #1394 on the measures of temporary restriction of crossing state borders between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic
of Georgia.
The Government of the Russian Federation decrees:
1.  The Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation, State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Transportation of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation in coordination with the Ministry of Interior of the Russian Federation, Federal Service on Counterintelligence of the Russian Federation, at the check points established along the state border of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia:
(…)
with the agreement of the government of he Republic of Dagestan and administration of the Krasnodar Region shall determine the procedure for crossing the borders of the Russian Federation of individuals, residents of adjacent territories to the Russian Federation from the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia and having permanent job in the territory of the Russian Federation in the presence of relevant documents of the identification, place of residence and work;
to permit the border crossing to the individuals that are traveling for special family purposes (wedding, sickness or death of relatives etc.) in the presence of relevant documents of identification, place of residence and the documents approving the special circumstances.
2.  To permit air, motorway and maritime transportation for the purposes of Russian military units dislocated in the territory of the Republic of Georgia through the territory (From the airports) of the Republic of Dagestan, Republic of Ingusheti, Republic of North Ossetia, Republic of Kabardyno-Balkaria, Krasnodar and Stavropol Regions, Astrakhan and Rostov Oblasts and also from the Russian seaports at the Black Sea and the Azov Sea.
3. This Decree shall come into force from 18:00h of 27 December 1994
Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation V. Chernomirdyn
27 December 1994
(Collection of legislation of the RF, M., 1995, # 1, p. 200-201)


1995
RESOLUTION 971 (12 JANUARY 1995) ADOPTED BY THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its resolutions 849 (1993) of 9 July 1993, 854 (1993) of  6 August 1993, 858 (1993) of 24 August 1993, 876 (1993) of 19 October 1993,  881 (1993) of 4 November 1993, 892 (1993) of 22 December 1993, 896 (1994) of  31 January 1994, 906 (1994) of 25 March 1994, 934 (1994) of 30 June 1994 and  937 (1994) of 21 July 1994,
Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of 6 January 1995  (S/1995/10 and Add.1 and 2),
Reaffirming its commitment to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of  the Republic of Georgia, and in this context recalling the statement by the  President of the Security Council of 2 December 1994 (S/PRST/1994/78),
Reaffirming also the right of all refugees and displaced persons affected  by the conflict to return to their homes in secure conditions in accordance with  international law and as set out in the Quadripartite Agreement on voluntary  return of refugees and displaced persons (S/1994/397, annex II), signed in  Moscow on 4 April 1994,
Urging the parties to refrain from any unilateral actions which could  complicate or hinder the political pro­­cess aimed at an early and comprehensive  settlement of the conflict,
Deeply concerned about the lack of progress regarding a comprehensive  political settlement as well as the slow pace of return of refugees and  displaced persons,
Calling upon the parties to intensify efforts, under the auspices of the  United Nations and with the assistance of the Russian Federation as facilitator  and with the participation of representatives of the Organization on Security  and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), to achieve an early and comprehensive  political settlement of the conflict, including on the political status of
Abkhazia, fully respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the  Republic of Georgia,
Expressing its satisfaction with the close cooperation and coordination  between the United  Na­­­ti­­ons Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) and the  Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) peace- ke­­­­eping force in the performance  of their respective mandates,
Commending the contribution of the CIS peace- keeping force and of UNOMIG to  the maintenance of  a cease-fire and to the stabilization of the situation in the  zone of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict,
1. Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General of 6 January 1995;
2. Decides to extend the mandate of UNOMIG, as set out in its resolution 937 (1994), for an additional pe­­riod terminating on 15 May 1995;
3. Requests the Secretary- General to report within two months of the  adoption of this resolution on all aspects of the situation in Abkhazia,  Republic of Georgia;
4. Encourages the Secretary-General to continue his efforts aimed at  achieving a comprehensive political settlement of the conflict, including on the  political status of Abkhazia, respecting fully the sovereignty and territorial  integrity of the Republic of Georgia and calls upon the parties to reach  substantive progress in the negotiations under the auspices of the United  Nations and with the assistance of the Russian Federation as facilitator and with participation of representatives of the OSCE;
5. Calls upon the parties to comply with their commitments with regard to  the return of refugees and displaced persons, as undertaken in the Quadripartite  Agreement and in particular calls upon the Abkhaz side to accelerate the process  significantly;
6. Decides to undertake, on the basis of a report from the Secretary-General  submitted by 4 May 1995 and in the light of any progress achieved  towards a political settlement and the return of refugees and displaced persons,  a thorough review of the situation in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia;
7. Requests also the Secretary-General to examine, within UNOMIG’s  existing mandate, in cooperation with the relevant Representatives of the CIS  peace-keeping force the possibility of additional steps to contribute to conditions conducive to the safe and orderly return of refugees and displaced  persons;
8. Reiterates its encouragement to Member States to contribute to the  voluntary fund in support of the implementation of the Agreement on a Cease-Fire  and Separation of Forces signed in Moscow on 14 May 1994 (S/1994/583, annex I)  and/or for humanitarian aspects including demining, as specified by the donors;
9. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


MEMORANDUM BY THE HEADS OF STATES OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES on Maintaining the Peace and Stability in the Commonwealth of Independent States
The member-countries of he Commonwealth of Independent States,
Based on the historical ties between them,
Being devoted to the principles of stability and considering that unsettled conflicts between the member-states of the CIS run counter to the basic interests of the founding principles of the CIS,
Expressing their adherence to the goals and principles of the UN Charter, the CSCE, the CIS Charter and the documents adopted within the frame of the Commonwealth of Independent States, considering that maintaining of peace and stability in cooperation between the states is an imprescriptible condition to the functioning of the Commonwealth of Independent States to secure economic and social-political development of each member-state and the commonwealth in whole,
Acknowledging that maintaining the peace within the Commonwealth as well as in member-states serve to the best interest of the peoples of these states,
Declare on the following:
1. The member-states of the commonwealth of Independent States will refrain themselves from military, political, economic and other forms of pressure against each-other.
2. The member-states, signatories to this Memorandum pursuant to their national legislation will not support creation and operation on their respective territories the organizations and groups, as well as the activity of certain individuals against the independence, territorial integrity and border inviolability, or attempting to strain inter-ethnic relations of a member-state of the CIS.
3. The States confirm inviolability of existing borders and readiness to encourage the regulation of disputes and conflicts through peaceful mechanisms with regard of borders and territories.
4. In case the situation when the interests of any member-state, signatory to this Memorandum are prejudiced, it can appeal to the other member-states of the Commonwealth of Independent States for immediate consultations.
5.  The member-states, signatories to this memorandum shall refrain themselves from any direct or indirect intervention to the internal affairs of a member-state, signatory to this memorandum.
6.  The member-states shall refrain themselves from joining the alliance and blocs that act against any member-state of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
7. The member-states of the Commonwealth pursuant to their national legislation and international norms shall undertake the measures to prevent any forms of separatism, nationalism, chauvinism and fascism on their respective territories.
They shall encourage objective and impartial media coverage of public-political processes in other member-states of the Commonwealth.
8. The member-states commit themselves not to support separatist movement of other member-states on their territories, as well as separatist regimes; if such is emerged, they shall not establish political, economic and other relations with them; they shall not provide territory and communication means to them, either financial, economic, military or any other assistance.
9. The member-states will exert their effort to support each-other in order to strengthen mutual trust and security between the member-states of the commonwealth of independent States.
Done at Almaty on 10 February 1995 in one original copy in Russian language…
Signed by the heads of States of the Commonwealth of Independent States
The Republic of Armenia signed the Memorandum with a note: “taking into consideration the special views of Armenia and except paragraphs 7-8"
10 February 1995, Kazakhstan, Almaty
(T. Nadareishvili, Geonotsid v Abkhazii, p. 278-279)
    

DECREE ISSUED BY THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA on Supreme Authority of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia
On 10 March 1994 the Parliament of Georgia dissolved the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
This zero version was conducive for defining a political status of Abkhazia within the Georgian state laying foundation for genuinely democratic elections, as has been repeatedly underlined in the resolutions of UN, after the hundreds of thousands of persons driven out from Abkhazia as a result of ethnic cleansing returned to their homes.
Nevertheless, being deprived of any legitimacy and elected through the principle of national superiority and having preliminarily guaranteed parliamentary majority, the Gudauta separatist group of deputies, elected by the tiny minority of the population in 1991 to the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR continued, in grossly illegal manner, to act on behalf of the supreme body of the Autonomous Republic, moreover, it adopted the so called Constitution, elected a President, and declared the Abkhazian region a sovereign state and subject of the International law.
The Deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz SSR, representing the best and genuine interests of multinational population of Abkhazia, even prior to the military conflict, as mark of protest against the anti-constitutional activities of the Gudauta separatist group, suspended their activities in the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR. Taking the aforementioned into consideration, in January 1995, they resumed activities and appealed to the Parliament of Georgia with a request of endorsing their competence.
The Parliament of Georgia believes, that the vacuum of power existing in Abkhazia, allows the separatist group to continue its criminal, usurper-like activities and rules out the possibility of return of refugees, holding free elections and factual restoration of jurisdiction of Georgia in Abkhazia.
In accordance with paragraph 3 of the article 3 of the law of the Republic of Georgia on “State Power”, the Parliament of Georgia decrees:
1. To declare those Deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR elected in 1991 and representing the best and genuine interests of the vast majority of Abkhazia and who did not take part in the anti-constitutional activities of the Gudauta separatist group-the representatives of the supreme representative and legislative body of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
2. The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR shall carry out its activities in conformity with the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR adopted in 1978 and legislative acts that did not contradict to the legislation of Georgia; to create the necessary legal basis that would guarantee normal functioning of all structures of the Autonomous Republic and creation of relevant normative basis for holding elections in Abkhazia.
3. The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be entitled with the right to participate in all negotiations on Abkhazia.
To consider null and void any treaty, agreement concluded or statement made, without consent of a delegation made of members of the Supreme Council of the Abkhazian ASSR.
4. To request member –states of the UN, and international organizations to refrain from establishment of any kind of relationship with the aggressive-separatist regime (the Gudauta group), perpetrators of ethnic cleansing-genocide, save for those officials who participate in the negotiation process, mediators and observers, that are to be provided with adequate conditions for carrying out peacemaking efforts aimed at settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia.
5. This decree shall come into force immediately upon publication.
Speaker  of the Parliament of Georgia V. Goguadze
24 February 1995
(Bulletin of the Parliament of Georgia, 1995, # # 23-26, p. 79-81)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE STATE DUMA OF THE FEDERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on Humane Treatment of the Needs of the Population of Abkhazia
Considering that the closing of the border of Russian Federation along the River Psou by the Government of Russian Federation, suspension of access to the Russian Federation of non-Russian residents, vehicles and cargoes from the territory of the Republic of Georgia established unbearable environment to the population of Abkhazia, especially those of Russian origin that are suffering with cold and hunger.
Being aware that toughening of border regime justified with internal needs of Russia shall not worsen the living conditions of our countrymen in foreign countries;
Welcoming the progress in negotiations on political settlement of Georgian-Abkhaz conflict,
The state Duma of the federal Assembly of the Russian Federation decrees:
To requests the Government of the Russian Federation to consider the issue on alleviation of border regime along Abkhazia and establish simplified procedures of border-crossing for retired people and women, as well as the humanitarian corridor in order to deliver food and essentials to the population of Abkhazia through the Red Cross Society of the Russian Federation, international and Russian humanitarian charity organizations, public associations and religious organizations.
Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation  I. P. Ribkyn
24 February 1995
(Collection of legislation of the RF, M., 1995, # 7, p. 477-478)
    

WORKING  PROTOCOL of the Talks on the Georgian-Abkhaz Conflict Settlement
From 18 April to 6 May 1995, negotiations on settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict were held in Moscow.
The Georgian delegation was represented by V. G.Lortkipanidze-Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Georgia to the Russian Federation, Special Representative of the Head of State.
The Abkhaz side was represented by V. G. Ardzinba- leader of Abkhazia and his personal representative A.M. Jergenia.
Mr. Edward Bruner-Special Representative of the Secretary General of UN met with the participants of the negotiations.
In the course of consultations, the Parties to the negotiations, as well as the Russian mediators, submitted their drafts of Agreement on Georgian-Abkhaz settlement and Agreement on return of refugees and internally displaced persons. Apart from that, the Russian side proposed draft on guarantees of Georgian-Abkhaz and Georgian-Ossetian settlement. In addition, the Russian side put forward a proposal to prepare and sign a number of agreements on the development of economic cooperation with Russia, namely, related to problems of securing sustainable supply of energy resources and restoration of transport communications, first and foremost, restoration of railway trunks and others.
In the course of negotiations, the Parties managed to reach an agreement on a number of issues.
The Parties reiterated their commitments not to allow resumption of hostilities. They agreed to live in the unitary state. Both sides expressed their willingness to regard the Russian Federation as the guarantor of their potential agreements.
In the course of negotiations, representatives of Georgia proposed to solve the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict based on the principle of federative arrangement of a unitary state.
The Abkhaz side insisted on its own understanding of a unitary State-confederative union between the Re­­­public of Georgia and the Republic of Abkhazia, establishing the union of equal subjects of international law.
During the negotiations, the point of departure for representatives of the Russian Federation was the necessarily to maintain territorial integrity of Georgia and drawing on the vast and multifaceted experience of Russia in terms of federative relations, encouraged the Parties to seek solutions in that direction.
The Russian mediators insisted that in the course of ongoing consultations concrete and stage-by-stage approach solutions were found to the problem of return of refugees and internally displaced persons to Abkhazia, namely, concrete time-frame and number of people to be returned. In these regard, the Georgian and Abkhaz sides have serious discrepancies.
The texts of discussed documents were to large extend agreed upon, however, due to serious conceptual discrepancies existing between the Parties, a number of principal issues remained unresolved. The Parties be­­­­lieve that in case provided those principal contradictions are overcome, the wording of documents can be agreed upon shortly.
The Russian side appealed to the Parties to continue further elaboration of these documents.
The participants agreed to resume negotiations on 11 1995 at 9:30.
V. Lortkipanidze, A. Djergenia, A. Bolshakov.
6 May 1995
(Journal “Dimplomaticheskiy Vestnik”, 1995, #6, p. 46-47 )


RESOLUTION 993 (12 MAY 1995) ADOPTED BY THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council,
Reaffirming all its relevant resolutions, in particular resolution  971 (1995) of 12 January 1995,
Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of 1 May 1995  (S/1995/342),
Reaffirming its commitment to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of  the Republic of Georgia,
Concerned that insufficient progress has been achieved towards a  comprehensive political settlement,
Welcoming and encouraging continuing consultations regarding a new  constitution for the Republic of Georgia based on federal principles in the  context of a comprehensive political settlement,
Reaffirming the right of all refugees and displaced persons affected by the  conflict to return to their homes in secure conditions in accordance with  international law and as set out in the Quadripartite Agreement on voluntary  return of refugees and displaced persons (S/1994/397, annex II), signed in  Moscow on 4 April 1994, deploring the continued obstruction of such return by  the Abkhaz authorities and underlining that return of refugees and displaced  persons to the Gali region would be a welcome first step,
Expressing concern over the critical funding shortages which may result in  suspension of important humanitarian programmes,
Recalling the conclusions of the Budapest summit of the Conference on  Security and Cooperation in Europe (S/1994/1435, annex) regarding the situation  in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia,
Reaffirming the need for the parties to comply with international  humanitarian law,
Noting that the Agreement on a Cease-fire and Separation of Forces signed  in Moscow on 14 May 1994 (S/1994/583, annex I), has been generally respected by  the parties over the past year with the assistance of the Commonwealth of  Independent States (CIS) peace-keeping force and the United Nations Observer  Mission in  Georgia (UNOMIG), but expressing concern at the continued lack of a  secure environment, in particular recent attacks on civilians in the Gali  region,
Further expressing concern about the safety and the security of UNOMIG and  CIS personnel and stressing the importance it attaches to their freedom of  movement,
Stressing also the importance it attaches to restrictions on the number and  type of weapons which may be borne by the parties in the security zone, and
welcoming the intention of the Secretary-General to pursue this question with  the parties,
Expressing its satisfaction with the close cooperation and coordination  between UNOMIG and the CIS peace-keeping force in the performance of their  respective mandates and commending the contribution both have made to  stabilization of the situation in the zone of conflict,
Paying tribute to those members of the CIS peace- keeping force who have  lost their lives in the exercise of their duties,
1. Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General of 1 May 1995;
2. Decides to extend the mandate of UNOMIG for an additional period  terminating on 12 January 1996, subject to review by the Council in the event of  any changes that may be made in the mandate of the CIS peace-keeping force;
3. Expresses its full support for the efforts of the Secretary-General  aimed at achieving a comprehensive political settlement of the conflict,  including on the political status of Abkhazia, respecting fully the sovereignty and territorial  integrity of the Republic of Georgia, as well as for the efforts  that are being undertaken by the Russian Federation in its capacity as  facilitator to intensify the search for a peaceful settlement of the conflict, and encourages the Secretary-General to continue his efforts, with the  assistance of the Russian Fe­­deration as facilitator, and with the support of the  Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), to that end;
4. Calls upon the parties to reach substantive progress in the  negotiations under the auspices of the United Nations and with the assistance of  the Russian Federation as facilitator and with participation of representatives  of OSCE;
5. Urges the parties to refrain from any unilateral actions, which could  complicate or hinder the political process aimed at an early and comprehensive  political settlement;
6. Reiterates its call to the Abkhaz side to accelerate significantly the  process of the voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons by  accepting a timetable on the basis of that proposed by the Office of the United Nations High  Commissioner for Refugees, and to guarantee the safety of spontaneous returnees
already in the area and regularize their status in accordance with the  Quadripartite Agreement;
7. Welcomes the additional measures implemented by UNOMIG and the CIS  peace-keeping force in the Gali region aimed at improving conditions for the  safe and orderly return of refugees and displaced persons;
8. Calls upon the parties to improve their cooperation with UNOMIG and  the CIS peace-keeping force in order to provide a secure environment for the  return of refugees and displaced persons and also calls upon them to honour  their commitments with regard to the security and freedom of movement of all
United Nations and CIS personnel;
9. Requests the Secretary-General, in the context of paragraph 7 of  resolution 971 (1995), to consider ways of improving observance of human rights  in the region;
10. Reiterates its encouragement to States to contribute to the voluntary  fund in support of the implementation of the Agreement on a Cease-fire and  Separation of Forces signed in Moscow on 14 May 1994 and/or for humanitarian  aspects including demining, as specified by the donors;
11. Encourages States to respond to the consolidated inter-agency appeal,  in particular for the urgent needs of UNHCR, and welcomes all relevant  humanitarian contributions of States;
12. Requests the Secretary-General to report every three months from the  date of the adoption of this resolution on all aspects of the situation in  Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia, including the operations of UNOMIG, and decides  to undertake, on the basis of those reports, further reviews of the situation;
13. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
(www.un.org/docs)


AGREEMENT  on Friendship and Cooperation Between the Republic of Abkhazia and the
Republic of Kabardino-Balkharia
The Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of Kabardino-Balkharia, hereinafter referred as “sides”,
Striving for the development of their statehood,
Being aware that further development of friendship and mutual beneficial cooperation serve to the best interests of their people
Decided to conclude this Agreement on friendship and cooperation and
agreed upon the following:
Article 1
The Sides will develop their relations based on the principles of equality, non-interference in internal affairs, mutual respect and cooperation.
Article 2
The Sides  will cooperate to maintain the peace and stability in the Caucasus.  They will exert their efforts to the peaceful settlement of conflicts and critical situations that jeopardize the interests of the Sides.
With this purpose the Sides will hold consultation on the problems of mutual interest on the regular basis.
Article 6
The Sides will assist each other in legal issues, including criminal, civil and family affairs…
The sides will cooperate in the issues related to the security of transit movement of their citizens, vehicles and cargoes through their respective territories.
Article 8
In order to secure the realization of this Agreement the Sides consider necessary to establish representation offices in the cities of Nalchik and Sukhum of the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria and the Republic of Abkhazia accordingly.
(…)
Article 9
This agreement is concluded for five-year term…
(…)
This Agreement comes into force the day it is signed.
Done in the city Sukhum on 19 May 1995 in two copies in Abkhaz, Kabardino-Balkhar and Russian languages
For the Republic of Abkhazia the Chairman of the Parliament V. G. Ardzinba
For the Republic of Kabardino-Balkharia President V. Kokov
19 May 1995
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 4 0, 24-26 May 1995)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on Partial Changes in the Decree issued by the Government of the Russian Federation of 19 December 1994 #1394 “On temporary Restrictions of Crossing the Border of the Russian Federation with the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia”
The Government of the Russian Federation decrees:
1. Due to the partial changes in the Decree issued by the Government of Russian Federation of 19 December 1994 #1394 “On temporary Restrictions of crossing the Border of the Russian Federation with the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia” and to the request of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia, to permit the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation to open the maritime movement for transportation of public goods between the Russian Federation (Seaports of Novorosiysk and Taganrog) and the Republic of Georgia (Seaports of Poti and Batumi)
(…)
Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation V. Chernomirdyn
24 May 1995
(Collection of the Legislation of the RF, M., 1995, # 22, p. 4099)


DECISION ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF THE HEADS OF STATES OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES on Specification to and Extension of the Mandate of the Collective Force on Maintaining the Peace in the conflict Zone in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia
The Council of the Heads of States of the commonwealth of Independent States decided:
1. To  make specification to the mandate of the Collective Force on maintaining the peace in the conflict zone of Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia (the new wording is attached).
(…)
Done at Minsk on 26 May 1995…
For the Republic of Azerbaijan G. Aliyev
For the Republic of Kyrgizstan A. Akaev
For the Republic of Armenia L. Ter-Petrosyan
For the Russian Federation B. Eltsin
For the Republic of Belarus A. Loukashenko
For the Republic of Tajikistan E. Rakhmanov
For the Republic of Georgia E. Shevardnadze
For the Republic of Uzbekistan I. Karimov
For the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Asanbaev
The Republic of Moldova, Turkmenistan and Ukraine haven’t signed the document.
(www.un.org/russian)


ANNEX TO THE DECISION ADOPTED ON 26 MAY 1995 BY THE COUNCIL OF THE HEADS OF STATES OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES on Specification to and Extension of the Mandate of the Collective Force on Maintaining the Peace in the Conflict Zone of Abkhazia
Mandate of the Collective Force on maintaining the peace in the conflict zone in Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia
Pursuant to the decisions issued by the Council of the heads of States of the Commonwealth of independent States on usage of Collective Force the operation on maintaining of peace in the conflict zone in Abkhazia, the Republic of Georgia is carried out.
The tasks aimed at maintaining the peace, separation of forces and observing the cease-fire regime on land, in the Sea and in the air have been fulfilled.
The peacekeeping military contingents of the CIS have been deployed in the conflict zone, as well as the military observers of the UN Mission in Georgia.
The security zone, restricted-weapons zone and control zone have been established in compliance with the Cease-fire Agreement and Separation of Forces of 14 May 1994 that specifies and determines the level of armament and personnel.
The Collective force will carry out its tasks to facilitate comprehensive settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia, Georgia, particularly in the course of safe return of refugees and displaces persons to their places of residence observing international humanitarian rights and human rights; the process of de-mining also will be encouraged.
1. In compliance with the Decision of the Council of the Heads of States of the Commonwealth of Inde­­­pendent States on specification of the Mandate of the Collective Peacekeeping Force in the conflict zone of 26 May 1995 the term of operation is extended up to 31 December 1995.The term of Mandate shall be prolonged upon the decision of the Council of the Heads of States of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
2. The manpower and adequate means shall be determined to realize the Decision issued by the Council of the Heads of States of the Commonwealth of Independent States on Approve of the Mandate for carrying out the peace operations in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone of 21 October 1994.
3.  The Group of Military observers shall be set up to observe the commitments under the Agreement on Cease-fire and Separation of Forces of 14 May 1994.
4. After the adoption of the Decision the countries, sending the contingents to the Collective Force shall secure the preparation of the personnel, their material-technical supply and financial means, including expenses for transportation at the expense of their respective states.
5. The Collective peacekeeping Force and the Group of military observers are entrusted with the tasks … in particular:
a) observance of a cease-fire regime , establishment of peace and prevention from the resumption of military operations in the conflict zone through separation of military formations of the conflicting sides;
b) establishment of adequate conditions for safe return of refugees and displaced persons that left the conflict zone to the places of their permanent residence, as well as observance of other  provisions set up in the Quadripartite Agreement on Voluntary Return of Refugees and Displaces Persons of 4 April 1994, including the operation of the Quadripartite Commission established pursuant to the aforementioned Agreement;
c) observance of agreements concluded between the sides, in particular, Memorandum of Understanding of 1 December 1993, Communiquй on the Second Round of Talk of 13 January of 1994, Declaration on the measures for political settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz Conflict of 4 April 1994 and the Agreement on Cease-fire and Separation of Forces of 14 May 1994, as well as the other possible agreements that the sides may reach in the process of the comprehensive political settlement of the conflict;
d) facilitation to the process of the rehabilitation of the regions affected in conflict time, including the humanitarian aid, de-mining and restoration of systems of vital importance of the population;
e) assuring the security of the key systems of life, as Inguri Power Plant and others;
f) securing the norms of international humanitarian and human rights;
g) close cooperation with the staff of the UNOMIG and other employees of the UNO in the region;
e) carrying out the control on disbanding and withdrawal of all volunteer military formations made up of persons outside of the frontiers of Abkhazia;
h) carrying out the control on the process of withdrawal of heavy military equipment in cooperation with the UN Observers Mission in  Georgia.
The Collective peacekeeping Force and the Group of Military observers, under the decision of the Command reconciled with the conflicting sides may decide other issues in due course of operations in the conflict zone guiding with the principles of securing and maintaining the peace between the conflicting sides.
6. Commander of the Peacekeeping Force in the conflict zone (hereinafter - Commander) is subordinated to the Council of the Heads of States of the commonwealth of Independent States.  The issues, related to the urgent operative decisions he shall to agree with the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the CIS member-states and with the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Defence of the CIS member-states and carries out direct command of the operations on maintaining the peace and acts in a capacity of a direct commander to all personnel of the Collective Force.
7. Military contingents of the CIS member-states, designated to the Collective Force and the Group of observers are entering under the subordination of the Commander since their detachment to the region of operation reporting their commanders (heads) on deployment.
(…)
(www.un.org/russian)
                                                                                                               

DECISION ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF THE HEADS OF STATES OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES on proposals on reconciled operations for the conflict settlement in Abkhazia, Georgia
The Council of the Heads of States of the Commonwealth of Independent States decided:
To endorse the proposed political forms and mechanisms of involvement of the member-states of the Commonwealth of independent States in the process of conflict regulation in Abkhazia, Georgia (Annex 1,2).
Done at Minks 26 May 1995 in one original copy in Russian language…
Signed by the Heads of State of the Commonwealth of independent States.
The Decision hasn’t been signed by the Republic of Moldova, Turkmenistan and Ukraine.
(Collection of Documents Relating to the Issue of Conflict Settlement in Abkhazia, Georgia adopted  in 1992-1999,  p. 57)
    

ANNEX 1 TO THE DECISION OF THE COUNCIL OF THE HEADS OF STATES OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES OF 26 MAY 1995 on Possible Political Measures for Regulation of the Conflict in Abkhazia, Georgia
1. To hold the working meeting of the representatives of the governments, Ministries of Foreign affairs of Russia and Georgia, as well as the representatives from the Abkhaz side in order to discuss and reconcile the Agreement on Regulation of the Conflict in Abkhazia that will establish the commitments to suspend military confrontation and lays ground to peaceful life and finds the firm political decision.
2. The next step would be the Conference on national reconciliation and signing of aforementioned Agreement.  The proposals of this frame document could be developed at the next talks.  At the Conference on national reconciliation, with the presence relevant  representatives of Armenia and Azerbaijan, as well as of the CIS and OSCE, The Declaration on guarantees for peaceful settlement of the conflict in Georgia could be signed; the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Russian Federation as the Chair state in the CIS could committee themselves to carry out the role of guarantor in implementation of the pledged commitments.
3. The sufficiently prepared issue could make possible the representatives of Russia, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan, as well as of Abkhaz side sign the Agreement of restoration and exploitation of the railway Adler-Samtredia-Baku-Yerevan.
Aforementioned scheme would be realized only in case of practical resolution of he problem of return of refugees and displaced persons in Abkhazia.
(Collection of Documents Relating to the Issue of Conflict Settlement in Abkhazia Georgia adopted in 1992 - 1999, p. 58)

PROTOCOL #4 OF THE MEETING OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT
June 9, 1995, Moscow
Chaired by:
Nikolai Medvedev – Deputy Minister of Russian Federation for Cooperation with CIS Member States, Head of the Russian part of the JCC.
Agenda:
I. On the Process of Construction and Rehabilitation Works in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict.
Reporter – A. Babenko, member of the JCC.
II On implementing decision of the JCC about the JPKF.
Reporter – Colonel I. Ivanov.
III. On Developing Actions for Return of Refugees from North Ossetia – Alania to Internal regions of Georgia.
Reporter: V. Kolyuchev, a member of the JCC;
IV. On Humanitarian Problems of Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict.
Reporter: N. Malikova, a member of the JCC.
V. O Approaches to the Political Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict.
VI. On venue, date and agenda of the next meeting.
The following was resolved with regard to the agenda:
I. On the Process of Construction and Rehabilitation Works in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict.
Babenko, S. Ardasenov, I. Menagarishvili, V. Gabaraev, N. Medvedev)
Resolved:
a) approve the decision of the JCC on the Process of Construction and Rehabilitation Works in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict (the resolution is attached);
b) continue reviewing the issue at the next meeting of the JCC.
II. On implementing decision of the JCC about the JPKF.
(I. Ivanov, I. Menagarishvili, V. Khubulov, T. Kusov, V. Gabaraev, D. Boden, S. Palmizano, A. Merkuryev, G. Khugaev, N. Medvedev)
Resolved:
1. Approve the following documents prepared by the workgroup:
a) Decision of the JCC on implementing decision of the JCC about the JPKF – 2 pages (attached).
a) Attached is
- the scheme of organizations of the JPKF in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict;
2. Continue reviewing the issue at the next meeting of the JCC.
III. On Developing Actions for Return of Refugees from North Ossetia – Alania to Internal regions of Georgia in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict.
(V. Kolyuchev, F. Kovalev, I. Menagarishvili, T. Kusov, D. Boden)
Resolved:
a) Approve the decision Developing Actions for Return of Refugees from North Ossetia – Alania to Internal regions of Georgia (attached).
b) Continue reviewing the issue at the next meeting of the JCC.
IV. On Humanitarian Problems of Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict.
(N. Malikova)
Resolved:
Take into account the information provided under the report of the member of the JCC, N. Malikova, and use it in future works of the JCC.
V. O Approaches to the Political Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
(V. Gabaraev, B. Pastukhov, G. Khugaev, N. Medvedev, G. Jikaev, D. Boden)
Resolved:
The parties exchanged with the opinions about the approaches to the Georgian-Ossetian conflict settlement.
The parties reached agreement to continue high level negotiations between the official delegations on the conflict settlement with the help (intermediation) of Russia and the the OSCE in June, 1995.
VI. On the venue, date and agenda of the next session of the JCC.
(N. Medvedev, I. Menagarishvili, V. Gabaraev, G. Jikaev).
Resolved:
1. To hold the next session of the JCC between June 19-20 pf 1995, in Tbilisi and Tskhinvali.
2. Review at the next session of the JCC the following issues:
a) implementation of resolutions adopted at the sessions of the JCC on June 9, 1995;
- On the Process of Construction and Rehabilitation Works in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict.
Reporter – A. Babenko, member of the JCC.
- On implementing decision of the JCC about the JPKF.
Reporter: Major General A. Gerasimov, a member of the JCC;
- On developing actions for the return of refugees from North Ossetia – Alania to internal regions of Georgia in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
Reporter: V. Koliuchev, a member of the JCC;
b) on the status of the high level negotiations held between the official delegations on the Georgian-Ossetian conflict settlement;
c) On the expediency of introducing to the agenda of the next session of the JCC a number of issues that have been raised by the Chairman of the Russian Society of South Ossetia “Rosa”.
c) On the venue, date and agenda of the next session of the JCC.
N. Medvedev, Chairman of the Session, Head of the Russian Delegation.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)

Annex 1 To protocol #4 of the JCC session dated June 9, 1995, Moscow
DECISION Of the Joint Control Commission (JCC) for the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict Settlement On the Process of Construction and Rehabilitation Works in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
The the JCC for the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict Settlement resolved:
Take into consideration statements of a member of the Russian Part of the JCC, A. Babenko about allocating 6,7 billion Rubbles (as of June 9, 1995 3 billion Rubble were transferred) in 1995 for the construction and rehabilitation activities in the zone of the Georgina-Ossetian conflict, and the statement of the deputy Prime Minister of Georgia, I. Menagarishvili about allocating 1.3 trillion coupons (5 billion Rubbles) in 1995 for the same purposes.
Agree with the statement about speeding up the use of the funds allocated in 1995 for the rehabilitation works (August-September, 1995), and together with the financial organs of both parties find additional sources of financing until the end of the year.
Recommend the co-chairmen of joint administrative organ (A. Babenko and O. Kiknadze), within the period of two months, to make coordinated decisions on the scheme of financing of the mutual program on the rehabilitation works and establishing a joint UKS in accordance with the proposals of the workgroup of the JCC.
Support the proposal of the deputy Prime Minister of Georgia, I. Menagarishvili about applying by the Government of Georgia to the Government of Russia with the request to allocate a loan in the amount of 10 billion Rubbles at the beginning of financing and fulfillment of works by the Georgian side for the purpose of using the funds in the form additional capital investments for the rehabilitation of regions in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
On behalf of the Russian side
On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian Side        
On behalf of the North Ossetian side
In the presence of:
the OSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Annex 2 To Protocol # 4of the JCC Session dated June 9, 1995, Moscow
DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT On Implementing Decision of the JCC on the JPKF
The the JCC for the Georgian-Ossetian conflict settlement
Resolved:
1. Appoint the Major General A. Merkuriev as the Commander of the JPKF in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
2. Assign the Commander of the JPKF, depending on the circumstances with regard to the agreement of the parties, introduce partial changes to the scheme of the dislocation of posts, check-points of joint forces, notifying the local authorities and the JCC about the above-noted fact.
3. Ask the Government of Russia, within the shortest period, to pay off the arrears of the Russian part of the joint forces and allocate necessary cash resources for their material and technical provision.
4. Offer to the leadership of the parties to resolve the issues of providing the personnel of the Georgian and Ossetian battalions with military uniforms and peacemaking symbolic pursuant to the applicable agreement, and allocate all necessary resources for repairing living quarters, canteens, engineering equipment of pickets and posts, and provide observers of the joint headquarters with the means of communication and transport facilities.
5. Ask the leadership the Georgia to replace infantry fighting vehicles by armored troop carriers in the Georgian battalion of the JPKF prior to August 1, 1995.
Within the same period of time, complete conservation of infantry fighting vehicles and heavy weapons in the Ossetian battalion.
Control over the implementation shall be taken by the Commander of the JPKF.
6. The Commander of the JPKF, chief military heads of the parties, shall increase their demands to the officers of subdivisions with regard to the status of military discipline, combat training and educational works with the personnel; improve activities of testing examination commissions.
Personnel of the examination commission of the JPKF shall be defined by the Commander of the JPKF.
7. Approve the changes to the organizational structure and staff of the Ossetian battalion proposed by the military commander (Annex 1).
8. Apply to the Ministry of Defense with the request to appoint chief military head from the Ossetian side from the career officers of the Ministry of Defense (of Ossetian nationality, if possible).
On behalf of the Russian side            On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian Side        On behalf of the North Ossetian side
In the presence of: the OSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Annex 3 To Protocol #4 of the JCC Session dated June 9, 1995, Moscow
DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT On Developing Actions for Return of Refugees from North Ossetia – Alania to Internal regions of Georgia in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
The the JCC for the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict Settlement
Resolved:
1. Take into consideration the information of V. Kolyucheva about the activities of the workgroup of the JCC on the issue of “Actions to be taken for Return of Refugees from North Ossetia – Alania to the Internal Regions of Georgia”.
2. The Georgian part of the JCC shall deem it necessary to apply to the official authorities of Georgia to approve the normative document that will obligate the administrative organs of the regions where refugees are supposed to return to provide them with legal protection.
3. The Committee on Refugees and Settlement of Georgia and the Migration Service of the North Ossetia – Alania, shall continue working on clarification and specification of lists and considering points at issue raised upon making the decision on return of refugees.
4. The workgroup of the JCC, when settling points at issues on the procedures of return of refugees and supporting thereof, should invite the Mission of the the OSCE in Georgia and other international organizations working on problems of refugees.
5. The Federal Migration Service of Russia and the Migration Service of North Ossetia-Alania, should take actions to help refugees from internal regions of Georgia to accommodate in Russia, in the case of receiving well-founded information about impossibility of their return to the places of their previous residence.
On behalf of the Russian side            On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian Side        On behalf of the North Ossetian side
In the presence of: the OSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA on Admitting Members of the Parliament of Georgia elected in Abkhazia to the membership of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia
Due to extraordinary situation in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, the Parliament of Georgia decrees:
To admit, in the order of co-optation, the Members of the Parliament of Georgia elected in Abkhazia to the membership of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia.
Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia V. Goguadze
14 June 1995
(Bulletin of the Parliament of Georgia, 1995, # # 27-30, p. 205-207)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on removal of certain restrictions of Russian-Georgian border crossing within the frontiers of Krasnodar Region established by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 19 December 1994 # 1394
The Government of the Russian Federation decrees:
1. The Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation and State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation shall permit the border crossing at established check points through Georgian-Russian Border within the frontiers of the Krasnodar Region:
to the residents of Russian Federation and the residents of the Republic of Georgia those of the age of retirement and women regardless the age if they produce the adequate documents, as well as to the children under 16, the citizens of the Russian Federation possessing the property on the territory of Georgia and able to produce the relevant document;
the humanitarian cargoes and goods, food and construction materials directed to Abkhazia as an aid to eliminate natural disaster.
(…)
Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation V. Chernomyrdin
7 July 1995
(Collection of the Legislation of the RF, 1995, # 29, p. 5345)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE STATE DUMA OF THE FEDERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on assistance to the population of Abkhazia
The State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation decrees:
1. To advise the Government of the Russian Federation to extend the effect of the Decree of he Government of the Russian Federation of 24 May 1995 #509 “on Partial changes of the Decree by the Government of the Russian Federation of 19 December 1994 #1394 “on Measures of temporary restriction of the state border of the Russian Federation with the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia” to the maritime transportation with Sukhumi (Sukhum) Seaport.
2. To advise the Government of the Russian Federation to take measures for restoration of the air transportation from the Russian airports to the airport of Sukhumi (Sukhum) and secure safe flights.
3. To advise the Government of the Russian Federation to assist Abkhazia with the urgent humanitarian aid due to the natural disaster that took place in the republic.
4. To consider reasonable the opening of the field office of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation in Abkhazia in order to pay out the pensions to disables and veterans of the Great patriotic War, military retirees and the persons worked in the Far North.
5. To advise the Government of the Russian Federation to remove the restriction of the movement of the humanitarian cargoes, women, children under 16 and retirees through the check-point “Veseloe” at the state birder of the Russian Federation.
To recommend the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation to assign means to the Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation for arrangement and technical equipment of the check-point Veseloe.
Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation I. Ribkyn
14 July 1995
(Bulletin of the Federal Assembly of the RF, M., 1995, # 22, p. 1818-1819)


PROTOCOL #5 OF THE MEETING OF JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT
July 19-20, 1995, Tbilisi, Tskhinvali
Chaired by:
Nikolai Medvedev – Deputy Minister of Russian Federation for Cooperation with CIS Member States, Head of the Russian part of the JCC.
Agenda:
1. On the process of construction and rehabilitation works in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict (Information of E. Verkhovsky and O. Kiknadze).
II. On realization of actions to be taken for return of refugees from South Ossetia – Alania to the internal regions of Georgia (Information of I. Megrelishvili and B. Khatidze).
III. On implementing decisions of the JCC on the JPKF (Reported Major General A. Gerasimov, co-reporter – Major General G. Nikolaishvili).
IV. On high level negotiations on the level of official delegations on full-scale settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict (exchange of information).
V. On the venue, date and agenda of the next session of the JCC.
The parties made a coordinated decision about the fact that the head of the Russian part of the JCC, having conducted the intermediary mission (function) in the conflict settlement, shall continue chairing of sessions of the JCC on regular basis.
The following was resolved with regard to the issues under the agenda:
I. On the process of construction and rehabilitation works in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict. (E. Verkhovsky, O. Kiknadze, I. Mamiev, G. Jikaev, G. Jigauri, I. Menagarishvili, D. Boden, N. Medvedev).
Resolved:
a) Approve the decision of the JCC on the process of construction and rehabilitation works in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict (attached).
b) Approve the decision of the JCC on widening the scope of activities of the economic workgroup of the JCC with regard to the territory involved in the Georgian-Ossetian conflict (attached).
c) Continue reviewing these issues at the next session of the JCC.
II. On realization of actions to be taken for return of refugees from South Ossetia – Alania to the internal regions of Georgia.(B. Khatidze, I. Mamiev, G. Jikaev, I. Menagarishvili, I. Medvedev)
Resolved:
a) Approve the decision on realization of actions to be taken for return of refugees from South Ossetia – Alania to the internal regions of Georgia.
b) Continue reviewing these issues at the next session of the JCC.
III. On implementing decisions of the JCC on the JPKF
(A. Gerasimov, G. Nikolaishvili, N. Medvedev, A. Merkuryev, V. Gabaraev)
Resolved:
Approve the decision on implementing decision of the JCC on the JPKF (attached).
IV. On high level negotiations on the level of official delegations on full-scale settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict (exchange of information). (N. Medvedev, I. Mamiev, V. Gabaraev, I. Menagarishvili, G. Jikaev)
With regard to this issue, the heads of the delegations of the parties initialed the text of the Statement of the Georgian and South Ossetian parties on further development of the process of peaceful settlement of the conflict (attached).
V. On the venue, date and agenda of the next session of the JCC
(N. Medvedev, I. Menagarishvili, G. Jikaev, V. Gabaraev)
Resolved:
1. Hold the next session of the JCC in September 1995. The venue shall be agreed along the way.
2. Discuss the following issues at the next session of the JCC:
a) Fulfillment of decisions made at sessions of the JCC on July 19-20 of 1995.
- On the process of construction and rehabilitation works in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
(Information of A. Babenko and O. Kiknadze, members of the JCC).
- On development of proposals of the Mission of the PSCE on widening, if possible, the scope of activities of economic workgroup of the JCC and the procedure thereof with regard to the territories involved in the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
(Information of representatives of the Georgian., South Ossetian parties and the Mission of the OSCE).
On actions to be taken for activating the process of return of refugees from North Ossetia  - Alania to the internal regions of Georgia.
(Information of representatives of the workgroup headed by the member of the JCC, Mr. T. Kusov).
b) On the high level negotiations on the level of official delegations on full-scale settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
(Information of the heads of the Georgian and South Ossetian delegations).
c) Other issues that may be coordinated and introduced along the way.
d) On the venue, date and agenda of the next session of the JCC.
N. Medvedev, Chairman of the Session, Head of the Russian Delegation
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Annex 1 To Protocol #5 of the JCC Session dated July 19, 1995, Tbilisi
DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT On the Process of Construction and Rehabilitation Works in the Zone of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
1. Take into consideration the information of E. Verkhovsky and O. Kiknadze on the process of construction and rehabilitation works in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
2. Recommend the co-chairmen of the joint administrative organ (A. Babenko, O. Kiknadze) to coordinate within the shortest period of time and with the participation of South Ossetia and North Ossetia, a joint plan on construction and rehabilitation works for 1995-1996.
3. The representatives of Georgian and South Ossetian parties shall discuss the possibilities of recovering the functioning of the banking system in the near future.
On behalf of the Russian side            On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian Side        On behalf of the North Ossetian side
In the presence of: the OSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Annex 2 To Protocol #5 of the JCC Session dated July 19, 1995, Tbilisi
DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT
1. Approve (welcome) the decision of the Mission of the OSCE on widening the scope of activities of the economic workgroup of the JCC with regard to the territories that are involved in the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
2. Supporting the initiative of the Mission of the OPSCE in Georgia, suggest the Georgian and South Ossetian parties, together with the Mission of the OSCE, develop the possibilities and the procedure for the realization of the proposals of the Mission of the PSCE (attached) and make information about the outcomes at the next session of the JCC.
On behalf of the Russian side            
On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian Side        
On behalf of the North Ossetian side
In the presence of: the OSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Enclosure to Annex 2 of Protocol #5 of the JCC Session dated July 19, 1995 Tbilisi
On Widening the Scope of Activities of Economic Workgroup of the JCC with regard to the Territories that were involved in the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
(OSCE – D. Boden)
Noting the technical and financial difficulties hampering the activities of the economic workgroup of the JCC with regard to implementing the agreement of Georgia and Russia on rehabilitation of the economy in the zone of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict concluded on February 1993,
Recognizing the obvious poor economic condition of the population in the zone of conflict caused by sharp reduction of the economic activities, in general, and, to certain extent, breaking of the previous economic contacts with the nearest regions,
Taking into consideration the fact that there is no comprehensive plan anticipating the beginning of the economic recovery of the region, including private sector and private capital,
Assuming that the absence of political resolution of the conflict should not hamper the recovery of the economic activities in the zone of conflict, but vice versa, the economic recovery could have pushed the parties to the conflict to political progress,
Expressing the confidence that under the appropriate circumstances it would be possible to persuade separate governments and international organizations to allocate part of their resources for the purpose of rendering assistance in the process of recovery,
the JCC resolves that the economic workgroup of the JCC should:
1. After studying the situation I  the zone of conflict and in the nearest regions, present to the JCC a repot on respective economic and social situation in the region, including the survey of the problem related to the development of the infrastructure (roads, rail road, power transmission lines and natural gas supply, house-building), rehabilitation of which may become the precondition of the overall economic recovery.
2. Define the cost of works on liquidation of the above-noted deficiencies and the priorities for the rehabilitation of various objects of infrastructure in the future action plan.
3. Define main problems of the agricultural production in the zone of conflict and nearest regions, such as lack of seeds, fertilizers, equipments, technical information, modern organizational structures, initial capital loans, and develop a plan for resolving the above-noted problems in 1996-97 agricultural years.
4. Consider the most perspective possibilities for rehabilitating contacts between entrepreneurial institutions of all types in the region and other enterprises with which they had business contacts in the past in the form of buyers, suppliers, sellers, joint ventures, etc., and recommend concrete measures for achieving the  goal through attracting the government and private sectors of North Ossetia, Russia, Georgia and South Ossetia.
5. Study the new spheres of the economic activities in the regions, which are perspective from the viewpoint of the economic recovery, or, were developed or non-developed at all, during the period of existence of the USSR.
6. Study, for these purposes, the possibilities of attracting funds and resources from the governments of the parties to the conflict, as well as from potential foreign donors, agencies and banks, related to the UN, such as the World Bank, the European institutions such as the EBRD in London and the European Union.; as well as sources of financing from permanent program on national aid and world capital markets.
7. Prepare the list of specific projects, by indicating the priorities and importance, including the procedure of implementing each project, and their approval by the JCC and potential donors.
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Annex 3 To Protocol # 5 of the JCC Session dated July 19, 1995, Tbilisi
DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT On the Actions to be taken for Activating the Return of Refugees from North Ossetia –Alania to Internal Regions of Georgia
1. Assign the workgroup (Commission) to continue and end, until September 1, 1996, the work on specification of lists of refugees and consideration of points at issue arising in the process of making decisions about return of refugees.
2. The joint workgroup (Commission), with the participation of representatives of local organs of management, shall carry out re-checking of living (housing) conditions of refugees for the purpose of starting the process of their return to their previous residence.
3. Ask the Commission of the OSCE in Georgia to participate in this work together with the workgroup (Commission), as well as members of the Commission, in order to render practical assistance to returned refugees. At the same time, attract other international organizations to be involved in resolving the problem.
4. Government of Georgia and South-Ossetia with the cooperation of Russian Federations migration office must elaborate and adopt the plan for returning of the refugees from the South Ossetia to the internal regions of Georgia.
On behalf of the Russian side            
On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian Side        
On behalf of the North Ossetian side
In the presence of: the OSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)

Annex 4 To Protocol #5 of the JCC Session dated July 19-20, 1995 Tskhinvali
DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT
On Implementing Decision of the JCC on the JPKF
The JCC for the Georgian-Ossetian conflict settlement resolved:
Take into consideration the information of Major General A. Gerasimov, the member of the JCC, about implementation of decisions of the JCC on military issues.
Assign the workgroup under the leadership of Major General A. Gerasimov  and with the participation of the Commander of the JCC and the representative of the Mission of the OSCE in Georgia, to develop the strategic plan for the future activities of the JCC and present this plan to the JCC.
On behalf of the Russian side            On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian Side        On behalf of the North Ossetian side
In the presence of: the OSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


Annex 4 To Protocol #5 of the JCC Session dated July 19-20, 1995 Tskhinvali
DECISION OF THE JOINT CONTROL COMMISSION (JCC) FOR THE GEORGIAN-OSSETIAN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT
On Implementing Decision of the JCC on the JPKF
The JCC for the Georgian-Ossetian conflict settlement resolved:
Take into consideration the information of Major General A. Gerasimov, the member of the JCC, about implementation of decisions of the JCC on military issues.
Assign the workgroup under the leadership of Major General A. Gerasimov  and with the participation of the Commander of the JCC and the representative of the Mission of the OSCE in Georgia, to develop the strategic plan for the future activities of the JCC and present this plan to the JCC.
On behalf of the Russian side            On behalf of the Georgian side
On behalf of the South Ossetian Side        On behalf of the North Ossetian side
In the presence of: the OSCE Mission
(Archive of the Staff of the State Minister of Georgia for Conflict Resolution Issues/in Russian)


PROTOCOL on Georgian-Abkhaz conflict settlement (draft)
Representatives of Georgian and Abkhaz sides, under the mediation of representatives of Russian Federation, held negotiations on implementation of basic provisions of "Statement on measures aimed at political settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, dated 4 April, 1994" and
Desiring to put an end to the dividing conflict and restore state-legal relations, to reestablish peaceful coexistence, mutual respect that dates back for centuries,
Convinced that it is high time to put an end to the heave legacy of the past and to embark upon the road leading to peace and prosperity, believing that it is high time to treat one another with dignity and mutual tolerance and start building our common future in the spirit of compromise and reconciliation.
Taking care of establishment of civil peace, inter-ethnic concord and security of nations, realizing fundamental human rights and freedoms of citizens, irrespective of their nationality, religion, place of residence and other differences,
Believing that only through pooling together our efforts it will be possible to solve difficult economic problems and embark on the road leading to prosperity,
Committing themselves not to allow resumption of violence, which had brought immense sufferings and human casualties,
have agreed upon the following:
1. The Parties take commitments not to resort to arms and under no circumstances allow resumption of hostilities and bloodshed. Any differences shall be resolved exclusively by peaceful means of negotiations and consultations with the support and under the mediation of the Russian Federation, under the aegis of the United Nations, with participation of the OSCE and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
2. The Parties declare about their consent to live in an unitary federative state within the borders of the former Georgian SSR. Relations between the Parties shall be regulated by a constitutional law.
3. Foreign policy and foreign economic links, determination and implementation of defense policy, protection of state border, federal budget, energy sector, transport, custom service, protection of human rights and civil freedoms, ethnic minorities rights; ecology and liquidation of consequences of natural disasters; prevention of epidemics and liquidation of their consequences; meteorology service; standards,  etalons, metric system and time standards shall be under the competence of federal authorities.
Competence of federal authorities can be expanded upon agreement between the Parties.
4. Within the framework of agreed upon competence, an federative body (parliament) shall be created, decision of which shall be legally binding on the whole territory of the federative state. The Abkhaz side shall have in advance agreed upon number of seats in the federative legislative body.
Decisions of the federative legislative body on issues directly relating to Abkhazia shall be of legal force if there are adopted by simple or qualified majority of deputies from Abkhazia, depending on whether these decisions are adopted by simple or qualified majority of the federative legislative body.
Procedure of making decisions on moot questions whether this or that issue is directly related to Abkhazia, shall be a subject of future negotiations.
5. The federal state shall be presented as a unified entity in international relations, including membership in international organizations. International treaties, concluded by the unitary federative state within its competence, shall be mandatory for Abkhazia.
Within the framework of its exclusive competence, Abkhazia shall be entitled to conclude international agreements, about which it shall inform relevant federative bodies.
6. The process of organized return of refugees and internally displaced persons shall be resumed in accordance with the quart partite agreement of April 4, 1994.
For organization of works aimed at return of refugees, a special working group composed of representatives of the Parties and the Russian Federation and the  UNHCR , shall be set up.
The working group shall start its activities beginning from …August 1995 and within two weeks aftermath, and in accordance with a action plan adopted by the working group, the process of organized return of refugees to places of their permanent residence, first of all to the Gali region, shall start.
The Abkhaz side, alongside the working group and the UNHCR shall register those refugees who have already returned in a chaotic manner.
The Abkhaz sides reiterates its responsibility to guarantee security of returning refugees and internally displaced persons.
Tangible measures aimed at guaranteeing equal rights for all people residing in Abkhazia irrespective of their nationality, religion and other affiliations.
The Georgia side shall take effective measures aimed at prevention of infiltration into Abkhazia any armed formations  and individuals posed to carry out terrorist and subversive acts in the Gali region.
The Parties reconfirm, that the operation aimed at maintaining peace and carried out by the CIS collective peace-keeping forces in  the conflict zone, must contribute to the speedy and safely return of refugees and internally displaced persons to the regions of their previous residence.
On behalf of the Georgian Side …                          
On behalf of the Abkhaz Side…
In the presence of
the Russian Federation …   
the United Nations
the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
 " …"     1995
1995.07.24
(Personal Archive of Academician Levan Aleksidze/in Russian)


CONSTITUTION OF GEORGIA
(...)
Article 1
1. Georgia is an independent, unified and indivisible law-based state, ratified by the referendum carried out on March 31, 1991 throughout the territory of the country, including the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and the former auton omous district of South Ossetia and further adduced by the act of April 9th, 1991 restoring the independence of the Georgian state.
Article 2
1. The territory of the Georgian state is determined by the circumstances of the country on December 21st, 1991. The territorial integrity of Georgia and the inviolability of state borders is confirmed and recognised by the Constitution and the laws of Georgia and also by the international community and international organisations.
2. The alienation of the territory of Georgia is forbidden. Changes to the state borders are possible only through bilateral agreement with neighbouring states.
3. The internal territorial arrangement of Georgia is determined by the Constitution on the basis of the principle of division of power after the full restoration of the jurisdiction of Georgia over the whole territory of the country.
4. The citizens of Georgia regulate matters of local importance through local self-government as long as it does not encroach upon national sovereignty. The procedure for the creation of self-governing bodies and their powers and relationship with stat e bodies, is determined by organic law.
Article 3
1. The Georgian supreme national bodies have exclusive power to administer:
a. legislation on Georgian citizenship, human rights and freedoms, emigration and immigration, entrance to and departure from the country, temporarily or permanently resident foreign nationals and stateless persons, within the territory of Georgia;
b. the status and administration of boundaries and their protection; the status of territorial waters, airspace, the continental shelf and special economic zones and their defence;
c. national defence and security; military forces, military/ industrial production and the arms trade;
d. the issues of war and cessation of hostilities; the determination of the existence of and the introduction of a state of emergency or martial law;
e. foreign policy and international relations;
f. custom and tariff regimes and foreign trade;
g. state finances and state loans; the minting of money; legislation on banking, credit , insurance and taxes;
h. standards and measurements; geodesy and cartography; time and state statistics;
i. a unified system of energy; communications; the merchant fleet; flags of ships; harbours of state importance; airports and airfields; the control of airspace; transit and air transport; registration of air transport; meteorological services and a system of environmental protection;
j. railways and roads of importance to the whole state;
k. fishing in oceans and the high sea;
l. boundary-sanitary cordon;
m. legislation on pharmaceutical medicines;
n. certification and accreditation of secondary and high schools, legislation on academic, scientific and professional titles and honours;
o. legislation on intellectual property;
p. legislation on trade, criminal law, civil law, administrative and labour law; legislation on a criminal procedure and other legal proceedings;
r. police and criminal investigation;
s. legislation on land, minerals and natural resources.
2. Matters relating to joint federal administration will be determined separately.
Article 4
1. When conditions are appropriate and self-government bodies have been established throughout the territory of Georgia, Parliament shall be formed with two chambers: the Council of the Republic and the Senate.
2. The Council of Georgia consists of members elected by proportional representation.
3. The Senate consists of members elected from Abkhazia, Adjaria and other territorial units of Georgia as well as five members appointed by the President.
4. The composition, powers and procedures for election to the chambers are determined by organic law.
Article 8
The state language of Georgia is Georgian; in Abkhazia, Abkhazian is also the state language.
(...)
Citizenship of Georgia. Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms.
Article 12
1. Citizenship is conferred by birth or by naturalisation.
2. A citizen of Georgia may not simultaneously be a citizen of another country.
(…)
The Parliament of Georgia
Article 55
1. The Parliament of Georgia for the term of its authority, in accordance to the rules determined by its procedure, elects the Chairman and the Deputy Chairmen of the Parliament, by secret ballot among them one from Abkhazian and one from Adjarian Members of Parliament by their nomination.
Article 65
1. The Parliament of Georgia ratifies treaties and international agreements, rejects or abrogates them by the majority of the total number of Parliament.
2. Treaties and international agreements which require ratification by their terms, must be ratified as well as any treaty and international agreements which:
a. envisages entrance into an international organisation or into inter-state unity;
b. is of a military character;
c. concerns the territorial integrity of the state or the changing of the state’s borders;
Article 67
1. The right to initiate legislation is vested in the President, a Member of Parliament, a Parliamentary Faction, a committee of Parliament, the supreme representative bodies of Abkhazia and Adjaria or not less than 30 000 electors.
(...)
The President of Georgia.
Article 69
1. The President of Georgia is the Head of State and exercises executive power.
(…)
Article 73
1. The President of Georgia:
g. in the case of war, massive disorder, violation of territorial integrity of the country, military coup, armed insurrection, ecological disaster or epidemic or in other cases when bodies of the state are deprived of their authority - declares a state of emergency throughout the whole territory of the state or its parts and submits it to Parliament within forty eight hours for approval. In the case of a state of emergency, the President is authorized to issue decrees with the power of law and take special measures. The decrees are submitted to the Parliament when it gathers. Emergency authorities extend only on the territory where the emergency is declared for the reasons mentioned in this item;
h. halts or dismisses the activity of representative bodies of local self-government, or territorial units if their activity endangers the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country or the exercise of Constitutional authority of state authorities within the country;
(...)
The Judiciary
Article 83
1. The legal body for Constitutional supervision is the Constitutional Court of Georgia. Its authority, rights of creation and activity are determined by the Constitution and organic law.
(…)
Article 89
1. The Constitutional Court of Georgia upon the Complaints or Submission of the President, of not less than one fifth of the Members of Parliament, of the courts, of supreme representative bodies of Abkhazia and Adjaria, of the public defenders or of a citizen and under the rules established by organic law:
a. decides the Constitutionality of the law, the President’s normative acts and the normative acts of the supreme bodies of authority of Abkhazia and Adjaria;
(…)
24 August 1995
(www.parliament.ge)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on partial changes to the Decree issued by the Government of the Russian Federation of 19 December 1994 #1394 “on temporary measures of restriction of border crossing of the Russian Federation with the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia”
The government of the Russian Federation decrees:
1. In the course of partial changes to the Decree issued by the Government of the Russian Federation of 19 December 1994 #1394 “on temporary measures of restriction of border crossing of the Russian Federation with the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia” … to allow the ministry of Transport of the Ru­­­ssian Federation to open maritime cargoes transportation between the Seaport of Tuapse of the Russian Federation and the Seaport of Batumi of the Republic of Georgia.
2. The Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation, the State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation with interaction with the Ministry of Interior of the Russian Federation shall secure the relevant border, customs and other types of control at the Seaport Tuapse.
Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation V. Chernomirdin
26 August 1995
(Collection of the legislation of the RF, 1995, # 36, p. 6650-6651)  


LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on the election of the Parliament of Georgia
(…)
Transitional Provisions
Article 2.
a) Citizens elected from Abkhazia as a result of the 1992 elections, who are members of the Parliament of Georgia by the time of the enforcement of this Law, shall have their mandate as members of the Parliament extended. As soon as elections for Parliament are held in the single mandate districts of Abkhazia and the authority of those members are acknowledged, the mandate of a Member of Parliament who had extended authority shall be terminated;
b) If a Member of Parliament, as prescribed by Subparagraph a) of this Article, is registered as a candidate for a Member of Parliament, his or her mandate shall not be extended.
Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia - Head of State Ed. Shevardnadze
Speaker of the parliament of Georgia V. Goguadze
1 September, 1995
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika”, # 117, 7 September 1995)


PROTOCOL OF THE METING OF REPRESENTATIVES OF GEORGIA, SOUTH OSSETIA, THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND NORTH OSSETIA WITH PARTICIPATION OF THE OSCE on Comprehensive Settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict
On 30 October 1995, in Vladikavkaz, meeting between representatives of Georgia, South Ossetia, Russian Federation and North Ossetia took place (see attached list of participants). During the meeting, an issue of organizing regular negotiation process aimed at comprehensive settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
The parties agreed to start a negotiation process immediately. To this end, the expert groups of the parties were assigned a task to elaborate and put forward their proposals on the following issues:
- Measures and guarantees of security;
- Restoration and strengthening of mutual trust between the parties to the conflict;
- Economic recovery and reestablishment of normal business links;
- Status of South Ossetia;
Wording of the South Ossetian side on this issue: state-legal aspects of settlement of the South Ossetian conflict;
- On other issues relating to comprehensive settlement of the conflict between the Parties.
The Parties deem it possible for members of their parliaments to take part in the negotiation process aimed at comprehensive settlement of the conflict.
To discuss results of work of the expert groups during the next meeting to be held between the Parties.
On behalf of the Georgian Delegation I. Menagarishvili
On behalf of the Russian Delegation N. Medvedev
On behalf of the South Ossetian Delegatio V. Gabaraev.
On behalf of the North Ossetian Delegation G. Jikaev
On behalf of the OSCE D. Boden
(Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia)


DECREE  ISSUED BY THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA on Acknowledgment of Mandates of Members of the Parliament
Having considered report submitted by the ad hoc Mandate Commission of the Parliament of Georgia, the Parliament of Georgia decrees:
1. To acknowledge mandate of 211 Members of Parliament elected on 5 and 19 November 1995.
2. To endorse mandate of 12 Members of Parliament elected in Abkhazia in the elections to the Parliament of Georgia in 1992.
(…)
Chairman of the Central Electoral Commission of Georgia I. Kighuradze
25 November 1995
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika”, #  177, 30 November 1995)



THE REGIONALISM RESEARCH CENTRE
















REGIONAL CONFLICTS IN GEORGIA – THE AUTONOMOUS OBLAST OF SOUTH OSSETIA, THE AUTONOMOUS SSR OF ABKHAZIA (1989-2006).
THE COLLECTION OF POLITICAL-LEGAL ACTS




Author
Tamaz Diasamidze

Translator and Editor
Nana Chkoidze-Japaridze




The collection was prepared and published by the financial
support  of  “Open Society - Georgia Foundation”and of the Delegation of European Commission to Georgia and Armenia






Tbilisi
2006




The author of this collection is immensely grateful to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia, the Staff of the Ministry of Special Affairs, the National Library of Georgia, the Archive of the Parliament of Georgia, the Central State Archive of the Recent History of Georgia, the OSCE Mission to Georgia, the Office of Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General to Georgia, the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz Autonomous Republic (in exile), the State Library of the Russian Federation, and the Scientific Library of the Republic of North Ossetia for rendering support in the course of preparation of this collection.
The Regionalism Research Centre owes a special thanks to the “Open Society - Georgia Foundation” for making possible to prepare and publish this Collection.



© The Collection has been prepared and published by the Regionalism Research Centre



The Regionalism Research Centre will be very grateful to any comments
or proposals  regarding the Collection.



© All rights reserved





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Publishing House “GCI”
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ISBN 99928-21-03-5














This is the second, completed edition of collection issued by us in May 2003 under the same title. The second edition has been enriched by 210 new documents and its chronological area has been expended to 2006.
The collection is composed of 586 most important political-legal acts arranged in chronological order reflecting the process of conflicts in the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia in 1989-2006 and activities directed at finding solutions to these conflicts. These documents are:
1. Acts issued by the Authorities of autonomous regions, aimed at regionalisation, political decentralization, cessation from the State with a view of further strengthening the sovereignty of these regions;
2. Acts issued by the Georgian Authorities and Governmental organs, aimed at strengthening the State sovereignty and territorial integrity of Georgia;
3. Decisions and resolutions made by States (the USSR, RSFSR, RF, Subjects of Rf, USA) and international and regional organizations (the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, European Union, CIS);
4. Bilateral and multilateral agreements related to settlement of the conflicts;
5. Other important documents related to the aforementioned problems.
Many documents presented in the collection have been subjected to minor abbreviations-emphasis has been put on those articles, chapters and paragraphs that most clearly and potently reflect the major goal of the collection and the essence of the documents themselves.     
The principle goal of the collection is to make available for the international community the political-legal information (knowledge) relating to and reflecting regional conflicts existing in Georgia; to provide unbiased and comprehensive coverage of the developments of conflicts unfolded in these two regions of Georgia and conflict settlement process, result of those steps to that direction, undertaken by the Sides to the conflicts and regional and international organizations.
This edition, which does not claim do be perfect, is expected to promote and contribute to the process of creation of appropriate and correct public opinion about the conflicts and help the process of making just and effective decisions aimed at the conflicts’ settlement.
                                Tamaz Diasamidze













1989
DECREE # 343 ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE GEORGIAN SSR
1. Due to the extraordinary situation established at Abkhaz State University, to comply with the request of Georgian professors, lecturers and students regarding establishment of Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University.
2. To entrust the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR (Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic - edit.) with a task of providing the premises to the branch.
3. To ask the Rector of Tbilisi State University Comr. (Comrade - the Soviet Stile to address a person - edit) N.S. Amaglobeli for arrangement the branch and renewal of the educational process at all faculties from 15 May of this year.
4. To entrust the Ministry of Education of the Georgian SSR with the task of exercising efficient control on the implementation of all raised issues.
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR O. Kvilitaya
Tbilisi, 14 May 1989
(Abkhaz Issue in Official Documents, Legislative and Executive organs of Georgia, International Organiza-tions, 1989-1999, part I, 1989-1995, authors: Vakhtang Kholbaia, Teimuraz Chakhrakia, Rafiel Gelantia, David Latsuzbaia, Tb., 2000, p. 51/in Georgia)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR  on substantive exacerbation of the inter ethnic relations in the Abkhaz ASSR on account of unlawful attempt to establish Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR notes that continuation of existence temporarily established Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University (TSU) evoked firm protest of a wide public and substantively exacerbated inter-ethnic relations in the autonomous republic.
Abkhaz Obcom (Oblast /District/ Committee -edit) of the Communist Party of Georgia, the Presidium and the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, assessing the established situation as extremely complicated, fraught with unpredictable consequences, have appealed to the leadership of Party and Soviet organs of the Union Republic (The Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR -edit.) and the Country (the USSR - edit) with request to suspend the operation of the TSU branch established through separation of Georgian sector from A. Gorkiy Abkhaz State University (AGU) that will adversely affect to the educational process of the students and centuries-old Georgian and Abkhaz friendship, as well as representatives of other nationalities, those who live and work in peace on the Abkhaz soil.
Meanwhile the Party and Soviet organs of the autonomous republic have taken several steps to unite the separated Georgian sector with the AGU.
Thus, on 26 June of this year the Abkhaz Obcom of the Communist party of Georgia, Presidium of the Supreme Council and Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR discussed the issue on worsening of public and political situation in the Abkhaz ASSR on account of the condition established at Abkhaz State University.  It was noted that against the background of complicated public and political situation in the autonomous republic, the separation of Georgian sector from AGU and establishment of Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University became the most pressing problem.  That was a forcible measure taken last May due to extraordinary situation established at AGU and in the autonomous Republic.  The Decree stresses: division of Abkhaz State University is inadmissible in respect to education of students and youth in the spirit of internationalism.  Here also is mentioned that the measures undertaken by Party and Soviet organs of Abkhazia had failed to stabilize the situation.  The adopted Decree raised the issue before the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Georgian SSR, Presidium of the Supreme Council and Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR to assist in immediate regulation of the situation in order to unite the State University.
However, these attempts turned into futile effort as they were discouraged by the erroneous Decree #343p of 14 May 1989 issued by the First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR on establishment of Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University and also by the Order #101 of 14 May 1989 of the Rector of TSU.
In the meantime the society has learnt from press and official correspondence that in May of this year the Committee on State Education of the USSR has got a proposal from the Ministry of Education of the Georgian SSR concerning establishment of Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University on the basis of Georgian sector at AGU.  The branch was aimed at educating of Georgian students.  However the Committee on State Education of the USSR found inexpedient to support the proposal of the Ministry of Education of the Georgian SSR on establishment of Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University.  Moreover, pursuant to the Resolution, #816 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 2 September 1982 – the issue on establishment of branches of the high-education institutions is exclusively within the competence of the Council of Ministers of the USSR.
The similar assessment has been done to the establishment of branch of Tbilisi State University by the Commission of the Supreme Council of the USSR, comprising of four People’s Deputies of the USSR, which studied the issue in Abkhazia from 3 to 10 of July of 1989.  The First Deputy Chairman of the Committee on State Education also was included in the Commission. Having examined carefully the situation at AGU the commission released the following conclusion: “The Decree issued by the First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR on establishment of Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University can be considered as an interim measure to handle educational process.  Today this measure has become outdated and practically hinders the educational process, discourages the strengthening of inter-ethnic relations and moreover, pursuant to the regulation - the final decision on such issues is within the authority of the Council of Ministers of the USSR.  The Commission officially informed the leadership of the Georgian SSR about its position ”.  The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR considers that lack of consultation with the leading organs of the Abkhaz ASSR and transparency (“glasnost”), overt negative political, social and economic aspects of the decision on establishment of Sukhumi branch on the basis of Abkhaz State University –is an alien ideology to the Lenin’s policy of the Communist party of the USSR.  Such policy leads into secluded and separated society that doesn’t correspond to the spirit of Perestroika and reforms.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council notes that the practice of neglecting the constitutional rights of the Abkhaz ASSR tolerated by certain officials of the Council of Ministers and Ministry of Public Education of the Georgian SSR and also by the rector of Tbilisi State University came to glaring contradiction with the provisions of the Resolution of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR “on Major Directions of Internal and Foreign policy of the USSR”.  Aforementioned officials not only breached the state order, but completely ignored the noted Decree of the Supreme body of the State power that reads: “Qualitative renewal of the whole educational system is a key priority to the promotion of intellectual potential of the society”.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR cannot accept such separatist acts and condemns the of the part of AGU personnel aimed at establishment of the branch of Tbilisi State University on the basis of Abkhaz State University as well as epatage conduct of citizens regardless their ethnic affiliation.  It’s inadmissible when practical, reasonable and peaceful dialog is replaced with wretched trick and conduct that deteriorates common norms and rules and destabilizes operation of enterprises, institutions and organizations.
In this strained situation fraught with serious inter-ethnic conflict, the Presidium of the Supreme Council finds inadmissible the establishment of the branch of Tbilisi State University in Sukhumi and considers that the Decree issued by the First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR shall be abolished.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To ask the Council of Ministers of the USSR to entrust the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR with the following tasks:
- to annul unlawful decree issued by the First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR O. Kvilitaia # 343p of 14 May 1989 on establishment of Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University;
- to recall unlawful proposal of the Ministry of Public Education of the Georgian SSR sent in May last year to the Committee of the State Education of the USSR on establishment of Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University on the basis of Georgian sector of Abkhaz State University;
- to annul Order #101 of 7 July 1989 issued by the Rector of Tbilisi State University, academician N. Amaglobeli on arrangement in Tbilisi of entrance examinations for Sukhumi branch of Tbilisi State University on 20 July;
II. City and district councils of the People’s deputies, labour collectives, press and media and administrative agencies shall carry out decisive measures to stabilize the situation and prevent the breach of work and public order, as well as confrontation between different nationalities; They shall base the informational activity on the Resolution of the Congress of People’s Deputies of the USSR “on Major Direction of the Internal and Foreign Policy of the USSR” and the speech delivered by the Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the USSR M.S. Gorbachev on Central TV that was published in press on 1 July of this year.
III.  This Decree shall be sent to the Central Committee of the Communist party of the Georgian SSR, the Presidium of the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR; the Decree shall be published in press.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz SSR V. Kobakhia
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz SSR Y. Kvitsinia
15 July 1989
(Chumalov M.Y. Abkhazskiy Uzel, II issue, M., 1995, p. 190-193)   


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE USSR on events in the Abkhaz ASSR
Deeply concerned at the situation established in Abkhazia, the Supreme Council of the USSR decrees:
To entrust the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Ministry of Interior of the USSR with the task of taking immediate and decisive measures in order to restore the public order and secure socialist lawfulness and firm protection of the population.
The Supreme council of the USSR offers to the People’s Deputies of the USSR from the Georgian SSR and Abkhaz ASSR to call on their constituencies to the restoration of public order by peaceful means respecting the principles of internationalism and friendship of the Soviet Peoples.
The Supreme Council of the USSR recognizes as necessary the immediate restoration of traffic along the Transcaucasus railway in order to remove critical conditions hampering supply of the population, sustainable operation of enterprises and institutions and delivery of tourists to the holiday centers.
The Supreme Council of the USSR appeals to all citizens residing on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR – Abkhazs, Georgians, and other nationalities to facilitate the process of stabilization, establish peace and trust and make possible to live and work peacefully.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the USSR M. Gorbachev.
17 July 1989
(Bulletin of the Peoples’ Deputies Congress of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR, M., 1989, # 7, p. 257)


DECREE  ISSUED BY THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF GEORGIA, THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIAN SSR AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on the State Programme of the Georgian Language
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, and the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR decree:
1. To endorse the elaborated and supported by the wider society the State Programme of the Georgian Language.
2. To entrust all the Party, Soviet, economic, administrative and societal organizations of the Republic with a task of ensuring full and timely implementation of all measures envisaged by the State Programme of the Georgian Language.
3. Within two months, all organizations to be engaged in the implementation of the aforementioned Programme shall elaborate and submit concrete proposals to the Council of Ministers of Georgia, as well as timetable of implementation of those proposals.
4. To entrust the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR and the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR with a task of exercising control over the implementation of this decree.
Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia G. Gumbaridze
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR O. Cherkezia
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR  N. Chitanava
15 August 1989.
(Newspaper “Comunisti”, # 196, 25 August 1989)


The State Programme of the Georgian Language
Constitutional Status of the Georgian Language
1. To guarantee the Constitutional status of the Georgian language, as of the State language, in all Party, Soviet, administrative, scientific-educational, cultural, economic enterprises, and societal organizations of the Georgian SSR.
2. To set up a commission that shall be entrusted with a task of exercising control over proper application and functioning of the Georgian language, as of the State language, and shall be attached to the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR.
3. To set up a permanent State Commission on Georgian Literary Language that shall be entrusted with a task of exercising control over proper functioning of the Georgian literary language and protect its purity and shall be attached to the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR. The Commission shall work out effective measures aimed at introducing of norms of the Georgian literary language.
4. To set up a supervisory and consultative commissions on proper application and protection of purity of the Georgian language in all cities, towns and regional centers. The Commission shall be attached to local executive committees of the Peoples’ Deputies.
5. To secure and organize the creation and publication of all types of scientific and educational literature (including dissertation papers) in Georgian language.
6. To create favorable conditions in all enterprises and establishments (financial and educational-methodological provision) for learning Georgian language by those citizens residing in Georgia that have no command of Georgian. Georgian.
( …)
III. Teaching of the Georgian Language and Literature in Pre-School Establishments, Secondary Schools and Institutions of High Education.
1. To work out special programme of oral Georgian for all age groups of pre-school establishments and publish adequate literature and demonstrative materials in Georgian language.
2. To create revised Georgian language educational programme, curriculum and textbooks for those Pedagogical institutions and special colleges providing training for future teachers of pre-school establishments.
5. To work out a unified plan of step-by-step teaching of the Georgian language in the 1-11th grades of the secondary schools (writing skills and speaking, phonetics, basics of the Georgian grammar, basics of stylistics and vocabulary of Georgian language, and main principles of linguistic theory).
7. To set up special studies of Georgian language and literature in all secondary schools, vocational and secondary-special educational establishments of the Republic and supply these studies with the most recent scientific and pedagogical literature and textbooks.
8. To set up faculties of Georgian language and literature in all high education establishments of Georgia and introduce survey course of the spoken Georgian language and history of the literary Georgian language for all students.
9. To introduce mandatory written and oral exams in Georgian language for those high-school entrants seeking studentship in humanitarian faculties of high education institutions of the Republic. To introduce mandatory written exam in Georgian language and literature for those high-school entrants seeking studentship in the Art Academy, theatrical institutions and conservatoire, as well as for those who seek studentship of scientific and technical faculties.
13. To work out concrete proposals on introduction of mandatory classes of Georgian language in non-Georgian schools of the Republic.
14. To introduce the courses of practical stylistics and history of literature of the Georgian language into the non-Georgian sectors of philology faculties of the high education establishments of the Georgian SSR.
23. To set up special training courses of Georgian language for those who are interested in learning the Georgian language. Those courses shall be attached to different cultural-educational establishments (clubs, libraries) and shall be provided with teachers of high qualification.
IV. Radio, Television and Cinematography
4. In order to secure replication in Georgian language of non-Georgian language programmes (analytical programmes, talk shows, feature movies) it is vital to further strengthen material-technical base of the Georgian TV and Radio.
5. To create educational films in Georgian language for the high education establishments and secondary schools of the Republic and secure replication in Georgian language of the Russian-language films.
6. To further strengthen material-technical base of the cinema studio “Georgian Film” in order to secure creation of Georgian subtitles to Russian and foreign language films.
VIII. Printing materials
4. To print and publish dictionaries and phrase books (Russian-Georgian and Georgian-Russian, Abkhaz-Georgian and Georgian-Abkhaz, Ossetian-Georgian and Georgian-Ossetian, … Armenian-Georgian and Georgian-Armenian, Azerbaijani-Georgian and Georgian-Azerbaijani).
20. To print for those willing to learn Georgian manuals for self-tuition.
X. Daily life and Information sphere
1. To secure wide and maximum application of the Georgian language in a daily life and mass media.
2. To issue in Georgian language for wide-spread application all forms, slips, work sheets, receipts, subscription forms, stubs, tickets, advertisement boards, labels, price-tags, placards, posters, mottoes, envelops, dispatch forms, invitation and congratulation post-cards, calendars, identification card; note-books, booklets; advertisement and memorable leaflets; invitation cards.
3. To guarantee that all products produced in Georgia have Georgian- language application instructions.
4. To exercise control on labeling all products produced in Georgia.
(…)
15 August 1989.
(Newspaper “Comunisti”, # 196, 25 August 1989)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SOUTH OSSETIAN OBLAST COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF GEORGIA AND ISPOLCOM OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN OBLAST COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF 4 SEPTEMBER 1989 on State Programme for Development of the Ossetian Language
The South Ossetian Obcom of the Communist Party of Georgia and the Ispolcom of the People’s Deputies of the Oblast decree:
1. To endorse the elaborated and supported by the wider society of the Oblast the state programme for development of the Ossetian language.
2. To entrust all the Party, Soviet, economic, administrative and societal organizations of the Oblast with a task of ensuring full and timely implementation of all measures set out in the programme of development of the Ossetian language.
3. Within two months, all organizations to be engaged in the implementation of the aforementioned Programme shall elaborate and submit concrete proposals to the Ispolcom of the Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies, as well as timetable of implementation of those proposals.
4. To raise the issue before the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia, Presidium of the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR on consideration the relevant changes in the paragraph 1 of the State Programme of Development of the Georgian language pursuant to the law of the Georgian SSR “on the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast” and the programme of development of the Ossetian language, and also on non-proliferation the Paragraphs 9 and 14 over the university entrants from the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
5. To introduce for discussion the state programme on development of the Ossetian language to the Session of the Oblast Council of the people’s Deputies.
6. The secretariat of the Obcom and Ispolcom of the Oblast Council of People’s Deputies shall exercise the control on the implementation of this Decree.
Secretary of the South Ossetian Obcom of the communist party of Georgia A. Chekhoev
Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies A. Kachmazov
4 September 1989
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 170, 5 September 1989)


State programme for development of the Ossetian language
I. Constitutional status of the Ossetian language
1. In the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast state languages are Ossetian, Georgian and Russian, as the language for international relations.  To activate the functioning of the Ossetian language within the Party, Soviet, administrative, scientific, educational and economic organizations, enterprises and institutions of the Oblast.
2. To set up standing committee on the Ossetian Language attached to the Oblispolcom…
3. To assist in arrangement of the education in native language for the Ossetian population residing outside of the Oblast.  Where such practice is not possible, the teaching of Ossetian language and literature shall be considered as a separate school-subject.  In order to implement the aforementioned measures, the staff of experts on the Ossetian language and literature shall be considered at the divisions of the public education of concerned districts and cities of the Georgian SSR.
6. To set up committees on consultations and exercising the control on the functioning of the state programme for the development of the Ossetian language attached to the city and district Ispolcoms of the Councils of People’s Deputies.
III. Teaching of the Ossetian language to the Ossetian children at pre-school establishments.
1. To shift the educational process at pre-school establishments in Ossetian language for the children of Ossetian nationality.
7. To conduct step-by-step transition of teaching in Ossetian language at primary schools of cities and districts for the children of Ossetian nationality.To hold the public referendum on this issue.
10. To introduce the optional teaching of Ossetian language at Georgian schools and Georgian language at Ossetian schools from the fifth grade.
11. To introduce the teaching of the Ossetian language at all faculties of the pedagogical Institute of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast (PISO), high schools and vocational establishments of the Oblast.
12. To introduce the entrants’ interview in Ossetian language at the Pedagogical Institute of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast for all Ossetian-speaking entrants.
13. To consider the certain preferential terms for the entrants the PISO, residing in the villages outside of the Oblast.
18. To negotiate the issue with the leadership of the North Ossetian Autonomous Republic on reservation at the high schools of the autonomous Republic the certain number of seats for the Ossetian entrants from the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and from other regions of the Georgian SSR too.
IV. Radio and television.
1. To control the process of preparation and organization of broadcasting in the South Ossetia.
a) To speed up the process of construction of the TV center in the Oblast;
(…)
3. To raise the issue before the Committee on Radio and TV Broadcast of the Georgian SSR on the following:
a) increase of time of broadcasting in the Ossetian language in the Oblast;
(…)
4. To find the technical capacity to receive the radio and TV transmission from the South Ossetian autonomous Republic
(…)
4 September 1989
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 170, 5 September 1989)


DECESION OF THE 11TH SESSION OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN OBLAST COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE 20TH CONVOCATION on the information of the first Deputy Chairman of the South Ossetian Oblispolcom Comr. Sanakoev M.G., the chairman of the working group on summarizing the amendments, changes, proposals and remarks to be included in the laws of the Georgian SSR, the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and the law of the Georgian SSR on election of the people’s deputies of the Georgian SSR and the People’s Deputies of the local councils of the Georgian SSR.
1. To endorse the information of Comr. Sanakoev M.G. on this issue.
To raise the issue before the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR on entering on the draft Constitution the amendments and changes proposed in the information.
2. To add the following sentence to Article 75 of the constitution of the Georgian SSR: “In the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast the State language is Ossetian”.
26 September 1989
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 188, 28 September 1989)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE OBLAST COMMITTEE OF ABKHAZIA, PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on the state programme for development of the Abkhaz language
The Abkhaz Oblast Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia, Presidium of the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR decree:
1. To endorse the elaborated and supported by the wider society of the Autonomous Republic the State programme for Development of the Abkhaz language.
2. To entrust all the Party, Soviet, economic, administrative and societal organizations of the autonomous republic with a task of ensuring full and timely implementation of all measures set out in the programme of development of the Abkhaz language.
3. By the end of 1989, all organizations to be engaged in the implementation of the aforementioned Programme shall elaborate and submit concrete proposals to the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, as well as timetable of implementation of those proposals.
4. Abkhaz Obcom of the Communist Party of Georgia, Presidium of the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR shall exercise control on the implementation of this decree.
Abkhaz Obcom of the Communist Party of Georgia
Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR
Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR
10 October 1989
(Newspaper “Sovetskaya Abkhazia”, # 202, 20 October 1989)


State programme on development of the Abkhaz Language
I. Constitutional status of the Abkhaz Language
1.  To secure the overall development and functioning of the Abkhaz language as a state language in all spheres of state, economic and public life, in organizations, agencies and institutions of the autonomous republic.
3. To establishment the necessary conditions for representatives of all nationalities residing in the Abkhaz Autonomous Republic for learning the Abkhaz language.
5. To set up a Commission attached to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR aimed at exercising control on the functioning of the Abkhaz language as a state language.
6. To establishment the Standing Commission of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR responsible for the realization of the state programme, for development of the Abkhaz language and exercising control on functioning and development of the Abkhaz literary language.
II. Scientific study of the Abkhaz language
(…)
14. Origination and publishing of guidebooks for the Abkhaz office-language.
(…)
III.  Teaching of the Abkhaz language
7. Editing and publishing the language textbooks for the primary schools.
15. Establishment of necessary conditions in non-Abkhaz schools of the autonomous republic for those willing to learn Abkhaz language.
18. Editing and publishing of the curriculum and textbooks on history and geography of Abkhazia and compulsory teaching of these subjects.
25. Elaboration of proposals for reorganization of Abkhaz division of the scientific-research pedagogical union subordinated to the Ministry of the Public Education of the Georgian SSR into the independent scientific-research Institute of Pedagogical Sciences subordinated to the Ministry of the Public Education of the Abkhaz ASSR.
37. Arrangement of two-year Abkhaz language training courses at the Abkhaz State University.
IV. Radio and TV broadcasting. Press
2. Increase of TV and radio channel capacities in Abkhazia in order to provide the broadcasting across the whole territory of Abkhazia.
(…)
VI.  International service and service sphere
1. Firm observance of issuing three-language letterheads, labels, banners, directories, and price tags.
2. Publishing in Abkhaz language the invitation and congratulation post-cards, posters, slogans, advertising boards and memorable booklets.
3. Exercising the control on labeling all products produced in the Abkhaz ASSR.
4. Securing the functioning of the Abkhaz language in the service and information sphere (including air-fleet, railway, motorway and maritime transport).
10 October 1989
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Abkhazia”, # 202, 20 October 1989)


DECREE # 515 ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE GEORIGIAN SSR on Joint Appeal of A. Gorky Abkhaz State University and the Sukhumi Branch of Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University.
In order to secure proper implementation of the decree issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Georgian SSR on “A. Gorky Abkhaz State University and the Sukhumi Branch of Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University”, the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, having discussed the joint appeal of A. Gorky Abkhaz State University and Sukhumi Branch of Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, decrees:
1. To approve and render support to the Ministry of Education of the Georgian SSR, A. Gorky Abkhazia State University and Sukhumi Branch of Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University in their activities aimed at unification of these two institutions, resumption of educational process and achieving final agreement on timetable for entrance exams.
To consider that carrying out constructive dialogue with professors and teachers of the Universities, representatives of scientific circles, intelligentsia, and students and taking into due respect interests and concerns of all parties involved to be the best way in terms of solution of the existing problems.
2. To entrust the leaderships of A. Gorky Abkhaz State University and Sukhumi Branch of Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University” with a task of continuing negotiation with the Ministry of Education of the Georgian SSR on mutually acceptable time-table for unification of the aforementioned universities and submit a relevant proposal to the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR.
The unification of the Universities shall take place no later than start of new educational year.
After the unification of the aforementioned universities, all previous decrees on this issue shall be invalidated.
3. The Ministry of Education (Comrade Enukidze) shall continue rendering active support to A. Gorky Abkhaz State University and Sukhumi Branch of Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University to secure successful completion of the ongoing activities and entrust him with a task of undertaking all appropriate measures aimed at normalization of educational process at all high educational establishments of Abkhazia.
4. To entrust the Council of Ministers of Abkhazia ASSR (Comrade Anchabadze) with a task of securing the resumption of educational process and organization of entrance exams for 1989/90. To solve on time the existing problem and ensure active involvement of relevant ministries and agencies of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Georgian SSR.
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR  N. Chitanava
Head of Staff of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR Z. Makharadze
20 October 1989
(Abkhaz Issue in Official Documents, part I, p. 52-53)


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 12th   EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN OBLAST COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE 20th CONVOCATION on raising the status of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast
The 12th extraordinary session of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies decides:
1. To reorganize the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast into the South Ossetian Autonomous Republic.
To ask the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR for consideration the issue on granting to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast the status of the Autonomous Republic.
The First Deputy Chairman of the Ispolcom
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast M. Sanakoev.
Secretary of the Ispolcom
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast I. Kokoev.
10 November 1989
(Central State Archive of the newest history of Georgia, file 1165, reg. 8, p. 64)


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 12th EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN OBLAST COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE 20th CONVOCATION on changes to Paragraph 1 of the Decision of 11th Session of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of the 20th convocation of 26 September 1989 “on State Programme for Development of the Ossetian language”.
The 12th extraordinary session of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the people’s Deputies decides:
Paragraph 1.  To word the decision of the 11th session of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of the 20th convocation as follows:
1. Ossetian language is a state language in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Free and equal functioning of Georgian and Russian languages in the Oblast shall be exercised pursuant to the language policy of the USSR.
Issues related to the office language shall be considered under the competence of the Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies respecting the ethnic and cultural environment of the Oblast.
Official correspondence between the oblast, union republic and the USSR entities, enterprises and organizations shall be done in State language (in Russian - edit.).
The First Deputy Chairman of the Ispolcom
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast M. Sanakoev.
Secretary of the Ispolcom
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast I. Kokoev.
10 November 1989
(Central State Archive of the newest history of Georgia, file 1165, reg. 8, pg. 62)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on the Decisions made at the 12th Extraordinary Session of the Council of People’s Deputies of the 20th convocation of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia.
The Session of the Council of People’s Deputies of the 20th convocation of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia took place on 10 November 1989 and addressed the following issues:
About the Chair of the Oblispolkom (Oblast Executive Committee - edit.);
Declaration of the Ossetian language as the State language of the Autonomous Oblast and changing the status of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
The Executive Committee of the Oblast Council made the decision on the convocation of the session on 10 November on 9 November under pressure and blackmail on the part of representatives of “Adamon Nikhas”. Pursuant to the protest lodged by the Prosecutor of the Oblast the Executive Committee of the Oblast Council invalidated the aforementioned decision, as an unlawful one, and declared 25 November as a day of convocation of the session.
However, due to an active pressure and influence from the “Adamon Nikhas”, the session in question was held on 10 November 1989.
The Session was held in gross violation of Article 40 of the Law on the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia. According to this article, information on time, venue and agenda of a session must be conveyed to the Deputies of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Oblast and general population at least two weeks prior to the session.
The aforementioned violation of the legislature is especially unforgivable, since the session addressed the issues of paramount importance for the whole population of the Oblast.
Taking into consideration the fact that rules and norms of convocation of a session were grossly violated and that the session addressed issues far beyond the competence the Executive Council of the Oblast, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR decrees:
Based on Article 115, paragraph 10 of the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, to declare decisions made at the 12th Extraordinary Session of the Council of People’s Deputies of the 20th convocation of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia null and void, since these decisions are not in conformity with the existing legislature.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR O. Cherkezia
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
16 November 1989
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1989, # 11, p. 7-8)


LAW OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on changes and amendments to the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Georgian SSR
(…)
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR decrees:
To introduce the following changes and amendments to the Constitution (Basic Law):
(…)
Article 11. The land, its bowels, water and forest on the territory of the Georgian SSR is the property only of the Georgian SSR. The natural resources of the continental shelf along the Black Sea coast are the property of the Georgian SSR.
The Georgian SSR has the rights and responsibilities in the Black Sea economic zone along its coastal line considered by the norms of international law.
Along with the natural resources the means of production in industry, construction and agriculture, as well as the communication, trade, public facility’s means, the dwelling fund and other sources necessary to fulfil the tasks of the Republic are the property of the Georgian SSR.
Article 69.  The Georgian SSR reserves the right to secede freely from the USSR. This is a sacred and inviolable right.
Abolishment or restriction of the right of secession of the Georgian SSR from the USSR under the decree of the Supreme organ of the USSR or through other means is inadmissible.
From the moment of abolishment of the right of the Georgian SSR on secession from the USSR the Georgian SSR shall be considered seceded from the USSR.
The same result will follow the rejection of request submitted by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR on annulment or changing of the Union decree that restricts the right of the Georgian SSR on free secession from the USSR.  The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR decides the issue weather the right of the Georgian SSR on secession from the USSR is restricted or not.
(…)
Article 77. The laws and other normative legal acts of the USSR and the Georgian SSR are in effect on the territory of the Georgian SSR.
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR suspends the effect of the Union laws and legal acts if they are not in compliance with the interests of the Republic.  At the same time it submits proposals to the Committee on Observance of Constitution and the organs that issued the legal acts aimed at putting them in conformity to the interests of the Republic.  If no agreement is reached these acts are no valid on the territory of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
Article 104.  The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR is the supreme organ of the state power of the Georgian SSR.
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR is authorized to receive for and discuss any issues under the jurisdiction of the Georgian SSR.
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR:
1. Adopts the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, introduces the changes and amendments to the Constitution;
2. Decides the issues relating to the frontiers of the Georgian SSR;
3. Decides the issues relating to the state arrangement that are under the jurisdiction of the Georgian SSR;
4. Decides the issues relating to the secession of the Georgian SSR from the USSR;
5. Decides the issues relating to the effect of the Union laws and legal acts on the territory of the Georgian SSR;
6. Elaborates the major directions of the internal-political and foreign policies of the Georgian SSR;
8)  Secures the unified regulation of the legislation on the whole territory of the Georgian SSR.
11) Determines the procedures for administrative-territorial arrangement of the Georgian SSR; decides and changes the frontiers of the Autonomous Oblasts and district divisions; creates the cities in the regions and the districts in the cities; decides the subordination of the cities; changes the names of the regions, cities, towns, districts, villages and other settlements;
12) Approves the decision on changing the frontiers of the Autonomous Republics; creates the new districts and towns of republican subordination.
13)  Approves the district division of the Autonomous Republics, creation of cities and districts within the cities, changes of subordination of cities, changing of names of regions, cities, districts within the cities and of other settlements;
24) Observes the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and secures the compliance of the Constitutions of the Autonomous Republics of Ajara and Abkhazia with the Constitution and the laws of the Georgian SSR;
26) Abolishes the Decrees and Resolutions issued by the Councils of Ministers of the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Ajara, as well as of the People’s Councils of the Autonomous Oblast, regional, city and district councils (of republican subordination) if they are not in compliance with the Constitution and laws of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
Article 108. The Presidium of the Supreme Council convenes annually the Spring and Autumn sessions of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR.
The Presidium convenes extraordinary sessions upon its own initiative, or upon the proposal of the chairman of the Supreme Council, or upon the request of at least 1/3 of deputies, as well as upon the proposals of the Supreme Councils of the Abkhaz and Ajara Autonomous Republics and the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Article 110. The right to initiate legislation is vested in the Deputies of the Supreme Council, the Presidium of the Supreme Council, the Chairman of the Supreme Council, the Committee on Observance of Constitution, the Council of ministers of the Georgian SSR, the Supreme Councils of the Abkhaz and Ajara Autonomous Republics, the standing Commission of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, the Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, the Chamber of Public Control of the Georgian SSR, the Supreme Court of the Georgian SSR, the Chief State  Arbiter, the Prosecutor General of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
Article 111. The bills and other issues submitted to the Supreme Council are discussed at the sittings of the Supreme Council.
(…)
Article 112… The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR composes of the following officials: the Chairman of the Supreme Council, the First Deputy of the Chairman of the Supreme Council, two Deputies of the Chairman of the Supreme Council - the Chairmen of the Supreme Councils of the Abkhaz and Ajara Autonomous Republics, the Chairman of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies, the Chairman of the Chamber of Public Control, the chairmen of the standing commissions of the Supreme Council.
Article 113.The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR:
14) Publishes in Georgian and Russian languages and for the Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Oblast in the language of the autonomous entity the laws and other legal acts adopted by the Supreme Council, the Presidium of the Supreme Council and the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
Article 119.  The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR elects the Committee on Observance of Constitution for 10-year term composed of specialists of the sphere of politics and jurisprudence: the Chairman, Deputy Chairman and 7 members, including the representatives from the Abkhaz and Ajara Autonomous Republics and the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
The Committee on observance of Constitution:
2) Observes the compliance of the Constitutions and laws of the Autonomous Republics, Decrees and Orders of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, Decrees and Orders of the Councils of Ministers of the Autonomous Republics, Decisions of the Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, Decisions of the district and city councils (of republican subordination) with the Constitution and the laws of the Georgian SSR.
3) By its own initiative or under the decree of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, Standing Commissions of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, or upon the proposals of the Supreme Councils of the Autonomous Republics makes conclusions on compliance of acts issued by public organizations with the Constitution and the laws of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
Article 131. The Supreme Councils of the Abkhaz and Ajara Autonomous Republics are the supreme bodies of these republics.
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz and Ajara Autonomous Republics are authorized to decide all issues that are under the jurisdiction of the Autonomous Republics set out in the Constitution of the USSR, the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and the Constitutions of the Autonomous Republics.
The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic is accountable to the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR.
Article 132. The Supreme Councils of the Abkhaz and Ajara Autonomous Republics adopt the Constitutions of the Autonomous Republics, introduce the changes and amendments to them; approve the state plans on economic and social development of the autonomous republics; establish the organs under their subordination.
The authorities of the Supreme Councils of the Autonomous Republics, their Presidiums and the Chairmen of the Autonomous Republics are determined in the Constitutions of the Autonomous Republics.
16. To formulate the second part of Article 133 as follows:
“The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Council of Ministers of the Ajara ASSR are accountable to the Supreme Councils of these Autonomous Republics”.
Article 141. The activity of the Councils of autonomous Oblast, districts and cities are organized by their presidiums headed by the chairmen of councils, and the town (of regional subordination) village and settlement councils - by the chairmen of these councils.
The local Councils of People’s Deputies are authorized to discuss and decide the issued under their competences set out on the legislation of the USS, the Georgian SSR and the relevant autonomous republics.  The laws on the local councils of the people’s deputies determine the list of issues that shall be decided only at the sessions.
(…)
Article 164. …
The Supreme Court of the Georgian SSR, the Supreme Courts of the Autonomous Republics, the judges of the Autonomous Oblast are elected accordingly by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, the Supreme Councils of the Autonomous Republics and the Council of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast.
The Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR G. Gumbaridze
The Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
18 November 1989
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1989, # 11, p. 15-34)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on Conclusions of the Special Commission on Political and Legal Assessment of Violation of the Georgian Russian Treaty of 7 May 1920
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR Decrees:
1. To approve the Conclusions of the Special Commission- that was set up pursuant to the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR- on Political and Legal Assessment of Violation of the Georgian-Russian Treaty of 7 May 1920.
2. To put forward proposal to the Second Congress of the Peoples’ Deputies of the USSR to provide political and Legal Assessment of violation of the Georgian-Russian Treaty of 7 May 1920.
(...)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR G. Gumbaridze
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
18 November 1989
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1989, # 11, p. 97)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIA SSR on election of the Commission of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR to study the issues relating to the Status of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR decrees:
1. To set up the Commission to study the issues relating to the status of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast comprising of 19 people.
(…)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR G. Gumbaridze
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
18 November 1989
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1989, # 11, p. 98)


1990
DECREE ISSUED AT THE 13TH EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE 11TH CONVOCATION OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on Guarantees for Protection of State Sovereignty of Georgia.
(…)
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR approves the Conclusions of the Special Commission that was set up pursuant to the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR - on Political and Legal Assessment of Violation of the Georgian-Russian Treaty of 7 May 1920 and acknowledges that introduction of the Soviet troops into Georgia in February 1921 and occupation of its territory amounted to, from legal point of view, sheer military intervention and occupation aimed at toppling the then existing political regime. From political point of view, these actions amounted to de facto annexation of Georgia; condemns the fact of occupation and de facto annexation by the Soviet Russia of Georgia as the international crime and seeks to abolish the dire consequences for Georgia, brought about by Russia’s violation of the 7 May 1920 Treaty and restoration of those rights of Georgia, that had been recognized by Russia by the virtue of the aforementioned Treaty.
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR declares illegal and null and void the Union Treaty concluded on 21 May 1921 between the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic and Russian Soviet Socialist Federative Republic, as well as Union Treaty concluded on 12 March 1922 on creation of Federation of Trans-Caucasus Soviet Socialist Republics.
Since the Treaty of 22 December 1922 on creation of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics is unlawful in relation to Georgia, negotiations shall start on restoration of the independence of Georgia.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR G. Gumbaridze
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
9 March 1990
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1990, # 3, p. 8-10)


LAW OF THE UNION OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS on the issues relating to the secession of the Union Republic from the USSR
Article 1.  This Law sets out the procedures on secession of the union republic from the USSR pursuant to Article 72 of the Constitution of the USSR.
Article 2. The decision on seceding from the USSR the Union Republic exercises based on the free will of the peoples of the union republic through the referendum.  The decision on holding the referendum shall be taken by the Supreme Council of the union republic upon its own initiative or based on the appeal signed by the one tenth of the population of the USSR, permanent residents of the republic and authorized to vote under the legislation of the USSR.
(…)
Article 3. In the Union Republics, having autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and autonomous districts, the referendum shall be held separately for each autonomous entity.  The peoples of the autonomous republics and autonomous entities reserve the right on having independent decision to remain within the USSR or within the seceding republic, also to raise the issue on legal status of the entity.
Voting results in the Union Republics with the territories of compact settlement of ethnic groups, which represent the majority of the population in that territory shall be considered separately.
Article 4.  For the purpose to arrange the referendum for seceding from the USSR, to fix the date of referendum and sum up the results, the Supreme Council of the union republic shall set up the commission with participation of all concerned sides, including those mentioned in the first and second sections of Article 3 of this law.
Article 6.  The decision on seceding from the USSR through the referendum shall be adopted if not less than two thirds of the citizens of the USSR, permanent residents of the republic and authorized to vote under the legislation of the USSR will vote in favour.
The Supreme Council of the union republic shall consider the results of the referendum.
In the Union Republics, having autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and autonomous okrugs or the territories of compact settlement of ethnic groups, mentioned in the second section of Article 3 of this law, the results shall be considered by the Supreme Council of the union republic together with the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic and relevant Council of the People’s Deputies of the autonomous entity.
Article 7.  Supreme Council of the Union Republic shall submit the results of the referendum to the Supreme Council of the USSR. Union Republics, having autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and autonomous districts or the territories of compact settlement of ethnic groups, mentioned in the second section of Article 3 of this law, shall submit the results of the referendum for each autonomous entity and compact settlements separately with the conclusions and proposals to the relevant state authorities.
If the Supreme Council of the USSR finds the referendum lawful, it shall raise the issue before the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR to be discussed.
In case of breach of law when holding the referendum, the Supreme Council of the USSR shall set repeated referendum in three-month term in the republic or in its part, either in the autonomous entity or in the territory of compact settlement of the ethnic groups mentioned in the second section of Article 3 of this law.
Article 9. The results of the referendum on seceding from the USSR of the union republic, as well as conclusion of the supreme state authorities of the union republic, autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and districts on the issue shall be considered by the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR. The Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR, upon the submission of the Supreme Council of the USSR, prior coordinated with the Supreme Council of the seceding republic shall determine the transitional period that should not exceed five-year and the issues, related to the secession of the union republic shall be settled within this term.
Article 10.  If, in accordance of the referendum results, the final decision on secession of the union republic is not reached, a new referendum on the issue can be arranged not earlier than 10 years from the day of previous referendum.
(…)
Article 14. …The following issues shall be solved within transitional period in relation of the seceding republic and the USSR, as well as other union republics, autonomous republics, autonomous entities and ethnic groups:
7) the issue regarding the territories that didn’t belong to the seceding republic at the moment of its joining to the USSR shall be negotiated;
8) the status of the territories with compact ethnic settlements, mentioned in the second section of Article 3 of this law shall be negotiated pursuant to the referendum;
(…)
Article 15.  The citizens of the USSR, residing on the territory of the seceding republic, have the right to make their own chose on citizenship, place of residence and work. Seceding country shall compensate all expenses relating to the displacement of the citizens outside of the republic.
Article 19. During the last year of the transitional period, the seceding country, by the initiative of the supreme organ of the state authority can hold the repeated referendum in order to approve the decision on separation of the union republic from the USSR.  The repeated referendum is binding if it is requested by one tenth of the citizens of the USSR, permanent residents of the republic and authorized to vote under the legislation of the USSR.
If in the repeated referendum for the approval of the decision on secession from the USSR less than two thirds of the citizens of the USSR, permanent residents of the union republic authorized to suffrage under the legislation of the USSR votes in favour, the decision on separation of the union republic from the USSR shall be revoked and the procedures shall be terminated.
(…)
The President of the Union of he Soviet Socialist Republics M. Gorbachev.
3 April 1990
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR, M., 1990, # 15, p. 303-308)


LAW OF THE UNION OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS on the economic relations between the USSR, Union and Autonomous Republics
(…)
Article 2…
1. Union and Autonomous Republics are authorized to decide economic and social issues outside the jurisdiction of the USSR, the Constitution of the USSR, legislation of the USSR and this law. 2. Union and autonomous republics, pursuant to the legislation of the USSR, on their respective territories:
possess, use and handle the land and other natural resources in compliance with their interests and the interests of the USSR;
adopt the laws and other normative acts regulating the conditions of the economic activities on the territory of the republic;
decide tax issues and perform budgetary activities;
regulate economic and social development on their territories and elaborate the general decision on the economic development and the ways for its realization;
regulate investment activity and conditions for the construction on the territory of the republic;
regulate the prices in compliance with the USSR pricing policy;
participate in the monetary flow; exercise the management of the state bank activity;
perform foreign economic activity respecting the obligations and commitments of the international treaties of the USSR and agreements between the USSR and the republics; conduct border and coastal trade, register the joint enterprises, international companies and organizations, and encourage foreign economic activity of the enterprises and organizations; form and manage currency reserves of the republic;
decide the issues of social development, employment of the population, regulation of the income of the population; secure the minimum wages established by the legislation of the USSR, pension rate and other social securities;
establish the norms of ecological protection and conduct the activity for environmental protection on the territory of the republic; issue licenses and restrictions on the activity of enterprises and organizations;
form the agencies for state management and determine their function.
(…)
Article 3…
3. Union and autonomous republics, in compliance with the legislation of the USSR, determine the tax, dues and due payment on their territories, including the payment for the natural resources.
5. The agencies of the USSR, together with the agencies of the union and autonomous republics establish the funds for the regional development, reserves, innovations, environment protection and other public funds in order to finance scientific, economic, social and other programmes, as well as works on prevention and elimination of the natural disasters, catastrophes and accidents.
6. The State Bank of the USSR implements: the regulation of the monetary circulation based on the common currency of rouble, currency emission, setting of the rate to the foreign currency, setting of exchange procedures and regulations for purchasing and selling of foreign currency valuables; exercises unified credit policy in foreign economic relations.
(…)
Article 5…
2. Union and autonomous republics are authorized to establish in the capital city of the USSR and capital cities of other union republics representational missions maintained at the expense of the budget of the republics.
(…)
Article 6…
1. Union and autonomous republics participate in the decision-making process of economic character that is under the competence of the USSR through participation at the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR, Supreme Council of the USSR, Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR, Council of Federation, Government of the USSR and other agencies of the USSR.
2. The supreme agencies of the state authority of the republics may raise the issue before the Committee of Constitutional Supervision regarding compliance of the legal acts of the state agencies and the Government of the USSR with the Constitution of the USSR and the USSR laws.
3.  The union and autonomous republics have the right to address to the President of the USSR and ask for abrogation of decree or resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR that runs counter to the economic interests of the republic.
4. The supreme agencies of the state management of union and autonomous republics have the right to file the protest to the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the acts issued by the agencies subordinated the Council of Ministers of the USSR that contradict economic interests of the republic. The Council of Ministers of the USSR shall consider the protest within a month term and make a final decision.
(…)
5.  The dispute on economic issues between the government of the USSR, union and autonomous republics, also between the union republics, emerged in the course the implementation of the USSR laws, decrees and resolutions of the government of the USSR, shall be resolved by the Supreme Council of the USSR with respect of the recommendations of the Council of Federation.
Article 7…
1. The laws of the USSR and union republics, which secure the independent economic activity of the autonomous oblasts and okrugs, determine economic competence of the autonomous oblasts and okrugs.
2. Autonomous oblasts and okrugs pursuant to the legislation of the USSR on their respective territories possess, use and handle the land, other natural resources and properties under their ownership.
3. Autonomous oblasts and okrugs: assure the process of the social-economic development on their territories; independently form and implement their budget; carry out the measures for strengthening the fiscal base of the local self-governance; set and regulated the prices within their competence; participate in determination of limits and norms of the use of natural heritage on their territories; issue the licenses and restrictions for enterprises pursuant to the legislation of the USSR and union republic; conduct foreign economic activity; also manage the other issues within their competence.
(…)
Article 8…
3. When implementing the decisions adopted in contradiction to the acting law without prior coordination with the union and autonomous republics that damaged the interests of the republic, the governing agencies of the USSR shall remove the negative consequences of those decisions and compensate the damage upon the request of the republic.
4. If the implementation of decisions of the union and autonomous republic damages the legal interests of other republic or the USSR, the damage shall be compensated by the republic, which adopted such decision.
(…)
The President of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics M. Gorbachev.
4 September 1989
 (Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR, M., 1990, # 16, p. 334-340)


LAW OF THE UNION OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS on Separation of Authorities Between the USSR and the Subjects to the Federation
Article 1… Union republics enjoy the full-scope authority on their respective territories outside of authority rendered to the USSR by them.
Autonomous republics represent the Soviet Socialist States - the subjects of the USSR Federation.  The autonomous republics and autonomous entities are included within the union republics based on the principles of national self-determination.  They enjoy the full-scale authority on their territories outside of authority rendered to the USSR and the union republic.
The relation of autonomous republics and autonomous entities with the union republic is determined by agreements and treaties concluded pursuant to the Constitution of the USSR, Constitution of the union republic and autonomous republic and this law.
Article 2. Each union republic reserves the right to secede from the USSR…
Article 3. The territory of the union and autonomous republics and autonomous entities shall not be changed without their consent.
The frontiers between union republics may be changed upon mutual agreement between the union republics that shall be approved by the USSR.
(…)
Article 4. Union and autonomous republic, autonomous oblast and district: independently decide the issues related to the allocation of enterprises and economic entities on their territories; assure the economic, social and cultural development on their territories with respect of interests of all people, residing on their territories; determine the condition of performance with respect of environmental protection and labour resources of enterprises and economic entities, agencies and institutions subordinated to the USSR or other union or autonomous republics pursuant to the legal acts of the USSR, union and autonomous republic.
In the development of economic and social-cultural sphere the autonomous entity on its territory has the same rights as the union republic outside the jurisdiction of the union republic in accordance with the concluded agreement.
(…)
Article 6. Exclusive authorities of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics:
2. Admission of a new state to the USSR, establishment of a new, and change the statues of the existing autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and autonomous districts;
3. Resolution of disputes between the union republics, union republic and autonomous republic, if they raise the issue before the agencies of the USSR.
(…)
Article 10.  When the certain issue under the joint authority of the USSR and the union republic is not solved through the law of the USSR, the union republic has the right to exercise independently the legal regulation towards that sphere.  At that the issues under the authority of the autonomous republics or autonomous entities shall be regulated through the negotiation with them.
Article 11. … In case of contradiction between the Constitutions of the union republic, autonomous republic and the Constitution of the USSR, the constitution of the USSR shall have a superior legal force.  In case of contradiction between the laws or other legal acts issued by the supreme authorities of the union and autonomous republics and the Constitution, other laws and legal acts of the USSR, the acts issued by the supreme agencies of the USSR shall have a superior legal force.
(…)
Article 13.  Supreme state agencies of the union republics and autonomous republics have the right to file the protest against decisions and decrees issued by the Council of Ministers of the USSR if they violate the rights of the union or autonomous republic. The Supreme Council of the USSR shall resolve the dispute.
Supreme state agencies of the union republics and autonomous republics have the right to suspend the performance of normative acts issued by the ministries, state departments and committees of the USSR if they breach the legislation of the USSR or the relevant legislation of the union republic or autonomous republic; The Council of Ministers of the USSR shall be promptly informed about the breach of law.  The Supreme Council of the USSR shall settle the dispute if the performance of the legal act is suspended by the Supreme Council of the union or autonomous republic, or, by the Council of Ministers of the USSR, if the performance of the legal act is suspended by the Council of Ministers of the union or autonomous republic.
The President of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics M. Gorbachev.
26 April 1990
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR, M., 1990, # 19, p.  429-433)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on introduction of amendments to the decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR on March 9, 1990  “Guaranties for Protection of State Sovereignty of Georgia”
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR decrees:
To introduce the following amendments to the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR on 9 March 1990  “Guaranties for Protection of State Sovereignty of Georgia”:
1. To add after Paragraph 10 the following Paragraph:
“Noting that the regime established in Georgia as a result of military intervention and occupation - initially non-elected authority (Revolutionary Committee) and then, extremely limited, based on narrow class-interest principles Soviets did not express genuine and free will of the Georgian people. Proceeding from the aforementioned, the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR declares null and void all those legal acts that abolished political and other institutions of the Democratic Republic of Georgia and replaced them with other political and legal institutions introduced through violence and external force …”
2. To add at the end of the decree the following: “ to start negotiations between the Georgian SSR and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic aimed at establishment of fundamentally new and appropriate for sovereign states relationship, and acknowledgment on the part of the Government of RSFSR (the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic-edit) of the fact of gross violation in February-March 1921 of the 7 May 1920 Treaty and adequate political and legal assessment of this violation should lay foundation for such relationship.
Despite the heavy legacy and irrefutable fact of forceful establishment of Soviet regime in Georgia, taking into account the present political realities, historical experience of genesis of state power and its development, the existence, although not good enough, democratic and representative political institutions and being fully aware of the fact that these institutions function within the Soviet Union’s political system and that reality plays major role in assessment of legal bases of any authority. Today, only the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR is able and authorized to create through legal means all necessary conditions for establishment of genuinely democratic and multi-party system based bodies of central and local authorities, while taking in due account the best interests of all strata and political spectrum of the society. Only such an approach could serve as solid precondition for successful steps undertaken towards the restoration of state independence of Georgia.
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR and every single member of it, is fully aware of its huge responsibility before the Georgian people at this epoch-making and historical stage of Georgia’s development and calls upon the Georgian people, all residents of Georgia to exert every effort to the achievement of our cherished goal - the restoration of state independence of Georgia”.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR G. Gumbaridze
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
20 June  1990
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1990, # 6, p. 11-12)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on Creation of Legal Mechanism Aimed at Restoration of Independence of Georgia.
Being guided by the best interests of national sovereignty of the Georgian People and major principles of the International law securing inviolability of the right of every nation to self-determination, as well as other norms, including the UN Charter, international conventions on human rights, and the Final Acts of Helsinki and Vienna forums;
Noting that the Georgian people exercised this right through the creation of the Democratic Republic of Georgia on 26 May 1918;
Acknowledging the right of Georgia to reinstate its state independence lost as the result of violation of the Treaty of 7 May 1920 between Georgia and Russia by the Russian government, which found its manifestation in military intervention, occupation and de facto annexation of Georgia;
Since the decree of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, issued on 9 March 1990 has laid foundation to the process of restoration of state independence of Georgia and to secure successful completion of the process it is essential to further undertake effective measures,
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR decrees:
To work out a legal mechanism for the restoration of state independence of Georgia that shall be based on the principles of international law.
To this end, create a special commission that will be composed of representatives of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, experts, representatives of political parties and civil society and entrust the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR with a task of defining personal composition of the commission.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR G. Gumbaridze
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
20 June 1990
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1990, # 6, p. 12-13)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on Evaluation of a Number of the USSR Laws, Based on Article 77 of the Georgian SSR
Being guided by the necessity of protection of Sovereignty of the Georgia SSR and by the objective of restoration of state sovereignty of Georgia, pursuant to Article 77 of the Georgian SSR, the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR decrees:
1. The existing USSR laws on the rules and procedure of secession of the Union Republics from the USSR, separation of competences between the subjects of Federation and the USSR, basics of economic relations, property regulations and income laws run counter to the vital interest of the Georgian SSR.
2.  The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR and the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR shall follow this decree.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR G. Gumbaridze
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
20 June 1990
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1990, # 6, p. 21)


DECISION OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on Creation of Special Commission on Study the Issues in the Abkhaz ASSR
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR decides:
To create a special commission that will address the issues related to the protection of legal guarantees of statehood of the Abkhaz ASSR.
To entrust the experts, scientists and representatives of civil society with a task of studying these issues profoundly and submitting the findings and proposals to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR G. Gumbaridze
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
26 July 1990
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1990, # 7, p. 6-7)


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 13TH SESSION OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN OBLAST COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE 20TH CONVOCATION on the information of the commission on study of conduct of soviet, law-enforcement agencies and state officials during the difficult public and political situation in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast in 1989-1990
The 13th Session of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of the 20th convocation decides:
1. To endorse the information of the commission on study of conduct of the Soviet, law-enforcement agencies and state officials during the difficult public and political situation in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast in 1989-1990; to publish it in the local press with the decision adopted and forward to the Supreme Council of the USSR, Georgian SSR and Helsinki Union on protection of Human Rights.
2. To consider:
- public and political situation on the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast since May of 1989 up today as extreme and extraordinary;  
- the events, which took place from 23 November 1989 and from February 1990 - as violent act of armed informal formations of organizations and agencies of Georgia against the peaceful population of the autonomous oblast accompanied with the lack of counteractions of the local and republic authorities that led destabilization of public and political situation in the region, resulted in human victims, material damages and excessive suffering of innocent, peaceful residents of the oblast.
3. To consider extremely inadequate the conduct of the Ispolcom of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast during the difficult public and political situation and demand of the resignation of its present members.
(…)
4. Taking into consideration the difficult public and political situation established in the region, to ask the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR for the permission on holding the election of the local Councils of the People’s Deputies on the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast coinciding with the election of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR in October-November of 1990.
5. To raise the following issues before the Supreme Council of the USSR and the Georgian SSR:
- to give the political and legal assessment to the tragic events in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast that have entailed human victims.
- to find the resources for compensation of material and moral damages;
- to prevent the possibility of the repeated violence in the oblast.
6. In order to speed up the process of regulation of the situation here, to raise the issue before the Prosecutor General of the USSR and the Ministry of Interior of the USSR on immediate investigation of crimes committed during the aforementioned events on the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast in 1989-1990.
8. To entrust the Ispolcom of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast with the following tasks:
(…)
- to elaborate and implement within ten days the practical measures for the stabilization of public and political situation in the oblast and strengthen the true friendship of the people…
- to elaborate practical measures for selection, training and assignment of personnel in the law-enforcement agencies from the local residents, those who speak Ossetian, Georgian and Russian languages; to inform the next session about the done activity;
- to bar from any assignments or dismissals of officials with the breach of “Law on the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast”:
- to bar from any assignments or dismissals with regard of ethnic affiliation…
(…)
- to set up commission on learning of and solving the issues relating to the refugees;
- respecting the proposals of the specialist and public opinion to elaborate and publish within a month term the draft concept of economic independence of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast with further approval at the session of the oblast Council of the People’s Deputies.
9. The leadership of the Oblast, on the alternative basis, shall decide within 10-day term the issue of appointment of the Prosecutor of the Oblast and the head of the Interior Affairs of the South Ossetian Oblispolcom from the local specialists having command of three state languages.
10. To raise immediately the issue before the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR:
- on compensation of material and moral damages subsequent upon destabilization of the public and political situation that entailed the tragic events of 1989-1990;
(…)
Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast F. Zaseev
Secretary of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast I. Kokoev
10 August 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 160, 23 August, 1990)


DECESION OF THE ISPOLCOM OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN AUTONOMOUS OBLAST on establishment of the Commission on study and elaboration of proposals to respond the statements and complaints of the citizens demanding resettlement from other cities and regions to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and, also on the problems of refugees
Ispolcom of the Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast decides:
1. To approve the Commission on study and elaboration of proposals to respond the statements and complaints of the citizens demanding resettlement from other cities and regions to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, and also on the problems of refugees…
(…)
2. To entrust the Commission with a task of learning within a month term all statements and complaints of the citizens, and where necessary, to submit the proposals to the Ispolcom of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast to be considered.
3. To entrust the Councils of the People’s Deputies of the cities and districts with a task to establish the similar commissions and report the information to the Oblispolcom of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within one month.
Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast F. Zaseev
Secretary of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast I. Kokoev
23 August 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 170, 8 September, 1990)


DECLARATION ADOPTED AT THE MEETING OF ALL-LEVEL COUNCILS OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on the issues discussed at the 10th Session of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR
Present political and social reforms, based on the acknowledgment of the priority of the universal human values, lay a good ground to the fulfillment of peoples’ demand.
Certain forces, relying on the violent means of protection of their own interests have chosen the dangerous way to fulfill them. That is a barefaced provocation and confrontation between Abkhazs, Georgians and other peoples living together over the ages.  In such circumstances we may loose the social-political rights and freedoms we have achieved.  Moreover, we may find ourselves in far worse situation than we were before the reforms.
At the sessions of the local Councils, meetings of electors, labour collectives, public organizations and agencies thousands of people talked about the established situation in the autonomous republic due to the repeated convocation of the 10th session of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR and released documents of the session.
The negative assessment has been done to the role of the Supreme Council and its Presidium for introducing new methods of political confrontation in the autonomous republic.
The resolutions and appeals adopted by the labour collectives express the concern regarding the proposals on legal protection of the Abkhaz state independence, which may violate the territorial integrity of Georgia as a sovereign country.  Discussion of such issues at the session runs counter to the vital interests of the majority population of the autonomous republic and facilitates neither to the fair solution of the problems nor to the establishment of peace and good-neigbourly relations between the peoples.
In this regard the electors call on the deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR not to participate at the Session.  Otherwise the following assessment will be done to their conduct: they don’t want to protect the legal interests and demands of the electors…
The meeting of the Deputies is authorized to declare the following:
1. Pursuant to the Declaration “On the principles of international law” adopted by the United Nations Organization on 24 October 1970, the process of the self-determination shall be conducted without violation of the territorial integrity and without undermining the political unity of the state.  Published documents on legal guarantees of the protection of Abkhazia’s state independence are aimed at violation of the territorial integrity of Georgia as a sovereign country, thus discussion of this matter at a level of the Supreme Council of the autonomous republic is unlawful and inadmissible.
2. In order to settle the situation and overcome the confrontation through the constructive dialog based on the principles of mutual understanding and reciprocity, the deputies shall take active participation in the work of the Commission established by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR and submit the conclusions and proposals for further discussion to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
3. For the alternative conduct we offer to the interested parties to establish the committee on national reconciliation comprising of the representatives from all districts, ethnic groups, public and political movements of Abkhazia, which will make decision on the basis of consensus.
4. We agree to participate at the 10th session of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia with the following agenda: Adoption of the electoral law for the Supreme and local Councils of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Problems of the current and future development of Abkhazia, issues on enlargement of its political and economic rights shall be decided on the constitutional and legal basis respecting the view of the general public.
5. This Decree shall be sent to the Supreme council of the Georgian SSR, Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR and published in press.
23 August 1990
(Newspaper “Sabchota Abkhazeti”, # 162, 24 August, 1990)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR
on Legal Guarantees of Protection of the Statehood of Abkhazia
Having heard and discussed the report of the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR Comr. V. Kobakhia “on Legal Guarantees of Protection of the Statehood of Abkhazia” the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR notes:
In 1989-1990 the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR three times (November 1989, March and June 1990) adopted the decision on restoration of the state independence of Georgia.  Those decisions admit that the Georgian Democratic Republic, established in 1918 was liquidated in February 1921 due to establishment of the Soviet power in Georgia based on forcibly concluded international treaties: the Union treaty between the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic and The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of 21 May 1921; the Union treaty on establishment of the Union of Transcaucasus Soviet Socialist Republics of 12 March 1921; the Treaty on establishment of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (the USSR) of 30 December 1922.
In that way the supreme legislative power of Georgia prepared the legal basis for the restoration of Georgia’s state independence that existed by the time of its sovietization in February 1921 and opened the path for the negotiation aimed at fulfilling this task.
Postponement of the date of election from March to October of 1990 and amendments to the electoral procedures of the deputies of the Georgian SSR bear the guaranties to reach this goal - reinstatement of the statehood existed in Georgia until February of 1921.
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR considers that the restoration of the state independence, existed before February of 1921, is an undeniable right of the Georgian people, i.e. practical secession from the USSR.  But the decisions of the Supreme Council of Georgia say nothing about the autonomous entities included in Georgia.  From the essence of the decisions adopted by the Parliament of Georgia regarding the restitution of the previous status of its statehood, it’s easy to understand that all autonomous entities on its territory shall automatically follow Georgia and that’s why in the negotiations and signing of a future Union Treaties on establishment of a new federation, participation of Abkhazia, Ajara and South Ossetia has not been considered.
The Supreme Council strongly opposes such resolution of Abkhazia’s destiny due to the following reasons.
Abkhazia was incorporated under the protectorate of the Russian Empire in 1810 as an entity independent from kingdoms and principalities of Western and Eastern Georgia.  Abkhaz principality, as a national entity, ruled by Prince existed until 1864, while Georgia’s statehood was abolished in 1801 - right after it had entered into the Russian Empire.
After the Russian revolution of 1917 and from the start of disintegration of the Russian Empire, Abkhazia entered the South-West Union of the Caucasus that had nothing to do with Georgia.
In February of 1918 Georgia and Abkhazia concluded the agreement that recognized Abkhazia as “unified and indivisible State from the river Inguri to the river Mzimta”.  At that time the issues regarding independence of Abkhazia and the autochthonous of the Abkhaz people on its territory was an evident fact for Georgia.
After establishment of the Democratic republic of Georgia in May 1918 Georgia resorted forcible measures in order to include Abkhazia within Georgia but having met the firm resistance from the Abkhaz side, the representatives of the Georgian Government declared that the “independent existence was an organic right of the Abkhaz people”.
In 1918-1921 Abkhazia had been fully occupied by the troops of the Georgian Democratic Republic and only in February of 1921, after collapse of the Georgian Democratic Republic Abkhazia reinstated its independence.
On 4 March 1921 Abkhazia restored the Soviet power that had been overthrown by the Georgian Government and on 31 March of 1921 the Abkhaz Revcom (Revolutionary Committee - edit) proclaimed the in­­de­­­­­pendent Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia - Abkhaz SSR.
Nevertheless, in December 1921, under the pressure of Stalin it was united with Georgia on the basis of the “Special Treaty”. In accordance of the Treaty one third of representatives of Georgia to the Transcaucasus Central Executive Committee fell to Abkhazia.
Pursuant to the federal character of the Treaty, in December 1922 the plenipotentiary representative of the Abkhaz SSR in the composition of the delegation of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR (Soviet Federative Socialist Republic-edit) Akirtava N.N. put his signature under the Treaty on establishment of the USSR that authorized Abkhazia as one of the union republics of the USSR.
In 1931, when Stalin’s administrative-command system was gaining a power, the political status of Abkhazia was degraded to an Autonomous Republic within the Soviet Georgia, which meant an effective inco­­rporation of Abkhazia into Georgia on a “legal” basis.
In the thirties the serious repressive measures were taken in order to dissolve the Abkhaz nation into Georgian.  To fulfill this goal they: closed Abkhaz schools and made the Abkhaz children go to Georgian schools; introduced Georgian as an office language; replaced Abkhaz toponymy with Georgian ones; resorted massive settlement of Georgians in Abkhazia constructing for them the special compounds; ousted Abkhazs from the State, party and administrative agencies and replaced them with Georgians; put Georgian ethnicity in the privileged position while discriminating the Abkhazs; oppressed original culture of Abkhaz people; forged the history of Abkhazia and Abkhaz people, which was announced as a Georgian tribe (race).
Stalin’s death, and especially the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that condemned Stalin’s cult of personality and the process of restoration of the legal interests of the repressed peoples seriously barred the plans of Georgian government, which successfully was implementing the Menshevik idea of “Georgianisation” of Abkhazs.
Though many artificially created factors still remained in force threatening the distinctive existence of the Abkhaz ethnicity, it was impossible to conduct open policy of the Abkhaz people’s cultural genocide that had been condemned by the special decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR.  And then the practice went “on the sly”.
Perestroika that started in 1985 brought a new wave of the barefaced chauvinism against the Abkhazs yet it was aimed at the development of democracy and establishment of the rule of law.  Certain forces of Georgia try to use the slogan - “The strong Center and Strong Republics” for the legalization of their aim to secede from the USSR ignoring the interests of the Abkhaz and Ossetian people, those who have their national autonomy, as well as Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Russians, Greeks and others - residing in the republic.
The issue was carried to the point that Abkhaz people had no right to the self-determination.
It’s evident that Georgian compact settlements appeared in Abkhazia after the Caucasus War had ended.  In the second half of XIX century Abkhazs were forcibly deported to Turkey.  Meanwhile they make immoral allegations that Abkhazia is a Georgian soil and the Abkhaz people are aliens there.
Against a background of situation mentioned above, Georgia makes an attempt to legalize its policy aimed at assimilating the Abkhaz people and abolishing Abkhazia’s statehood.  After seceding from the USSR Georgia will try to establish mono-ethnic state where Abkhazs either will have to dissolve themselves into Georgian ethnicity, or leave their homeland.  Accordingly, the decisions issued by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR encouraging Georgia’s secession from the USSR shall not be abandoned without political and legal assessment from the side of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To recognize that Democratic Republic of Georgia, breaching the Treaty of 11 June 918 and the Agreement concluded between the Abkhaz People’s Council and National Council of Georgia of 9 February 1918 carried out military intervention in the late June of 1918 aimed at forcible inclusion of the territory of Abkhazia into Georgia and abolishing the independence of the Abkhaz people.  This action that contravenes the International Law shall be considered as unlawful.
2. To declare null and void the part of the Agreement concluded between Georgia and RSFSR on May 1920, which is related to the territory of independent Abkhazia, then occupied by Georgian military forces.
3. The Decrees of the Supreme Council of Georgia issued on 18 November 1989, 9 March and 20 June of 1990, which declare null and void all political and legal institutions introduced after February 1921, lead the logical conclusion that all treaty-relations between Georgia and Abkhazia are also unlawful and Abkhazia’s inclusion into the Georgian SSR has no legal base any longer. Consequently the legal form of Abkhazia’s state sovereignty is the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia that was proclaimed on 31 March 1921 and based on a free will of the people of Abkhazia.
4.  To raise the issue before the Supreme Council of the USSR on reinstatement of the status of Abkhazia proclaimed on 31 March of 1921.
Before the resolution of this issue by the Supreme Council of the USSR and concluding the new union treaties, the current state-legal relations between Georgia and Abkhazia shall remain in force.
5. Abkhazia is ready to start the negotiations with Georgia in order to establish further state-legal relations.
6. During the formalization of the new Union Treaty that is actually renewal of the 1922 International Agreement, Abkhazia, as one of the founder-Republics of the USSR, shall participate in all negotiations equally with other subjects of the USSR.
7. This Decree shall be submitted to the Supreme Council of the RSFSR to be considered simultaneously with the Decree of the Supreme council of the Georgian SSR of 18 November 1989, 9 March and 20 June of 1990.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Kobakhia
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR I. Kvitsinia
25 August 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Abkhazia”, # 164, 28 August, 1990)


DECLARATION of the State Sovereignty of the Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic,
- Expressing the will of all the people of the Republic and realizing the undeniable right of the Abkhaz nation on self-determination,
- Acknowledging the historical responsibility to the destiny of Abkhazia,
- Confirming the respect to the sovereign rights of all peoples residing in the USSR,
- Pursuing to the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international covenants,
- Pursuing to build democratic State functioning in accordance with law,
Solemnly declares the State sovereignty of the Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic.
1. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is a sovereign Socialist State established on the basis of the right of Abkhaz nation to free self-determination and rule of people to determine their destiny.  The sovereignty of the Abkhaz ASSR applies to the whole territory of Abkhazia.
The Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic is a bearer of the whole state authority on its territory outside of the competence voluntarily rendered to the USSR and the Georgian SSR pursuant to the concluded Agreements.
The Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic shall have its own State Emblem, State Flag and State Anthem.
Any violent actions conducted by political parties, public association or individuals that counter to the state sovereignty of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be subject of law.
2. The citizens of all nationalities constitute the people of Abkhazia.  The sovereignty bearer and sole source of authority in the Abkhaz SSR shall be its multi-national people.  The people shall exercise the authority on the basis of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR through the referendum and electing representational bodies.
3. The State authority in the Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic shall be exercised on the basis of a division into legislative, executive and judicial power.
4. The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR shall exercises the full state authority in the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR, which has the exclusive right to act on behalf of the people of the Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic.
The nation, the Republic is named after, shall be represented at the Supreme council of the Abkhaz SSR.
5. The Supreme executive body of the state authority of the Abkhaz SSR shall be the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR  (the Government of the Abkhaz ASSR) authorized to decide the issues of the state management within the competence of the Abkhaz ASSR outside the rights under the competence of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
6. The judicial power in the Abkhaz ASSR shall be exercised through the courts of the Abkhaz ASSR.  The supreme judicial body in the Abkhaz ASSR shall be the Supreme Court of the Abkhaz ASSR.  The justice shall be exercised on behalf of the Abkhaz ASSR.
7. The Abkhaz ASSR shall issue the legal and other normative acts obtaining all issues within its competence.
The Acts issued by the USSR or the Georgian SSR, if they violate the State sovereignty of the Abkhaz ASSR and contradict the established laws, shall be suspended by the legislative and executive powers of the Abkhaz ASSR.
8.  The disputes raised between the Abkhaz ASSR, the USSR and the Georgian SSR shall be resolved in accordance with the concluded Agreements.
9. The Abkhaz ASSR shall participate in realization of the authorities rendered to the USSR and the Georgian SSR and shall promote the implementation of the Union and inter-state programmes on its territory.
10. The Abkhaz ASSR shall have the right to establish representational missions in the USSR and union republics and also in foreign countries.
11. The territory of the Abkhaz ASSR shall not be changed without its consent.  The Abkhaz ASSR decides all issues relating to the administrative-territorial settlement of the Republic.
12. The Abkhaz ASSR shall decide the issue of citizenship of persons and secure the right of each citizen to retain the citizenship.
The Republic grants the citizenship of the Abkhaz ASSR and decides the issues relating to the deprivation of the citizenship.
13. The Abkhaz ASSR independently determines its economic status and secures it on the basis of law.
The Abkhaz people shall have the sole right on the possession, use and management of the national resources of Abkhazia.
The soil, its bowels, air-space, water and other natural resources on the territory of Abkhazia, natural resources of its continental shelf, entire economic and intellectual potential established on the territory of Abkhazia shall be at the possession of the people that is a material basis of the sovereignty of the Republic and shall be used exclusively for the purposes to satisfy the material and spiritual needs of its citizens.
The enterprises, agencies and institutions of other States can be allocated on the territory of Abkhazia and they have the right to use the natural resources of Abkhazia in accordance with the legislation of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The Abkhaz ASSR establishes the banking (including foreign-economic bank), pricing, financial, customs and tax policy; forms the state budget and monetary fund.
The Abkhaz ASSR establishes the National Bank subordinated to the Supreme Council of the Republic.
14. The Abkhaz ASSR shall independently establish the order for the environmental protection on the territory of Abkhazia and guidelines for the management of the natural resources.
The Abkhaz ASSR has the right to bar any construction or suspend the operation of any institution, agency or organization, which pose at threat to the ecological security.
15. The Abkhaz ASSR shall freely decide the issues related to the scientific, cultural, educational and spiritual development of the Abkhaz nation; it shall secure the rights of all nationalities, residing on the territory of Abkhazia, on national and cultural development.
The Abkhaz ASSR shall secure national-cultural revival of the Abkhaz people, its historical perception and traditions, national-ethnographical characteristics, Abkhaz language functioning in all spheres of the life.
The Abkhaz ASSR shall take care of the Abkhazs residing in foreign countries in order to satisfy their national, cultural, spiritual and language needs.
The Abkhaz ASSR affirms its right on return and establishes the conditions for return of the part of deported Abkhaz people.
The national, cultural and historical valuables on the territory of he Abkhaz ASSR shall be property of the Abkhaz people.
The Abkhaz ASSR shall have the right to return at the possession of the Abkhaz people the national, cultural and historical valuables outside of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The State language on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR is the Abkhaz language; Abkhaz, Georgian and Russian languages are official languages of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The declaration is a basis for the new Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR and states on the position of the Republic at the conclusion of the Union Treaty and the Treaty with the Georgian SSR.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Kobakhia
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR I. Kvitsinia
25 August 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Abkhazia”, # 164, 28 August 1990)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on the Decision Taken by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on 25 August 1990
Having addressed the declaration issued by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on State Sovereignty of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and decree on Legal Guaranties for protection of Statehood of Abkhazia, the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR regards the aforementioned decisions, aimed at changing the nation-state and administrative-territorial arrangement of the Georgian SSR, as absolutely groundless steps and constitute gross violation of the Constitutions of the Georgian SSR, Abkhaz ASSR and the USSR.
Those actions and decisions, distorting historical facts and current political realities, inflict serious damage to the best interests of peoples of our multi-ethnic Republic, inter-ethnic relations, impede the process of democratization and establishment of state based on the rule of law, where the interests of the Abkhaz people, as well as interests of all other nationalities living in the Republic, shall be guaranteed and protected by the law.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR Decrees:
1. To declare the declaration issued by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on 25 August 1990 “State Sovereignty of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia” and decree on “Legal Guaranties for State protection “ null and void and having no legal force.
2. Commission, set up pursuant to the decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR - composed of experts, scientists, representatives of civil society and studying the issue of legal guaranties for state protection of the Abkhaz ASSR, shall submit, in the nearest future, proposals to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR for further deliberation.
The Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR G. Gumbaridze
The Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
26 August 1990
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1990, # 8, p. 15-16)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on the 10th Session of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR of the 11th Convocation
Having addressed the report of the Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V.G. Kholbaia “on the 10th Session of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR”, the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR gathered at its extraordinary Session notes that on 25 August 1990 the group of deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR adopted the resolution “On legal guaranties of the State Protection” and the Declaration “On state Sovereignty of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia”.
Groundless and malicious accusations toward Georgia and Georgian people, ignorance of historical justice reflected in the reports and speeches and formalized in the issued Decree lead to the confrontation and destabilization.
The Supreme Council and the leadership of the Presidium failed to march in step with the process of reforms and democratization.  They failed to elaborate recommendations in order to solve the accumulated problems, including the problems relating to the inter-ethnic relations. For more than a year and a half we have failed to convene the session and discuss already matured vital important issues, those that shall be solved expeditiously.
But since June of this year the leadership of the Supreme Council has made several attempts to discuss the main issues without prior consultations with the public and deputies.  Consequently the thousands of working people at their meetings and gatherings expressed their negative attitude toward the idea of the state sovereignty of Abkhazia unilaterally formulated by certain groups of people.
Expressing their attitude to the Session of 28 July 1990, more than 80 deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR out of 140 boycotted it.  A large group of the Soviet and Party officials, representatives of the working people, many citizens of Abkhazia protested the Decree of the Presidium.  The meeting of the People’s Deputies of all levels, representing the vast majority of the population of Abkhazia adopted the declaration on 23 August on holding the session on August 25 of this year with the noted agenda.  However, these valid requests, aimed at normalization of the situation at the Supreme Council, haven’t been heard and responded by the Presidium.
On 25 August 1990 the group of deputies arbitrarily gathered themselves in the session Hall of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.  Some of them where delivered there against their will.  The supreme Council made an attempt to declare the independence of Abkhazia without taking into account the desire of the vast majority of the indigenous population, considering that the Abkhazs “are authorized” to live in their common homeland - Georgia on the basis of a treaty-relation.
Confidentially prepared draft of the declaration hasn’t been published.  Even the most of the Deputies of the Presidium knew nothing about the declaration that became unexpected surprise for the deputies that had gathered at the hall.  The organizers of the session hesitated to include into agenda the issue regarding the declaration.
The preparation of the session and its conduct was a vivid example of the usurpation of the sovereign rights of the people and such conduct cannot be abandoned without the adequate response and reasonable counter-measures.
We reaffirm that all people have undeniable right to determine the own destiny but we have to give a political assessment to the situation established in Abkhazia and to those acts the decision on state independence is based on.
In accordance with the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme council of the Georgian SSR of 26 August 1990 “on the Decision Taken by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on 25 August 1990”, the issued documents shall be recognized null and void and having no legal force…
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To abrogate anti-Constitutional, unlawful and legally groundless Decision taken by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on 25 August 1990 “On legal Guaranties of the State protection of Abkhazia” that violates the territorial integrity of Georgia and to denounce “the Declaration on Abkhazia’s State Sovereignty” as it runs counter to the legal interests of the vast majority of the population of Abkhazia.
2. To condemn the accusations toward Georgia and Georgian people announced at the Session on 25 August 1990.  Such allegations do not correspond to the historical justice and lead the confrontation and destabilization.
3. To endorse the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR of 26 August 1990 “on the Decision Taken by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on 25 August 1990” as the document responding to the legal interests of the vast majority of the population of Abkhazia.
4. To set up a Commission of Deputies for investigation the facts of breach of the regulations, procedural issues and order of registration of deputies, as well as the facts of exerting influence upon certain deputies using unlawful and non-democratic methods, which took place at the Session on 25 August 1990.
8. To forward this Decree to the Supreme Council of the USSR, Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR and Supreme Council of the RSFSR; to publish the Decree in press.
The Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme council of the Abkhaz SSR V. Kholbaia
For the Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme council of the Abkhaz SSR R. Salukvadze
31 August 1990
(Newspaper “Sabchota Abkhazeti” # 171, 6 October 1990)


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 14TH SESSION OF THE OBLAST COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN AUTONOMOUS OBLAST OF THE 20TH CONVOCATION on reorganization of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast into the Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia
The 14th Session of the Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast of the 20th convocation decides:
1. To reorganize the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast into the Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia.
2. To appeal to the Supreme Council of the USSR to include the Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia within the USSR as an independent subject.
3. To appeal to the Union Republics of the USSR to conclude the union-treaties on friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance with the Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia.
Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast F. Zaseev
Secretary of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast I. Kokoev
20 September 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 180, 22 September 1990)


DECLARATION of State sovereignty of the Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia
The Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, expressing the will of the people of the South Ossetia, acknowledging the responsibility to the destiny of the Ossetian nation, recognizing the undeniable right of the Ossetian people to free self-determination… declares:
The South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast as the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic (SOSDR in short) within the USSR; the State sovereignty as the superiority; independence and full state power within the borders of its territory; authorization of its laws; independence of the Republic in foreign relations.
(…)
Intrinsic and necessary condition for further development of the Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic is its full independence in decision-making on political, social and economic spheres outside the issues voluntarily rendered within the competence of the USSR after admission of the SOSDR to the USSR.  The integral rights of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic, as a sovereign State, shall be realized pursuant to the universally recognized norms of the international law.
(…)
The people of the South Ossetia are the sole source of state power in the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic.
The State power of the South Ossetia shall be exercised:
- on the basis of the Constitution of the USSR and the Constitution of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic that secure the sovereignty, equality and security of the SOSDR;
(…)
Outside of competences voluntarily rendered to the USSR, the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic is free in decision-making of its internal and foreign policy…
If the law or other legal acts of the USSR contradict to the sovereign rights and legal interests of the South Ossetia, the effect of such acts in the territory of South Ossetia shall be suspended by the supreme state power of the SOSDR and the appropriate decision shall be made by the relevant agency.
(…)
The SOSDR grants the state citizenship on its territory.
Every citizen of the SOSDR retains the citizenship of the USSR.
(…)
The state languages of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic are Ossetian, Georgian and Russian.
(…) The State security of the SOSDR shall be secured:
- internal security - by municipal formations of the militia and the Ministry of Interior of the USSR, state security - by principles of the peaceful co-existence, cooperation and non-interference in internal affairs of other States and people; in case of offence against South Ossetia the state security shall be protected by the military troops of the USSR where the soldiers from the SOSDR perform the military service.
(…)
The SOSDR, as a subject of the USSR and the subject to the International Law shall independently exercise foreign affairs in compliance to the agreements concluded on the basis of equality, mutual-respect and principles of non-interference in internal affairs of any other state.
The SOSDR shall have special relations with the North Ossetia.
Affirming the unity of history, culture, language and interests of the national development, these relations shall be based on priority of cultural and economic integration of the SOSDR and the North Ossetian ASSR (NOASSR).
(…)
SOSDR shall have its National Emblem, Flag and Anthem.
(…)
The principles of this Declaration of the State Sovereignty of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic shall be the basis for:
- admission to the USSR as an independent subject; adoption of Constitution and Laws of the SOSDR;
- determination of rights and competences of the SOSDR as an independent subject to the Union Treaty;
- participation in the Union Treaty.
20 September 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 193. 13 October 1990)


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 14TH SESSION OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN OBLAST COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE 20TH CONVOCATION on the laws valid in the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
The 14th session of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of the 20th convocation notes that the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR at its sessions in November 1989 and in 9 March and 20 July of 1990 adopted the resolutions on declaration of the restoration of the state independence. They recognize the Treaty of 7 May 1920 between Georgia and Russia as the only legal instrument for the existence of the Republic of Georgia.
Establishment of the Soviet Power in Georgia in February of 1921 is assessed as the overthrowing of the legal power of the Georgian Democratic Republic. All existing state structures and agreements concluded after February 1921 are declared null and void, including Union Treaty of 30 December 1922 on establishment of the USSR.
As the South Ossetian autonomous oblast has been established after February 1921, and at the same time pursuant to the aforementioned resolutions of the Supreme Council of Georgia it is declared as illegal and void, the Constitution of the USSR and the Law of the USSR in accordance of Article 74 are only legal guarantors for existence of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Based upon aforementioned the 14th Session of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of the 20th convocation decides:
To recognize the Constitution of the USSR and other legal acts of the USSR as the only instruments having legal force at the territory of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast.
Chairman of the Ispolcom
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast F. Zaseev
Secretary of the Ispolcom
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast I. Kokoev
20 September 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 203, 27 October 1990)


EXTRACT FROM THE DECISION OF THE 14th SESSION OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN OBLAST COUNCIL OF PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE 20TH CONVOCATION on Moratorium of Purchasing and Selling the Houses and on “propiska” Procedures on the Territory of the Oblast.
Taking into account serious complication of demographic situation in the Oblast, unlawful purchasing of real estates, unauthorized appropriation of land, breach of passport regime and increasing pressure on the authorities of the Oblast from the side of informal organizations of the Republic aimed at unlawful possession of land, as well as forcible deportation of Ossetian ethnic from the villages with Georgian majority of population, the 14th Session of the South Ossetian oblast Council of People’s Deputies of the 20th Convocation decrees:
1. To declare the moratorium on purchasing and selling the real estates and houses without prior approval of the Commission on Refugees and Displaced persons of the Oblast Council.
Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputiesof the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast F. Zaseev
Secretary of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast I. Kokoev
20 September 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 202, 26 October 1990)
 

DECISION TAKEN BY THE 14TH SESSION OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN OBLAST COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE 20TH CONVOCATION on Declaration the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast as a Free Zone of Economy
The 14th Session of the South Ossetian oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of the 20th Convocation decrees:
1. To declare the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast as a Free Zone of Economy.
2. To set up Commission for elaboration of the directions for introduction of free economic zone in the territory of the South Ossetia.
(…)
The Commission in three-month term shall elaborate the proposals on the aforementioned issue to be discussed by the Ispolcom of the Council of people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
3. The Ispolcoms of Java, Znauri, Leningori and Tskhinvali Districts of the Councils of people’s deputies within a month shall discuss and decide the issue on determination of specialization of the zones in the region and the materials shall be submitted to the Oblast Commission and the Oblispolcom of the South Ossetia.
Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast F. Zaseev
Secretary of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast I. Kokoev
20 September 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 187, 26 October 1990)


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 14TH SESSION OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN OBLAST COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE 20TH CONVOCATION on performance of military service in the Soviet Army by the conscripts from the South Ossetia
The 14th Session of the Oblast Council of People’s Deputies of 20th convocation of the South Ossetia notes that as a result of unstable political situation and tensed inter-ethnic relations in the USSR, in some of republics, including Georgia, a mass rejection to serve in the Soviet Army has been observed over recent years.  The Supreme Council of Georgia took a decision on so-called “Alternative Military Service” that permits the conscripts of Georgian nationality to perform the military service on the territory of the Republic of Georgia within the internal formations.
The conscripts from the South Ossetia for over the years have performed their military duties before the homeland in dignity but due to the drastic changes of the inter-ethnic relations the condition of Ossetian conscripts is getting difficult and there is vital necessity to protect the interests of the youth of South Ossetia.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the 14th Session of the Oblast Council of People’s Deputies of 20th convocation of the South Ossetia decides:
To address to the General Headquarter of the Military Forces of the USSR to decide the issue on performing the military service of conscripts from the South Ossetia in the military units deployed on the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast or in the North Ossetian SSR.
Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South OssetianAutonomous Oblast F. Zaseev
Secretary of the Ispolcom of the Council
of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast I. Kokoev
20 September 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 202, 26 October 1990)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on Decision Taken on 20 September 1990 by the Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia
Having addressed the decision taken by the Oblast Council of the Peoples’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia on Sovereignty and Political Status of the South Ossetia, the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR regards the aforementioned decision, aimed at changing the nation-state and administrative-territorial arrangement of the Georgian SSR, violation of the state sovereignty of Georgia, as an absolutely groundless step and constitutes the gross violation of constitutions of the Georgian SSR and the USSR, as well as violation of the law on the Peoples’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia.
At the same time, the session was held under intense pressure of those persons who are not deputies and in gross violation of the constitutional and procedural norms. Such a decision, taken in gross violation of the Constitution of the Republic is groundless and unacceptable not only in legal terms, but also runs counter to the best interests of all people residing in Georgia and may provoke inter-ethnic tension.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR decrees:
1. To declare the decision taken on 20 September 1990 by the Oblast Council of the
Peoples’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia on Sovereignty and Political Status of the South Ossetia as null and void and having no legal force.
2. To entrust the Oblast Council of the Peoples’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia and its Executive Committee, with a task of taking all necessary measure aimed at securing strict adherence to the requirements of the Constitutions of the USSR and the Georgian SSR and the law on the Peoples’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia;
3. Conclusions of the special Committee on the political status of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia - set up on 18 November 1988 pursuant to the decree by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR - shall be sent to the Oblast Council of the Peoples’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia.
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR G. Gumbaridze
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR V. Kvaratskhelia
21 September 1990
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR, 1990, # 9, p. 9)
 

DECREE  ISSUED BY THE SUPREME SOVIET OF THE USSR on Consultations and Drafting of the Concept of the new Union Treaty
The Supreme Soviet of the USSR Decrees:
1. To take notice of the information of the Chairman of Soviet of Nationalities comrade R.N. Nishanov on consultations with the representatives of the Union and Autonomous Republics, political parties and movements on elaboration of the concept of the new Union Treaty held in July-September, 1990.
2. To stress on the fact that the majority of representatives of the Republics in the course of consultations showed the community of views to the new shape of the Union, transition to the all-Union market and provision of state security that lay a sufficient ground to further elaboration of the concept of the new Union Treaty.
3. To take into account, in the process of concept elaboration, the comments and remarks expressed by the People’s Deputies of the USSR at the discussions of this issue, as well as the recommendations by the committees of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and of the standing committees of Chambers.
4 To endorse the proposal by the President of the USSR on setting up the Preparatory Committee on elaboration of the Concept and the draft of the new Union Treaty; the Committee shall compose of plenipotentiary representatives of the Union Republics, the President of the USSR, the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR.
To consider reasonable participation of representatives of the autonomous               republics, autonomous oblasts and autonomous okrugs in the work of the preparatory           Committee.
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR A. Lukianov
Moscow, Kremlin, 1 October 1990
(Bulletin of the Peoples’ Deputies Congress of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR, M., 1989, # 41, p. 1001-1002)


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 15TH (1) SESSION OF THE  COUNCIL  OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN SOVIET DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC concerning the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR of 21 September 1990
15th (1) session of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic reaffirms its decision adopted on 20 September 1990 at its 14th session on reorganization of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast into the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic and notes that the decision has been adopted in accordance to Article 74 of the Constitution of the USSR and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Articles of the USSR law on separation of competences between the USSR and the subjects of the federation.  The 14th session ran in a composed and business atmosphere respecting all procedural norms and without placing pickets, going into strike or using the other forms of pressure.
Based upon the mentioned above, the 15th (1) session of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic endorses its decisions adopted at its 13th and 14th sessions and considers them valid.
The Chairman of the Interim Executive Council
of the South Ossetian Soviet DemocraticRepublic T. Kulumbegov
The Secretary of the Interim Executive Council
of the South Ossetian Soviet DemocraticRepublic K. Kokoev
16 October 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 197, 19 October 1990)


DECREE OF THE 15TH SESSION OF  THE  COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN SOVIET DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC on the Law of the USSR “on Property in the USSR”
In accordance to the law of the USSR “on Property in the USSR” (chapter IV, Article 20, paragraph 1) the land and entrails, waters, flora and fauna are integral property of the people of South Ossetia.
The Democratic Republic of South Ossetia within the frame of the legislation of the USSR and its own legal acts shall exercise possession, appropriation and management of land and other natural resources on its territory.
Chairman of the Interim Executive Committee
of the Democratic Republic of South Ossetia T. Kulumbegov
Secretary of the Interim Executive Committee
of the Democratic Republic of South Ossetia I. Kokoev
16 October 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 199, 23 October 1990)


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 15TH (1) SESSION OF THE  COUNCIL  OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN SOVIET DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC on the attitude towards the election of Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR
The decision of the 14th session of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies has reorganized the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast into the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic.
The 15th (1) session of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic decides:
1. To declare illegal the functioning of the polling districts and stations, as well as participation of the population in the election of the Supreme Council of Georgia on the territory of the South Ossetia.
2. To ask the Central Electoral commission of Georgia for abolishment of the district electoral commissions created at the territory of the South Ossetia.
The Chairman of the Interim Executive Council
of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic T. Kulumbegov
The Secretary of the Interim Executive Council
of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic K. Kokoev
16 October 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 202, 26 October 1990)  


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 15TH (1) SESSION OF THE  COUNCIL  OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN SOVIET DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC on the letter of 9th session of the South Ossetian oblast Council of 6 May 1989 regarding the condemnation of the authors of “The Letter to Abkhaz Friends”
As it is known, the 9th session of the South Ossetian oblast council of the 20th convocation on 6 May 1989 sent a letter to the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR condemning the authors of “The Letter to Abkhaz Friends” where the authors expressed their concern with regard of informal organizations of Georgia, which bred the tense in Abkhazia.  The same letter also voiced certain dismay about possible inter-ethnic conflict in the Abkhaz SSR.
On the basis of the declaration of the 9th session, some of the authors of the letter were brought to the criminal liability under Article 74 of the Criminal Code of Georgia.
Inter-regional group of Deputies of the 15th session of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Democratic Republic expressed its protest against this decision on 16 October 1990 and demanded to re-consider this issue.
The eminent lawyers learnt the text of the letter in 1989 and found nothing to be used for criminal prosecution against the authors.  All the more, the prognosis of the letter came true.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the 15th session of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Democratic Republic decides:
1. To consider unlawful the criminal prosecution against the authors of the “Abkhaz Letter” of A. Parastaev, A. Tskhovrebov, A. Chochiev.
2. To file the motion to the Prosecutor’s office of the South Ossetian Democratic Republic on termination of the criminal prosecution against A. Parastaev, A. Tskhovrebov, A. Chochiev.
3.  To file the motion to the Prosecutor’s Office of the South Ossetian democratic Republic to bring to justice those Deputies of 9th session that cast aspersions on the authors of the letter.
4. To publish in the Oblast newspaper the Decree adopted by the 15th Session.
To forward the copy to the Prosecutor’s Office of the Georgian SSR.
5. To forward the copy of the decree together with the text of “Abkhaz Letter” to the Prosecutor’s Office of the USSR.
Chairman of the Interim Executive Committee
of the Democratic Republic of South Ossetia T. Kulumbegov
Secretary of the Interim Executive Committee
of the Democratic Republic of South Ossetia  I. Kokoev
16 October 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, #199, 23 October 1990)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on the Decision to change the status of the Oblast taken by the Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia.
The Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR notes with a deep concern that recent separatist movement is gaining momentum in the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, thereby undermining territorial integrity and sovereignty of the Republic of Georgia.
The very telling proof of the aforementioned is a decision taken by the Oblast Council of the Peoples’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia on turning the Oblast into the so-called “The Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia”.
Through its decree of 21 September 1990, the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR declared null and void and invalidated the decision, dated 20 September 1990, taken by the Oblast Council of the Peoples’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia.
However, on 16 October 1990 the 15th session of the Council of Autonomous Republic was summoned that endorsed its previous decision and elected so-called “ Executive Committee of the Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia” and adopted temporary procedure for elections to the Supreme Council of the Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia and to local councils of the South Ossetia. The elections are to be held on 2 December 1990:
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
To declare null and void the decision of the Oblast Council of the Peoples’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia on turning the Oblast into the so-called “The Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia” and all attendant decisions, including the one on holding elections on 2 December 1990, since these decisions are not in conformity with the current Constitution of Georgia, either with the Constitution of the USSR and the decree of the Supreme Council of Georgia, dated 2 September 1990.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia calls upon all citizens residing in the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, especially ethnically Ossetians, to demonstrate common sense, political far-sightedness and adequately assess the dangerous activities of the separatist forces that may well result in general destabilization and attendant dire consequences.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declares that it will continue its unswerving struggle for territorial integrity and sovereignty of the Republic of Georgia. At the same time, it reaffirms its determination to protect, in full conformity with the universally recognized principles of human rights, fundamental freedoms and rights of ethnic minorities residing in Georgia.
The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
22 November 1990
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1990, # 11, p. 57-58)


DECISION OF THE 16TH (2) SESSION OF THE  COUNCIL  OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN SOVIET DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC to Rename the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic as the South Ossetian Soviet Republic
The 16th (2) session of the People’s Deputies of the Republic decides:
1. To Rename the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic as the South Ossetian Soviet Republic.
The Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council
of the People’s Deputies of the South OssetianSoviet Republic T. Kulumbegov
The Secretary of the Ispolcom of the Council
of the People’s Deputies of the South OssetianSoviet Republic K. Kokoev
28 November 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 226, 1 December, 1990)  


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 16TH (2) SESSION OF  THE  COUNCIL  OF  THE  PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN SOVIET REPUBLIC on the status of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic
Having discussed the draft of a new Union Treaty, the 16th (2) session of the Council of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic decides:
1. To ask repeatedly the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR, The Supreme Council of the USSR for the recognition of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic, as a subject to the Federation and its consideration as a full-fledged Party when a new Union Treaty is being signed.
2. To entrust the People’s Deputies of the USSR from the South Ossetia with the task of informing the participants of the Fourth Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR about the current decision.
The Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic T. Kulumbegov
The Secretary of the Ispolcom of the Council
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic K. Kokoev
28 November 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 226, 1 December 1990)  


DECISION TAKEN BY THE 16TH (2) SESSION OF THE  COUNCIL  OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN SOVIET REPUBLIC on changes of the title of the Interim Executive Council of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic
The 16th (2) session of the Council of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic decides:
To exclude from the title of the “Interim executive council of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic” the words “interim” and “democratic” and hereinafter call it the Executive Council of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic.
The Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic T. Kulumbegov
The Secretary of the Ispolcom of the Council
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic K. Kokoev
28 November 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 226, 1 December 1990)  


DECISION OF THE 16TH (2) SESSION OF THE  COUNCIL  OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN SOVIET REPUBLIC on the attitude towards the Resolution issued on 22 November 1990 by the newly elected Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia “On Decision of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast on changing the status of the Oblast”
The 16th (2) session of the Council of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic decides:
1. To endorse and keep valid the decisions of 13th, 14th and 15th sessions of the Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetia relating to the legal status and the election of the People’s Deputies to the Supreme Council of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic of 9 December 1990.
2. To deliver the information regarding this Decision to the President of the USSR Comr. Gorbachev, the Supreme Council of the USSR and the Fourth Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR.
The Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic T. Kulumbegov
The Secretary of the Ispolcom of the Council
of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic K. Kokoev
28 November 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 226, 1 December 1990)  


LAW OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on changes and amendments to the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Abkhaz ASSR
Article 102. The Presidium of  the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be fully accountable to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR exercising the organizational activity of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR and fulfilling other authorities within the framework determined by the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR and other laws of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council shall consist the following officials: Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR, deputy chairmen of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR, Chairman of the Chamber of Control of the Abkhaz ASSR, chairmen of the standing Commissions of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR leads the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.  After the expiration of the term of authority of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR the Presidium reserves its authority until the first sitting of the newly elected Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 103. The Presidium of the Supreme council of the Abkhaz ASSR shall:
1) convene the sessions of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR;
2) arrange the sittings of the Session of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR;
3) coordinate the work of standing commissions and sub-commissions of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR;
4) assist the People’s Deputies of the Abkhaz ASSR to exercise their authority and provide the necessary information;
5) approve the date for, and coordinate the election of the people’s deputies for the local councils of the Abkhaz ASSR;
6) coordinate the preparatory works and hold the referendum as well as the nation-wide discussion of the draft laws of the Abkhaz ASSR and other principal issues of the State life;
7) establish the memorial or other national days of the Abkhaz ASSR;
8) institute and award honourable titles and decorations of the Abkhaz ASSR;
9) publish in Abkhaz, Georgian and Russian languages the shorthand of reports and other acts issued by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Presidium of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR;
10) The Presidium of the Abkhaz ASSR shall issue the Orders and Decrees, which shall be considered adopted if the majority of the Presidium has voted in favour.
(…)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
4 December 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Abkhazia”, # 236, 8 December 1990)    


LAW of the Republic of Georgia on Abolition of the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia
The separatist forces active in the Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia are seeking through the creation of the so-called “ Soviet Republic of South Ossetia” to usurp the state power, violate territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia and separate its historical and integral part from Georgia. Such actions contradict not only the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, but also the Constitution of the USSR and basic principles of the International Law.
Despite the numerous warnings of the supreme Authorities of the Republic of Georgia aimed to put an decisive end to the illegal actions undertaken by the self-proclaimed authorities of the Autonomous Oblast, on November 9, separatists held elections of the Supreme Council of the so called “ Soviet Republic of South Ossetia”, thereby posing serious threat to the territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia.
Taking into consideration the fact that the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia was established in 1922 in full disrespect of the local Georgian population and contradicted the best interest of the Georgian people and bearing in mind the fact that the Ossetian people have their statehood on their historical homeland - the North Ossetia and that only insignificant portion of ethnic Ossetians live in the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, where they enjoy, and will continue enjoying wide cultural autonomy rights, pursuant to the paragraphs 3 and 11 of Article 104 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To abolish the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
2. To abolish the Council of Peoples’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, its executive and steering body - the Executive Committee and other state bodies of the Autonomous Oblast.
3. To declare invalidated the Decree # 2 of 20 April 1922 adopted by the Georgian Central Executive Committee and the Council of Peoples’ Commissars of Georgia on “Establishment of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia” and the Georgian SSR law on “The Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia”.
4. To endorse previous decisions of the highest Authorities of the Republic of Georgian on anti-constitutionality of decisions made by the separatists on declaring the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia the Soviet Republic of South Ossetia.
To declare as illegal and invalidated the elections of the Supreme Council of the so-called “the Soviet Republic of South Ossetia” held on 9 December 1990.
5. The special Commission on the Rule of Law and Protection of Legal Acts of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia shall submit proposals on introduction of necessary amendments to the Constitution and other legal acts of the Republic of Georgia.
6. The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia shall:
- submit its proposals to the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia on administrative-territorial arrangement of the former Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia;
- carry out all necessary measures, envisaged by the Georgian legislature, to secure public order on the territory of the former Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and prevent self-declared, illegal separatist bodies from carrying out their destructive activities;
- secure full conformity of decisions of the Georgian Government with this law.
1. The Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Georgia shall discuss and make decision on bringing to justice those individuals who have disobeyed the decision of the supreme authorities of Georgia, grossly violated Constitutionally defined rules and procedures of elections and abused power of office.
2. This law shall come into force immediately upon adoption.
Chair of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
11 December 1990
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of Georgia, 1990, # 12, p. 10-12)     


DECREE ISSUED BY HE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Introduction of State of Emergency on the territory of town of Tskhinvali and the Java District.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia notes that recently, as result of illegal and criminal activities of separatist forces on the territory of former Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, namely in Tskhinvali, situation has been extremely deteriorated; anti-Constitutional elections were held, the separatists declared he so called “Soviet Republic of South Ossetia”, the self-imposed adventurous elements have usurped power, thereby posing serious threat to civil peace, a number of terrorist acts have been committed. Today, on one of the central streets of Tskhinvali, three citizens have been killed and three wounded through usage of machine gun.
In order to protect State Sovereignty of Georgia, assure the security of citizens, restore the rule of law and order and to achieve early normalization of the overall situation, pursuant to Paragraph 7 of Article 113 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To introduce a State of Emergency on the territory of town of Tskhinvali and the Java district beginning from 12 December 1990. The state of emergency shall continue a month.
2. To introduce Curfew on the territory of Tskhinvali and the Java district beginning from 22:00h of 12 December 1990. The duration of Curfew shall be from 22:00h to 07:00h.
3. The Minister of Interior of the Republic of Georgia shall be entitled with a mandate of appointing and/or dismissing the Commandant of town of Tskhinvali and the Java district.
4. In order to protect human rights of citizens and maintain public order, secure proper functioning of public utilities and organizations, the armed forces of the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of State Security and military units of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR deployed in Tskhinvali and the Java district shall be used. Those laws and rules that respect the sovereign rights of the Republic of Georgia shall guide these forces.
(…)
9. This Decree shall come into effect from 22:00h of 12 December 1990 and continue until annulment of the State of Emergency.
10. To notify promptly the Supreme Council of the Soviet Union and the President of the Soviet Union on introduction of the State of Emergency.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia shall inform the UN Secretary- General on introduction of the State of Emergency and ask him to dispatch his observers to Georgia.
The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia
12 December 1990
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, # 12, 20-23)
 

DECISION TAKEN BY THE FIRST SESSION OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN SOVIET REPUBLIC on validity of the Constitution (Organic Law) on the territory of the South Ossetia
The First Session of the South Ossetian Soviet Socialist Republic notes that the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia has recently adopted anti-constitutional normative act infringing the sovereign rights of the people of South Ossetia.  In particular, South Ossetian autonomous Oblast has been abolished by decree of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia of 11 December 1990.  That is a gross violation of Article 73, section 3 of the Constitution (Organic Law) of the USSR that states that the establishment of fundamentals of organization and activities of the state authority and local self-governance in the union republics is exclusively under the jurisdiction of the USSR.  The Republic of Georgia practically has abolished all soviet structures and that becomes evident from the law adopted on 14 November “On changing the name of the Georgian SSR”, law “On Holding Elections of the Local governance” adopted on 11 December 1990 and others.
Pursuant to Article 74 of the Constitution of the USSR, if the law of the union republic is not in compliance with the Constitution of the USSR, the Constitution of the USSR shall have a superior legal force.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the First Session of the Supreme Council of the South Ossetian Soviet Socialist Republic decides:
1. To suspend the validity of the Georgian laws and other legal acts, which do not comply with the Constitution of the USSR, the laws of the USSR and the law of the Georgian SSR “On the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast”.
2. To ask the relevant bodies of the USSR for re-subordination of all structures of the soviet authority under the competence of the agencies of the Soviet Union.
Chairman of he Supreme Council of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic T. G. Kulumbegov
13 December 1990
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, 3 January 1991)


RESOLUTION ISSUED BY THE CONGRESS OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE USSR on general concept of the new Union Treaty and procedures of its conclusion.
1. The Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR… declares …for the reorganization of our Multi-national State into the voluntary and equal Union of the sovereign republics - the Democratic Federative State.
The renewed Union, based on the principles of the will of people and the declarations on the state sovereignty of the republics and autonomous entities, intends to secure … equality of the people regardless the number of population, their rights to self-determination and free democratic development, territorial integrity of the subjects of Federation.
2. To consider expedient establishment of the Preparatory Committee in order to carry out the spadework on the draft of the new Union Treaty.  The Committee shall comprise the high-level authorities from the republics and autonomous entities, as well as the President of the USSR, the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the USSR and the Chairman of the Council of Nationalities of the USSR…
(…)
The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the USSR A. Loukyanov
25 December 1990
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR, M., 1991, # 1. p. 7-8)


1991
DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNION OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS on Certain Legal Acts Adopted in 1990 by the Republic of Georgia
On 20 September 1990 the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast adopted the Declaration that proclaimed the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast as the Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia.
On 11 December 1990 the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR adopted the law which abrogated the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast established in 1922.  At the same time the provisions regarding the noted Oblast have been excluded from the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and the right of the Republic on abolishment of the autonomous oblast has been introduced.
Those Acts, issued by the Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies and the Supreme council of the union republic breach the Constitution of the USSR and the established procedures for changing the status of the autonomous republic.
In accordance with Article 87 of the Constitution of the USSR the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast exists within the Georgian SSR.  Pursuant to the Constitution of the USSR (Article 73, Paragraph 2) and the law “On Distribution of Competences Between the USSR and the Subjects of the Federation” (Article 6, paragraph 2), any decision on changing the status of the autonomous entities enters into legal force only after the supreme bodies of the USSR have approved it.
Based on Article 1273, Paragraph 1 and 2, I decree:
1. Pursuant to the Constitution of the USSR and the Law of the USSR “On Guarantees of Implementation of the Laws and Other Legal Acts of the USSR”, aforementioned Acts issued with a breach of current legislation by the organs of the Georgian SSR and the autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia included in the Georgian SSR, have no legal force since their adoption and the state and public organizations, as well as economic institutions, enterprises, establishments and the citizens are not liable to implement them.
2. To entrust the Supreme Council and the Government of the Georgian SSR, local Councils of the People’s Deputies, law-enforcement agencies of the Republic with the task of securing the requirements of the constitution of the SSR and the Laws of the USSR regarding the protection of the rights and legal interests of citizens residing on the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
3. To withdraw within three days all military formations from the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast except the troops of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR.
4. Within five days the leadership of the Republic shall submit the information to the president of the USSR on measures carried out for the regulation of the situation in the Republic.
5. The current Decree shall enter into force with immediate effect.
President of the Union of the Soviet Socialist republics M. Gorbachev
7 January 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies and the supreme Council of the USSR, 1991,  # 2, p. 118-119)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on the Decree issued by the President of the USSR on 7 January 1991
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia having acquainted itself with the Decree issued by the President of the USSR on January 7, 1991 deems it necessary to decree the following:
1. The Decree issued by the President of the USSR, which does not recognize  legality of the decree issued on January 7, 1991 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia on Abolition of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, is anti-constitutional due to the following circumstances:
a) In accordance with the Constitutions of the Republic of Georgia and the USSR, the Republic of Georgia is a sovereign State and within its borders exercises supreme authority (Article 70 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia and Article 78 of the Constitution of the USSR), and all state organs, civil organizations, enterprises and other legal entities located on the territory of Georgia are obliged to strictly adhere and implement laws and other legal acts of the Republic of Georgia. Therefore, not a single body of the USSR is authorized to invalidate legal acts of the Republic of Georgia;
b) In accordance with the Constitutions of the Republic of Georgia and the USSR, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia is  authorized to make decisions on any issues relating to nation-building. Having applied this constitutional right, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia abolished the illegally created Autonomous Oblast of  South Ossetia, which became the bulwark for extremists and separatists carrying out not only the policy of discrimination and suppression of the local Georgian population, but they are also doing their utmost to separate this region from Georgia;
c) In accordance with the Constitution of the USSR, the Supreme Council of the USSR is authorized to endorse the creation of new autonomous entities (Article 73 paragraph 2) while taking decisions on this issue is under the jurisdiction of Union Republics (article 72 paragraph 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia).
The Decree on Abolition of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia has not been submitted for endorsement to the Supreme authority of the USSR, since there is no such a legal mechanism provided by either the Constitution of the USSR or the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia. The law “on Separation of Authorities between the USSR and Subjects of the Federation”, adopted on 26 April 1990, despite all its anti-constitutional character, did not provide mechanism for endorsement of decisions on abolishment of an Autonomous Oblast.
The Supreme Council of the USSR is obliged to remove from Article 87 of the Constitution of the USSR provision on Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia as a constituent part of the Republic of Georgia, with the purpose of bringing the Constitution of the USSR in line with the legal and factual reality.
2. The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia does not belittle the right of people to self-determination, including right to creation a new state, however, it deems absolutely unacceptable the application of the above mentioned rights by those ethnic minorities living in Georgia and having their own statehood outside the frontiers of the Republic of Georgia. The International Law itself guarantees for ethnic minorities only cultural autonomy and equality in all spheres of life (Article 27 of International Convention on Civil and Political Human Rights, recently adopted the Paris Charter for New Europe and other legal acts) and those rights have always been and are guaranteed and respected to the maximum extent in Georgia for representatives of all ethnic minorities.
It also should be mentioned that in addition to the Autonomous Oblast with 65 000 population, there are more than 100 000 Ossetian nationals residing in defferent regions of Georgia and enjoiyng the civil, economic and cultural rights.
3. The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia deems the stance assumed by the highest state bodies of USSR and personally by the President of the USSR unacceptable, since during the whole period of separatist and activities carried out by the Peoples’ Deputies of Autonomous Oblast, when it adopted unambiguously anti-constitutional legal acts  (dated of September 20 and October 16 of 1990), the Union bodies failed to react in any official manner and did not support the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia and its Presidium, the very body that, in full conformity with relevant provisions of the Constitution of the USSR- so often referred to by the President of the USSR-  had declared anti-constitutional activities carried out by the Council of  Peoples’ Deputies of Autonomous Oblast.
If we are to take face value the Constitution of USSR, it is an obligation of the Union, and first of all of President of the USSR, to secure constitutionally guaranteed sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Union Republics.
In fact, the Union organs encouraged the separatists in their illegal activities; on 9 December 1990 so called elections were held in the illegally created “republic”. However, the President of the USSR, as well as the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR preferred to turn blind eye to this unlawfulness.
The President of the USSR responded to this fact only when the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia had to abolish the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast that practically had been abolished upon the decree of the Oblast Council on reorganization of the Autonomous Oblast into Autonomous Republic independent from Georgia.
It’s worth to be mentioned that announcement of the State of Emergency was based on the prior negligence of the authorities of the USSR to the facts of separatism.  They didn’t respond the facts of murder of Georgian law-enforces in Tskhinvali though there were the troops of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR.
Backed from the center, the extremists made a rule to attack Georgian law-enforcers that are dispatched there to maintain public order.  Often they are taken hostage.
Due to the established situation Georgian law-enforcers failed to seize the guns and ammunitions that were under the possession of the impudent extremists.
The Decree of 7 January 1991 issued by the President of USSR and calling for withdrawal of all armed formations- save for the troops of Ministry of Interior of USSR- from the region is devoid of any moral and legal rational.
There are no “armed formations” in the region, save for Ossetian extremist, who thanks to negligence and on the part of the troops of Ministry of Interior of the USSR, are hunting for representatives of the Ministry of Interior of Georgia. Unfortunately, the presidential decree failed to mention this deplorable fact. Troops of the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Georgia are carrying out activities aimed at stabilization of the situation in the region during the curfew.
Involvement of troops of the Ministry of Interior and State Security of the Republic of Georgia for maintaining public order is clearly envisaged by both the legislatures of the Republic of Georgia and the USSR. This is one of the sovereign rights of the Republic not a single Union body, including the President of USSR, is authorized to limit the Republic of Georgia in exercising its jurisdiction and maintaining public order during the curfew. Moreover, the Union bodies had approved introduction of a regime of curfew.
The order of the President entailed the tragic events in a few hours after its publication.  Encouraged by this Act the extremists attacked the Georgian Policemen.  The attack caused the casualties.
It should be noted, that the presidential decree, on the one hand, questions the legality of the Georgian law and indicates on necessitate to undertake some steps, on the other hand, it turns blind eye to the necessity of abolition of structures of the so called Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To endorse the decree issued on December 11, 1990 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia “on Abolition of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia”.
2. To submit a proposal on introduction of relevant amendments to Article 87 of the Constitution of the USSR to the Supreme Council of the USSR.
3. To note that the decree issued by the President of the USSR considered illegal acts by the Council of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia on creation of the so called Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia.
4. To consider illegal the decree calling for withdrawal of militia detachments of the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Georgia from the region, for the detachments are functioning on the Georgian territory to secure public order and acting in full conformity with the existing legislation.
6. To consider the USSR presidential decree of 7 January 1991 as gross interfйrence in internal affairs of Georgia and encroachment on its territorial integrity, disrespect for sovereign rights of the republic and its people that found its reflection in distortion of the official title of the Republic of Georgia- in the decree the old title of Georgia-the Georgian SSR had been used.
7. It amounts to gross violation of supremacy of legally elected state authority and principle of territorial integrity to prevent the state authorities to use its own law enforcing bodies to control an integral part of its own territory.
In case if the troops of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR deployed in the region would venture to forcefully remove the low enforcement organs of the Republic of Georgia from the region, such an action will be considered as initiation of war by the center against Georgia.
Responsibility for consequences of such actions before the international community shall fully lie on the supreme authorities of the USSR and personally on the President of the USSR.
8. The decree shall come into force immediately upon adoption.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
9 January 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 1, p 10-15)


RESOLUTION OF THE JOINT SESSION OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE NORTH OSSETIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC AND VLADIKAVKAZ CITY COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES
The Supreme Council of the North-Ossetian SSR and Vladikavkaz City Council of People’s Deputies express their deep concern at the events in the South Ossetia.
Escalation of tension in the region has started since the adoption of the Declaration of Independence of 20 September 1990 by the South Ossetian Democratic Republic and abolishment of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast by the Republic of Georgia under Decree issued on 11 December 1990.
Attempt to solve the extremely difficult situation through the forcible measures and detachment to Tskhinvali and adjacent territories the units of the Ministry of Interior and the State Security Ministry of Georgia exacerbated the public-political situation in the region resulting in human casualties.  These tragic events found sad echo among the population of the North-Ossetia.
Thousands of our countrymen have the relatives in Georgia and in South Ossetia.  The matter regards not only Ossetians as there are more than 12 thousand Georgians residing in Vladikavkaz.  We cannot remain indifferent and just spectators to the events and we are going to make our contribution in order to speed up the process of stabilization in the South Ossetia through peaceful and legal measures.
The joint extraordinary session of the Supreme Council of the North-Ossetian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Vladikavkaz City Council of the People’s Deputies resolves:
1. To endorse and support the Decree issued by the President of the USSR “On certain legal acts adopted in December of 1990 by the Georgian SSR” aimed at stabilization of the public-political situation in the South Ossetia.
2. The Councils of People’s Deputies, Ministries and state agencies, labour collectives and public organizations shall actively facilitate the process of stabilization and defusing the explosive situation in the South Ossetia and around it through peaceful means of conflict resolution.
3. To approve the texts of the Appeal to the People of the South Ossetia and Georgia and of the telegram to the President of the USSR.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the North-Ossetian SSR A. Kh. Galazov
10 January 1991
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 8, 11 January 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME SOVIET OF THE USSR on organization and measures for holding the Referendum of the USSR on the issue of preserving the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Based on the fact that only the People may take a burden of historical responsibility before the fate of the USSR, and in order to implement the decisions of the Forth Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and in compliance with the legislation of the USSR on the Referendum, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Decrees:
1. To hold on the whole territory of the USSR the Referendum of the USSR on preserving the USSR as a federation of equal republics on Sunday, 17 March 1991.
2. To include in the secret ballot-paper the following wording of the question put to the Referendum and the versions of voters’ answers:
“Do you consider necessary preservation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic as a renewed federation of equal sovereign republics, in which the human rights and freedoms will be fully secured for a person of any nationality”.
“Yes” or “No”
3. To consolidate the results of voting for the All-Union taking into account the results of voting in each Republic separately.
10. In accordance with Article 29 of the Law of the USSR “on the Public Referendum of the USSR”, the decision made through the Referendum of the USSR is final, binding on the whole territory of the USSR and may be revoked or changed solely through the new Referendum of the USSR.
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR A. Lukianov
Moscow, Kremlin, 16 January 1991
(Bulletin of the Peoples’ Deputies Congress of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR, M., 1991, # 4, p. 161-162)


DECREE  ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE USSR on Information of the Group of People’s Deputies Visiting the Georgian SSR and the South Ossetia
The presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR decrees:
1. To take notice of the information of the Group of People’s Deputies Visiting the Georgian SSR and the South Ossetia on the instruction of the Supreme Council of the USSR.
2. To consider necessary the application of additional measures for implementation of the Decree of the President of the USSR “on Certain Legal Acts Adopted in 1990 by the Georgian SSR”.
3. To familiarize with, and forward the information to the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR, Ministry of Defense of the USSR and the Ministry of Interior of the USSR.
The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the USSR A. Lukyanov
22 January 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies and the Supreme Council of the USSR, 1991, # 5, p. 204)


DECREE ISSED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Conscription of Draftees for the Service in the Interior Troops-National Guard in 1991
Pursuant to Article 61 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia and the law of the Republic of Georgia on the “Creation of Interior Troops-National Guard of the Republic of Georgia” adopted on 20 December 1990 and in order to secure organized conscription of draftees for mandatory military service, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To set up Republican Conscription Council that shall secure organized conscription of draftees to the Interior Troops-National Guard of the Republic of Georgia.
3. To entrust the Council of Minister of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Council of Minister of the Ajara ASSR with a task of setting up Conscription Councils in all regions and towns within their jurisdiction and involve representatives of Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Health, other state organs and civil-political organizations in this process.
(…)
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
29 January  1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 1, p 89-90)


LAW  Of  THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on the Local self-government in the Transitional Period
(…)
Article 5. Local State Authority Organs
1. Prefect and the Office of Prefect
The prefect Office, under the leadership of Perfect shall be a Local State Authority Organ in regions and towns of the republican subordination …
(…)
Prefect shall be the highest official post in regions and towns of republican subordination. S/he shall be a guarantor of protection of the state interests and secure implementation of decisions taken by the higher state authorities of the Republic of Georgia.
(…)
Prefects to districts and towns that are subordinate to the Autonomous Republics shall be appointed and dismissed by the Presidium of Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia upon the proposal of Chairman of Autonomous Republic in close consultation with the Council of Ministers of Autonomous Republic and the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia.
(…)
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
29 January 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 1, p. 19-20)


DECREE ISSUED BY  THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Certain laws and Decrees, issued on 29 January 1991 by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR.
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR takes into consideration the fact that the first session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia adopted the law on election of the local self-governance of the Republic of Georgia – the assemblies and issued Decree on holding the election of assemblies on 31 March of this year.
These legal acts gave a rise to numerous questions among the employees of the soviet organs and the population of the Abkhaz SSR, which have been delivered to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The presidium of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To give an interpretation to the fact, that the autonomous republic is authorized to decide independently the issues related to the structures of the local governance, electoral system and holding the election as it is prescribed by the Constitutions of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Republic of Georgia and the USSR.
2. To entrust the Permanent commission on the Legislation and Socialist Law with a task of discussing the law “On Elections of the People’s Deputies of the Local Councils” at the next sitting of the 10th session of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
(…)
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
7 February 1991
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Abkhazia”, # 21, 12 February 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE RSFSR on Immediate assistance to the population of the North Ossetia in connection with the events in the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia
Since January of 1991 the population in the South Ossetian autonomous Oblast of the Georgian SSR is facing extremely grave economic condition due to erupted military conflict there. Food supply to the center of Tskhinvali has been cut off for a long time; there is a lack of medicines and bandages; many people have lost their houses; thousands have sought refuge in the territory of the RSFSR, in the North Ossetia.   Currently the electricity supply is cut off in the city Tskhinvali and there is no water supply either.  Such extreme situation puts the population at the edge of catastrophe.  The situation in other regions of the autonomous Oblast is similar as in Tskhinvali.  Situation established in the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast also raises the tension in the neighboring regions of the RSFSR.
Taking into consideration the growing tense in the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast and the fact that Union agencies do not take efficient measures to assist the region, the Supreme council of the RSFSR decrees:
1. To entrust the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR with a task of entering into negotiations with the leadership of the Republic of Georgia in order to give to the conflict a peaceful resolution.
2. The Council of Ministers of the RSFSR in three days time shall determine for, and provide to the population of the North Ossetia necessary economic and humanitarian aid, in particular:
- Food, medicines, tents, fuel and oil supply;
- Technical and technological assistance to arrange telephone and telegraphs connection with the regions of the North Caucasus of the RSFSR.
First Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR R. I. Khasbulatov
8 February 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR, M., 1991, # 7, p. 123-124)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on dismissal of R.Z. Shonia from the post of Chairman of Executive Committee of the People’s Deputies Regional Council of Gali District
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
To dismiss Rabo Shonia from the post of Chairman of Executive Committee of the People’s Deputies Regional Council of Gali district.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
11 February 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 2, p. 40)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on appointment of E.K. Janjulia on the Post of Prefect of the Gali District
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
To appoint Edisher Janjulia on the post of Prefect of the Gali district.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
11 February 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 2, p. 45)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Decree issued by the Presidium of the Supreme council of the Republic of Georgia of 11 February 1991 concerning the dismissal of the Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council of People’s Deputies of the Gali District
By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia of 11 February 1991, the Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council of People’s Deputies of the Gali district Rabo D. Shonia was dismissed from his position and Edisher K. Janjulia was appointed as a Prefect of the Gali district of the Abkhaz ASSR.  Such position is not considered in the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Aforementioned Decree is unlawful as it was issued breaching Articles 66 and 120 of the current Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, which states, that the state authority is exercised by people through the people’s deputies.  Determination of the rules for and activity of the local state organs is under the jurisdiction of the Abkhaz ASSR performed by the supreme organs of the state authority.As a result of unlawful decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia of 11 February 1991 on appointment of the Prefect in the Gali district, the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1.  To consider null and void from the moment of its adoption the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia of 11 February 1991 on dismissal of the Chairman of the Ispolcom of the Council of People’s Deputies of the Gali district Rabo D. Shonia and appointment of Edisher K. Janjulia as a Prefect of the Gali district of the Abkhaz ASSR.
2. The local Councils of the People’s Deputies, together with the Prosecutor’s Office, Committee of the State Security and the Ministry of Interior shall undertake necessary measures to secure Constitutional order of the autonomous republic, organs of the soviet authority and officials elected by the population of the cities and raions of Abkhazia.
3. This Decree shall be published in press.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
13 February 1991
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Abkhazia”, # 24, 15 February 1991)


DECISION ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF NATIONALITIES OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE RSFSR on Results of Visit of the People’s Deputies in Georgia due to the Events in the South Ossetia
Having heard the information of the head of group of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR, the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR is deeply concerned at the developments in this region and voices its condemnation on attempts of solving political and national problems through anti-constitutional acts and military forces regardless the side it is conducted by.
The council of Nationalities decrees:
1. To take notice of the information of Comr. Sorokina G. N. on the results of the visit of people’s deputies Comr. Antonova V. V., Arzhannikova N. M. and Shuikov V. V. in Georgia due to the developments in the South Ossetia.
2. To address the Parliament and the Government of Georgia calling for taking necessary measures in order to provide with food, heating and water supply and medicines for the population of the South Ossetia.
3. The Presidium of the supreme Council of the RSFSR shall expedite the direct negotiations with the leadership of Georgia aimed at immediate peaceful settlement of the situation in the South Ossetia.
4. To address the President of the USSR Comr. Gorbachev M. S. with a proposal on taking immediate measures focused on stabilization of the situation in this part of Georgia.
5. The Council of Ministers of the RSFSR shall submit the Deputies at the sitting of the Council of nationalities on 20 February the information on implementation of the Decree of 8 February 1991 #590-1 issued by the Supreme Council of the RSFSR on Immediate assistance to the population of the North Ossetia in connection with the events in the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
Deputy Chairman of the Council
of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR V. G. Sirovatko
14 February 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR, 1991, # 8, p. 157-158)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE USSR on Situation in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and the Measures for Stabilization of the Situation in the Region
1. Having heard and discussed the information of the People’s Deputies of he USSR visiting the Georgian SSR, the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and the North Ossetian Autonomous Republic, the Supreme Council of the USSR notes that the measures provided in the Decree of the President of the USSR of 7 January 1991 “on certain legal acts adopted in December 1990 by the Georgian SSR” haven’t been realized.  Failure of the implementation of aforementioned Decree entailed the further complication of the situation in the South Ossetia and its immediate vicinity.  The number of victims of the conflict is increasing; A stream of refugees of both, Ossetians and Georgians never comes to end.  The city Tskhinvali, blocked by illegal military formations is without electricity and heating.  The population of the city and the autonomous oblast suffers from shortage of food and basic commodities.  The property of citizens, as well as several state institutions and public organizations is either given to arson or robbed.  The historical and cultural monuments have been outraged.
Ongoing events in the South Ossetia are the gross violation of the Constitutions of the USSR, Georgian SSR and international norms and human rights.
2.  To recommend to the Supreme Council of Georgia to consider announcement of the regime of the state of emergency on the territory of the South Ossetia with participation of the troops of the Ministry of Interior; to secure withdrawal and disband of all illegal military formations; to stop illegal trafficking of arms on the territory of the republic; to raise the blockade from the city Tskhinvali and its neighborhood; to take immediate measures in order to stop bloodshed and provide the population with electricity, heating, food products and medicines.
3. Recognizing the sovereign rights of the Georgian SSR on its territorial integrity, to offer to the Supreme Council and the government of Georgia to start expeditiously the negotiations with the representatives of the South Ossetia through the facilitation of the Supreme Council of the USSR in order to restore state structures in the Oblast functioning before 9 December 1990 as well s for the normalization of the political situation and ensuring the public security.
4.  To entrust the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR with a task of taking necessary measures for giving a life support to the population of the South Ossetia and providing adequate support to the North Ossetian ASSR and the Georgian SSR in connection with accommodation of refugees.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the USSR A. Lukianov
20 February 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the supreme Council of the USSR, 1991, # 9, p. 218-219)


RESOLUTION OF THE FIRST SESSION OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN COUNCIL OF PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE FIRST CONVOCATION on Preparation for and Holding of Referendum of the USSR on 17 March 1991
The First Session of the Council of People’s Deputies of South Ossetia notes that in compliance with the decree issued by the Supreme Council of the USSR of 16 January 1991 “on Measures for preparation and holding the All-Union Referendum on 17 March 1991” the Referendum will be held aimed at preserving the USSR and concluding the new agreement of union republics.
The most of the republics have already set up the electoral commissions in order to facilitate voting process and carry out other relevant measures.
At the same time, some of the union republics, including Georgia, violating the Constitution and the legislation of the USSR, are not likely to implement the resolution by the IV Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR on holding the referendum.  They deprive the citizens the right to participate in the referendum.  This is the breach of the Constitution of the USSR and its legislation, as well as violation of Declaration of the Universal Human Rights and other international covenants that consider participation of the people in the process of state management.
In order to participate in the Referendum dedicated to renewed federation of equal and sovereign states and preserving the USSR, and based on the will of the majority of population of the South Ossetia, the First Session of the Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetia decrees:
1. To hold all-union referendum on the territory of the South Ossetia on 17 March 1991.
2. To set up electoral commission for holding the all-union referendum and approve its composition.
3. Due to the state of emergency to instruct the Central Electoral Commission to retain the number of polling districts and stations using for referendum previously established districts and stations.
To create polling stations within the military units of the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Interior of the USSR dislocated on the territory of South Ossetia pursuant to the Article 5 of the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the USSR of 25 February 1991.
4. Due to the armed groups penetrated to the territory of South Ossetia and in order to secure protection of the preparation and holding of referendum, to ask the Supreme Council of the USSR to dispatch to the territory of the South Ossetia limited contingent of the troops of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR.
5. To ask the Central Electoral Commission of the Referendum of the USSR to provide all necessary items to the Central Electoral Commission of South Ossetia.
6. To ask the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR to provide necessary assistance for involvement of refugees from the South Ossetia to the referendum.
First Deputy Chairman of the Executive Committee
of the Council of People’s Deputies of South Ossetia G. Khugaev
Secretary of the Executive Committee
of the Council of People’s Deputies of South Ossetia V. Petoev
26 February 1991
(Personal Archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Elections to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR
The term of jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of the Abkhazian ASSR actually expired on 25 February 1990.
By virtue of the decree issued on 18 November 1989 by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR on “Introduction Certain amendments and additions to the Constitution of the Georgian SSR”, the term of jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of the Abkhazian ASSR was prolonged until new elections.
Pursuant to Article 75 of an edition of 4 December 1990 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, the prolongation of the term of authority of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR is permitted only on exceptional basis and not longer than 6 months.
However, the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR did not prolong its own term of authority and did not adopt a law on elections to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR and therefore, failed to fix a date of elections to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Taking all the aforementioned into consideration, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To advise the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on the following:
To hold elections to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR no later than October 1, 1991;
In accordance with Article 75 of the Constitution of Abkhaz ASSR to prolong its term of authority until 15 March 1991;
2. Due to the fact, that the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia stipulates five-year term for state authority bodies of Autonomous Republics, while the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR has been functioning for more than six years, failure to implement Article 1 of this decree will result in termination of term of jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR of current convocation.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
27 February  1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 2, p. 92)

RESOLUTION on interpretation of section five, of paragraph 1 of Article 5 of the law of the Republic of Georgia ‘on the Local Self-governance in the Period of Transition’ ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
In accordance with section 5, of paragraph 1 of Article 5 of the law of Georgia “on Local Self-Governance in the period of Transition” adopted on 29 January of 1991, prefects of districts (rayons) and cities of republican (autonomous republic) subordination, upon the consent of the Council of Ministers of the autonomous Republic and the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia, shall be appointed and dismissed by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia on the basis of recommendation of the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic.
Due to the fact that the relevant candidates have not been nominated in some districts of the autonomous republics and in the cities of republican (autonomous republic) subordination, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
To explain to chairmen of the Supreme Council of Autonomous Republics that in case they fail to nominate a candidate to the position of perfect, agreed with the Council of Ministers of the autonomous republic and the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia, the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, upon agreement with the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia submits to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia a candidate to be appointed on the position of prefect of the district of the autonomous republic and city of the republican (autonomous republic) subordination.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
Tbilisi, 27 February 1991.
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 2, p. 102)


STATEMENT OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
As reported, on 22-23 February of current year under the pretext of renovation of the Sanatorium of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR, 250 fully equipped soldiers  of the Internal Troops of the USSR have been delivered to Gulrupshi District, Abkhaz ASSR.
The aforementioned troops are brought to the territory of the Republic of Georgia without prior agreement with the Government of Georgia.  As it is known, neither the Council of Ministers, nor the Ministry of Interior of the Abkhaz ASSR was informed about this fact.
With regard of the aforementioned fact the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia notes that the units of the Internal Troops of the USSR have been brought to the territory of the Republic of Georgia with gross violation of sovereign rights and territorial supremacy of the Republic of Georgia.
Bringing of Internal Troops to the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR, which is indivisible part of  Georgia, has no legal ground.  In accordance to Article 3 of the law of the USSR “on Rights and Responsibilities of the Internal Troops of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR in Maintaining the Public Order”, the Internal Troop shall be used at the time of disorder and to prevent the mass turmoil.  Such situation does not exist in Abkhazia.  The law has no consideration of using the Troops for construction or other similar purposes.  Such works are carried out by the constructing organizations of the Ministry of Interior.  The decision on bringing the troops, in pursuance to the rules established by law, shall be made upon request of the Council of Ministers of the relevant Union or Autonomous Republic, or with the consent of the Council of Ministers of the USSR  subject to obligatory consideration of the issues with the Council of ministers of the relevant Union or Autonomous republic.  As it is clear, the leadership of the USSR not only violates the rights of the Union Republics, but also ignores the own laws.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia believes that bringing of Internal troops to the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR is another provocation of destructive forces aimed at destabilizing public-political situation in this region of Georgia and in entire country.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia expresses its firm protest against this fact and asks the President of the USSR to prevent the arbitrary performance of those officials, under whose order the troops have been brought to the territory of the Republic of Georgia.  At the same time the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia calls for immediate withdrawal of these units of the Internal Troops from the territory of Georgia, otherwise the whole responsibility on the consequences will be put on the side that carried out unlawful act.
Adopted at the First Session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia of the first convocation.
27 February, 1991  
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 2, p. 122-123)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Decree   “Organization and Holding the Referendum on Preservation of the USSR” issued by the Supreme Council of the USSR
Georgian nation has exercised the self-identification through establishment of the statehood of Georgia at least 2500 years ago and since then constantly protected it in the wars.
In 19th century the Russian Empire exercised occupation-annexation of Georgia’s princedoms, and in 1921 the RSFSR practically again occupied and annexed the Democratic Republic of Georgia. In the course of the 20th century, through elections in 1919 and 1990, the Georgian nation have twice expressed its sovereign will to have independent statehood - therefore, there are no legal ground, whatsoever, for holding the referendum on preservation of the USSR.
At the same time, a question to be posed by the referendum is rather vague and it is not clear what does the renewed federation of the Soviet Socialist Republics amount to. At the same time, it is not possible to create a federation of sovereign states. The USSR law on referendum violates the sovereignty of the Republic of Georgia, since if the referendum is to be held, the destiny of the Republic would be decided not by its own citizens, but by the population of “Union Republics” of the USSR.
Taking into consideration the existing difficult political situation, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Decrees:
1. The referendum, to be held on 17 March 1991 by the virtue of decree of the Supreme Council of the USSR shall not take place on the territory of the Republic of Georgia.
2. In accordance with the law of the Republic of Georgia on Referendum, on 31 March 1991 referendum shall take place on restoration of state independence, and only one question shall be posed “do you agree on restoration of Georgia’s State Sovereignty based on the Act of Independence of 26 May 1918”.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
28 February 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 2, p. 104-105)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on prolongation the term of authority to the deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
In compliance with  Article 75 of the Constitution (organic law) of the Abkhaz ASSR to prolong the term of authority to the deputies of the eleventh convocation of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR until 1 October 1991.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
28 February 1991
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Abkhazia”, # 54, 27 March 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on holding All Union referendum in the Abkhaz ASSR
Abkhazia is a multi-national republic. Only consideration of views of all the residents of Abkhazia and their joint effort can be the guarantors to maintain peace and harmony here.
In accordance with the “Human Rights Declaration”, every citizen shall have the right to expression on any vital important issues.
Participation of citizens in the All-Union referendum is their undeniable right.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
To participate on 17 March 1991 in the public referendum on reservation of the USSR.
To entrust the electoral commission # 669 on election of deputies of the Supreme Council of the USSR with a task of holding referendum on necessity of the reservation of the USSR.
To entrust Sukhumi, Gagra, Tkvarcheli, Gudauta, Sukhumi district and Gulripshi district electoral  commissions with a task of holding All-Union referendum.
The Central Electoral Commission of the Republic shall establish the district electoral commissions for holding the referendum in Ochamchire and Gali district.
This Decree shall come into force since its publication.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
28 February 1991
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Abkhazia”, # 35, 2 March 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on enactment of the law of the Abkhaz ASSR “On the Central Bank of the Abkhaz ASSR” and “The Law of the Abkhaz ASSR on the Banks and Banking Activity in the Abkhaz ASSR”
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To give an effect to the law of the Abkhaz ASSR “On the Central Bank of the Abkhaz ASSR” and “The Law of the Abkhaz ASSR on the Banks and Banking Activity in the Abkhaz ASSR” since the very moment of their publication.
2. To rename the Abkhaz Department of the National Bank of the USSR as the Central Bank of Abkhazia.  The Central Bank of Abkhazia shall elaborate the Regulations and submit it to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR before 1 April 1991 to be approved.
6.  Before the adoption of the supplementary legal acts to the law of the Abkhaz ASSR “On the Central Bank of the Abkhaz ASSR” and “The Law of the Abkhaz ASSR on the Banks and Banking Activity in the Abkhaz ASSR” and bringing the legislation of the Abkhaz ASSR in compliance with aforementioned laws, the existing legal acts of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, related to the Banks and Banking system can be applied if they do not contradict aforementioned laws of the Abkhaz ASSR.
(…)
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
28 February 1991
(Newspaper “Abkhazia”, # #9-10, 12 March 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE USSR on the results of the referendum of the USSR of 17 March 1991
(…)
According to the preliminary data, 147 million people have participated in the referendum.  112 million of people have voted in favour of preservation of the USSR, i.e. 76% of voters…
Despite the fact that the state authorities of some republics (Georgia, Lithuania, Moldova, Latvia, Armenia, Estonia) didn’t implement the Resolution of the IV Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR in holding the referendum, violated the constitutional rights of citizens, exerted influence on them, blocked the polling stations – more than 2 million of the citizens of the USSR gave “yes” votes to the USSR…
The Supreme council of the USSR decrees:
1. The state authorities of the USSR and Republics shall pursue to the decision of the people made through the referendum to support renewal of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics on the assumption of the fact that this decision is final and binding on the whole territory of the USSR.
(…)
The chairman of the Supreme Council of the USSR A. Lukianov
21 March 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the supreme Council of the USSR, 1991, # 13, p. 432-433)


INFORMATION OF THE CENTRAL STATE COMMISSION OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on holding the referendum of the USSR and the information of the District Commission on election of the deputy of the USSR at the 669 Sukhumi territorial electoral district
On 17 March of this year the referendum of the USSR and election of the people’s deputy at the 669 Sukhumi territorial electoral district was held.
Having checked the results, electoral commission informs the following:
In due course of referendum of the USSR there were established 239 commissions and polling stations.  318,317 citizens, authorized to vote, were included in the electoral roll.  166,876 people got the ballot-papers, i.e. 52.4%.  166,544 people participated in voting, i.e. 52.3%.  The question brought up to a vote: “Do you consider necessary to reserve the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics as renewed federation of equal sovereign republics, where the rights and freedoms of all nationalities will be secured” got 164,231 “yes” votes, i.e. 98.6% of participating voters, and 1566  “no” votes, i.e. 0.95%. 747 ballots were declared invalid, i.e. 0.45% (ballots where the voters stroke out both of words – “yes” and “no”, or neither one)
In order to elect the People’s Deputy of the USSR from Sukhumi territorial district #669, 198 polling stations have been set up.  Ochamchire district didn’t participate in the election, as it doesn’t belong to the district # 669.  257, 147 people were enrolled in the list of electors.  126 086 electors got the ballots and 125 793 voted (48.9%).  120 155 voted in favour of the candidate Arshba (95.5%), another candidate, Murman Omanidze got 1 321 votes (i.e. 1.05%).
22 March 1991
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Abkhazia”, # # 50-51, 22 March 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on the Fact of Holding the USSR Referendum on the Territory of the Republic of Georgia and on Election of a Deputy to the Peoples’ Deputies of the USSR in the # 669 Sukhumi constituency
On 28 February 1991 the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia issued the decree that the referendum, fixed to be held on 17 March 1991 by the decree of the Supreme Council of the USSR would not take place on the territory of the Republic of Georgia. In addition, on March 16, 1991 the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia abolished the election commission of the # 669 Sukhumi constituency of the elections for Peoples’ Deputies of the USSR.
However, on 17 March 1991 the referendum took place in the units of the USSR armed forces deployed on the territory of the Republic of Georgia, as well as in town of Tskhinvali, Java region, and some districts of the Abkhaz ASSR, while elections of a deputy to the People’s Deputies of the USSR were held in the # 669 Sukhumi constituency.
During the Referendum and elections, provisions of the laws on “ Referendum in the USSR” and “Elections to the People’s Deputies of the USSR” were grossly violated. At the same time, names of more than 50 thousand electorate of the Gali district were not incorporated in the voting lists.
The aforementioned facts of violations are being studied and investigated by the Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Georgia. However, the Prosecutor General of USSR ordered to suspend the investigation.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. Pursuant to Article 77 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, the decree issued
 on 28 February 1991 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia and the decree issued on 16 March 1991 by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, results of referendum held on 17 March 1991 on the territory of Abkhazian ASSR, town of Tskhinvali and Java region and results of elections of a deputy to the Peoples’ Deputies of the USSR  held in the # 669 Sukhumi constituency on 17 March 1991 are declared null and void.
2. The Referendum of the USSR held within the Military Units of the USSR deployed on the territory of Georgia shall not be considered as the Referendum held in Georgia, as the Soviet military servicemen are not eligible in voting on the territory of Georgia.
4. To raise the issue before the Central Electoral Commission on consideration null and void the results of the election held on 17 March of 1991 at the electoral district #669.
5. To put forward a proposal to the Central Referendum Commission to consider the results of referendum held on the territory of the Republic of Georgia as null and void.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia  Z. Gamsakhurdia
22 March 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, # 3, 1991, p. 24-26)

    
DECISION OF THE JOINT MEETING OF THE ALL-LEVEL PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIA AND PUBLIC REPRESENTATIVES on setting up of the Committee on stabilization of the situation in the South Ossetia
Taking into account the aggravating situation in the South Ossetia due to barefaced aggression on the side on Georgia, and in order to increase effectiveness of the management aimed at overcoming the existing situation, the Meeting considers reasonable to accumulate all power into one organ and decides:
1. To set up Committee on stabilization of the situation in the South Ossetia composing of the following officials: Gassiev Z. N. – Chairman of the Committee; Khugaev G. G. – Deputy Chairman of the committee; Jioev I. G. – member of the Committee; Dzagoev E. P – member of the Committee; Zaseev F. M. - member of the Committee; Kabisov R. S. - member of the Committee; Kochiev S. I. - member of the Committee; Sanakoev M. G. - member of the Committee; Tedeev A. I. - member of the Committee; Chochiev B. E. - member of the Committee.
2. To empower the committee for stabilization of the situation in the South Ossetia with the whole state and executive authority on the territory of the South Ossetia until the complete settlement of the situation and final determination of the political status and restoration of the state structures.
3. The decisions of the Committee are final and binding on all the organizations, agencies, enterprises and farms.
4. To suspend the functioning of all supreme authorities of the South Ossetia and make them subordinated to the Committee on Stabilization of the Situation in the South Ossetia in time of its activity.
First Deputy Chairman of the Ispolcom
of the Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetia G. Khugaev
Secretary of the Ispolcom
of the Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetia B. Petoev
23 March 1991
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 29, 27 March 1991)


PROTOCOL of the negotiation between the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR and the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia
1. To work out during April of 1991 the draft of the Agreement on interstate relations between the RSFSR and the Republic of Georgia to be signed; for this purpose the working group shall be set up.
Concerning the stabilization of the situation in the region of former South Ossetian Autonomous oblast the sides agreed as follows:
2.  The Ministry of Interior of the RSFSR and the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Georgia shall set up, in ten days term, the joint Commission for investigation the situation in the aforementioned region and objective evaluation of the events before 20 April of current year.
3. The Ministry of Interior of the RSFSR and the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Georgia shall form the joint detachment of militia in order to carry out the process of disarmament of illegal armed formations in the territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.  The detachment shall secure public order in the mentioned region before restoration of stability.
4. To address to the Ministry of Defence of the USSR with a proposal of re-dislocation of the military unites of the Soviet Army from the territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
5. The Councils of Ministers of the RSFSR, the Republic of Georgia and the North Ossetian SSR shall start activities on establishment of the conditions for return of refugees to the places of their permanent residence.  Restoration of legal state agencies shall be secured.
6. The governments of the RSFSR, the Republic of Georgia and the North Ossetian SSR shall set up Commission on estimating the sustained loss to refugees and carry out additional measures for material and financial assistance in order to compensate this damage.
7. Restoration of peace and stability in the region shall be considered as a final task of establishing Commission and detachment.
8. To set up permanent Group to exercise control over the implementation of the Protocol and regulation of emerging disputes.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR B. Yeltsyn
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
23 March 1991
(Newspaper “Vestnik Gruziy”, # 42, 28 March 1991)
 

RESOLUTION ISSUED BY THE CONGRESS OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE RUSSIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC  on the Situation in the South Ossetia
Due to the tragic events in the South Ossetia, the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR:
1. Addresses to the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia to restore the status of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and all structures of state authority.
2. Addresses to the Supreme Council and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia to raise the blockade, return the refugees to their native dwellings, restore normal functioning of the economy of the South Ossetia and stabilize public-political situation in the region.
3. In order to reach effective inter-ethnic consultation offers to the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia to release from custody Chairman of the Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies T.G. Kulumbegov and unlawfully detained other officials.
4. To consider possible conclusion of the agreement between the RSFSR and the Republic of Georgia after practical implementation of Articles 1,2,3 of this Resolution.
5. Expresses its solidarity to the people of the North Ossetian SSR.  Stability and peace of this Republic, as the part of the RSFSR, are secured by the Russian Federation.
6. Addresses to the President of the USSR, the Supreme Council of the USSR and calls for the measures for the normalization of the situation in the South Ossetia and establishment of necessary conditions to carry out the process of return of refugees to their places of residence.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR B. Yeltsin
31 March 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR, 1991, # 14, p. 376)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE USSR on the situation in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast
The Supreme Council of the USSR notes that despite the efforts made by the President of the USSR and governmental organs of the country aimed at regulation of the conflict and stabilization of the situation in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, the latest developments in the Oblast have established critical situation there.  The contingent of the troops of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR deployed in the Oblast is not able to secure the Constitution of the USSR any longer.
Taking into consideration the existing situation, the Supreme Council of the USSR decrees:
1. To recommend the President of the USSR to put into operation, in compliance with  Article 1273, Paragraph 15, state of emergency on the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast based on the forces of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR.
2. The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia and the Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetia shall take all necessary measures to carry out the Decree of the President of the USSR of 7 January 1991.
3. The Prosecutor’s Office and the Ministry of Interior of the USSR shall set up investigating groups in order to investigate the crimes committed on the territory of the South Ossetia in time of conflict.
4. To offer to the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR to take immediate measures in order to supply the population of the South Ossetia with food and medicines, as well as for restoration of the operation of enterprises and organizations.
5. The Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR shall set up governmental Commission aimed at determining the damage to the economy and social and cultural spheres of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and its citizens.
6. The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, leadership of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall take necessary measures to establish the adequate conditions for the return of refugees to their places of permanent residence.
The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the USSR A. Lukyanov
1 April 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR, 1991, # 15, p. 493)

THE ACT of Restoration of Statehood Independence of Georgia, ADOPTED AT THE EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF GEORGIA
As a result of  annexation and  abolishment of Georgian statehood by the Russian Empire in the 19th century, the Georgian Nation lost its centuries-old statehood. The Georgian people have never reconciled itself with the lost of independence. Georgia's abolished statehood had been restored through the Declaration of Independence on 26 May, 1918. The Georgian Democratic Republic, with the Constitution and State representative bodies elected  on the principles of multi-party elections, was founded.
In February- March 1921, the Soviet Russia grossly violated the 1920, May 7 Peace Agreement and through the military aggression occupied Georgia, the very State it previously recognized, that resulted in its de facto annexation.
Georgia had not joined the Soviet Union voluntarily. Its Statehood still exists, the Independence Act and Constitution are of  legal force today, since the Government of the Democratic Republic did not sign an act of capitulation and continued its activities in immigration.
The whole period of Georgia being forcefully incorporated in the Soviet Union, has been characterized by bloody terror and repressions and the tragedy of 9 April 1989 was the last manifestation of the aforementioned. The clandestine war against Georgia is still going on. This war aims to undermine Georgia's aspiration to freedom and democracy.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, elected through multi-party, democratic election on 28 October 1990, and referring to unanimous will of the population of Georgia expressed during the 31 March referendum, resolves and publicly declares the restoration of Georgian Statehood independence based on the 1918 26 May Independence Act.
The territory of the Republic of Georgia is unified and indivisible. Only the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia and its Authorities are supreme on its territory. Any action directed at limitation of supremacy of the Authorities of the Republic of Georgia or undermining its territorial integrity shall be regarded as an interference into internal affairs of the sovereign State, act of aggression and gross violation of norms of international law.
Primacy of the International Law over the laws of the Republic of Georgia and direct application of its norms on the territory of Georgia is declared to be one of the most fundamental principles of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia.
The Republic of Georgia strives to occupy its worthy place in the international community of States, acknowledges and guarantees human, national, ethnic, religious and linguistic rights and freedoms of its population in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Pacts and Conventions.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declares that it will firmly adhere to the universally recognized principles of political, economic and cultural cooperation with other States.
Restoration of Statehood Independence of the Republic of Georgia fully complies with the Charter of the United Nations, the Helsinki and Vienna Acts, which acknowledge and strengthen the right of all nations to independently decide the political fate of their countries.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia hopes that the international community of States shall not remain indifferent to this legitimate and fair step undertaken by the Georgian people and shall acknowledge the restoration of Statehood Independence of Georgia, which would be one of the most solid guarantees for the security of the Republic of Georgia.
Signed by the members of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia and the Government
Tbilisi, 9 April 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 4, p. 26-27)


DECREE  ISSUED BY THE PRESDIENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Nation wide National and Civil Disobedience
Over the recent period the peoples included within the Empire have intensified protesting and political-striking movement aimed at abolishment of the Central authority and establishment of the sovereign states.
Taking into account the existing difficult situation in Samachablo (former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast-edit.), the political organizations of the Round Table organized strike of the transport means and organizations of the Union subordination in a response to the imperialist policy of the so called Centre.
Bearing in mind that these protesting actions have the only goal: the restoration of comprehensive and real independence of Georgia, to set Georgia free of subordination and dictate from the imperialistic structures, and that action represents immediate continuation of the process of nation-wide national and civil disobedience, I decree:
1. The ministries, agencies and administrative bodies shall provide maximum possible assistance to the nation-wide national and civil disobedience organized by the political organizations of the Round Table.
2. To set up consultative and coordinatingn councils composed of high rank official, who alongside the strike committee shall attach systematic character to the disobedience movement and see to it that economic interests of the Republic are not compromised.
3. To set up joint Media Council, which, together with the Press-center of the Supreme Council and the press-service of the president will secure dissemination of true and reliable information and its broadcast to the foreign countries.
(…)
President of the Republic of Georgia   Zviad Gamsakhurdia
15 April 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, # 4, 1991, p.16)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF NATIONALTIES OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE USSR on proposals aimed at normalization of the situation in the South Ossetia and its neighboring area
Having heard and discussed the information of the group of Deputies visiting the Republic of Georgia on 8-10 April of 1991, the Council of Nationalities notes that despite the efforts made by the Supreme Council of the USSR and the President of the USSR, either activities conducted by the unites of the troops of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR aimed at disarmament of the illegal formations and groups, still the situation in the South Ossetia remains quite complex and strained.  The number of casualties is increasing as well as of refugees from both Georgian and Ossetian sides.  Firing on the city Tskhinvali and the settlements of the Oblast never stops.  Tens of villages are robbed and given to arson.  The material and cultural valuables are being destroyed, as well as the economic and social infrastructure of the South Ossetia.
The Council of Nationalities finds the reconciliation and political methods as the only tools to settle the conflict.  Respective representatives of Georgian and Ossetian people have to find courage and decisiveness in overcoming of existing dramatic situation in order to secure centuries-old friendship and peaceful coexistence of Georgian and Ossetian people.  They have to do their best to remove mutual distrust, hostility, political disputes and act within the frame of the Constitution of the USSR and international norms on human rights.  The sides have to enter immediately into dialogue in order to secure cease-fire, save the lives of people, establish the peace and stability on the whole territory of the South Ossetia.
Stating on compulsory implementation of the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the USSR of 1 April 1991 “on situation in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast”, the Council of Nationalities Decrees:
1.  To support the proposal envisaged in the Protocol signed by the representatives of the Supreme Council of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR on establishment of inter-parliamentary Commission composed of the members of the Supreme Councils of the USSR, the Republic of Georgia and the RSFSR on equal footing with participation of representatives of the South Ossetia aimed at elaboration of action plan for regulation the situation in the region and for observing and realization the measures.
To take a note of the information that the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR set up interagency operative Commission, which now is at the place of conflict and has started working.
2. To consider expedient on the side of the Commission dissemination of information to the public on the situation in the region.
3. To recommend the President of the USSR to set up the delegation for discussion of political, social and economic issues with the representatives of the Republic of Georgia.
Chairman of the Council of Nationalities R. Nishanov
24 April 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Council of the USSR, 1991, # 18, p. 694-695)


THE LAW OF GEORIGA on Abolishing Tskhinvali and Khornisi Districts (rayons)
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To abolish Tskhinvali district and attach its territory to Gori district.
2. To abolish Khornisi district and attach its territory to Kareli district.
3. To withdraw from Article 71 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia (Fundamental Law) the words ‘of Khornisi’ and ‘of Tskhinvali’.
The President of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
Tbilisi, 27 April 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 4, p. 82)


DECREE   OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Separation from Java District the Village Councils of Sinaguri, Kirov and Chasavali.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
To separate from Java District and attach to:
- Sachkhere District the village council of Sinaguri (20, 4 thousand hectares of land);
- Oni District the village councils of Kirov and Chasavali (3,6 thousand hectares of land).
The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia A. Asatiani
Tbilisi, 27 April 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 4, p. 83)


DECISION OF THE MEETING OF DEPUTIES OF THE OBLAS, CITY, DISTRICT, SETTLEMENT AND VILLAGE COUNCILS OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN AUTONOMOUS OBLAST on implementation of the Decree of the President of the USSR of 7 January 1991 and the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the USSR of 1 April 1991
The meeting of the all-level Deputies points to the grave social and political situation established in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast for the latest 2-3 years.  The tension went to mount in November 1989 and later in March and June of 1990.  The Republic of Georgia declared null and void all state structures of Georgia that had been established since 25 February 1921.  The Treaty of 21 May 1921, Treaty on establishment of the Trans-Caucasus Union of the Federative Socialist Republics (TUFSR) of 12 March 1922 and the Treaty on establishment of the USSR of 30 December 1922 have been declared unlawful.
Proceeding from the aforementioned the supreme legislative organ of Georgia abrogated all soviet structures in the whole territory and practically repealed the Constitution of the Georgian SSR.  Taking into consideration the established situation, the 14th session of the Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, on 20 September 1990 issued the Decree on reorganization of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast into the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic.
Thereupon, on 1 December 1990 the Supreme Council of Georgia adopted the law on abrogation of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast established upon the Decree of the Central Executive Committee of April of 1922.
However, by the Decree of the President of the USSR of 7 January 1991 “on certain legal acts adopted by the Georgian SSR in December 1990” those decisions of the Georgian SSR have been declared as opposing the Constitution of the USSR and other Union laws.
Tragic events have been developed since 5-6 January of 1991 with the detachment of Georgian militia formations to Tskhinvali.  The situation was aggravated by the fact that neither the Republic of Georgia, nor the South Ossetia carried out the Decree of the President of the USSR of 7 January 1991.
The lack of legal executive power in the South Ossetia becomes the reason for procrastination of the stabilization of social and political situation and for the resolution of vital important issues.
In condition of state of emergency, when the most of the territory of Tskhinvali and Znauri districts are occupied, disastrous earthquake dilapidated hundreds of enterprises and farms, thousands of houses and tens of villages of the Oblast are destroyed and the village Java is completely devastated; the Meeting of the Deputies considers necessary immediate implementation of the Decree of the President of the USSR of 7 January 1991 and the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the USSR of 1 April 1991.
Proceeding from the aforementioned and deeply concerned at the further developments in the region, striving for the termination of the inter-ethnic opposition of the Ossetian and Georgian people, the Meeting of the all-level People’s Deputies of the South Ossetia decides:
1.  To declare null and void the Decree issued by the 14th Session of the Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast of 20 September 1990 “on reorganization of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast into South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic” in order to implement the Decree of the President of the USSR of 7 January 1991 “On certain legal acts adopted by the Georgian SSR” and the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the USSR of 1 April 1991 “on situation in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast”.
2. To restore the functioning of the institution of state authority and management of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast that was in force until September 1990.
3. Taking into consideration established extreme social and economic situation in the Oblast and the state of emergency in Tskhinvali and Java districts, the authority of the supreme state organ shall be laid on the Meeting of the all-level Councils of the People’s Deputies until the next elections of the people’s deputies to the local councils.
4. Executive committee of the Council of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall exercise the executive and administrative authority between the meetings.
5. Based on the will of the people of the South Ossetia expressed at the Referendum of the USSR on 17 March 1991 on preservation and renewal of the USSR, the Meeting considers necessary to submit a petition to the Supreme Council of the USSR on independent participation of the Oblast in the Union Treaty authorizing him to sign the Treaty as a subject of Federation. For the purpose of preparation and signing of the Treaty to set up plenipotentiary delegation of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast comprising of: 1. Gassiev Z.I. - Head of Delegation; 2. Kochiev G.V., 3. Khubulov V.N., 4. Khugaev G.G., 5. Chekhoev A.G.
6.  To ask the Supreme Council of the USSR to endorse this Decision.
7. This Decision shall be published in the Oblast press and the Supreme Council of Georgia shall be familiarized with this Decree.
The chairman of the Meeting  Z. Gassiev
Secretary of the Meeting L. Ostaeva
4 May 1991
(Newspaper “Sovetskaia Ossetia”, # 41, 16 May 1991)
 

DECREE  ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on decree issued on 4 May 1991 by the Oblast Council of People’s Deputies of the former Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
The illegally convened on 4 May 1991 session of the District Council of People’s Deputies of the former Autonomous District of South Ossetia decided to abolish the so called Soviet Democratic Republic of South Ossetia and restore the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, which, was acknowledged as a constituent part of the Republic of Georgia, but was declared to be under “administrative” jurisdiction of the Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of Russia.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To invalidate and consider null and void the decree issued on 24 May 1991 by the District Council of People’s Deputies of the former Autonomous District of South Ossetia.
2. To inform M. Gorbachov – the President of the Soviet Union; B. Yeltsin - the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of Russia, and R.Nishanov - the Chairman of the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Soviet Union about the assessment provided by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia with regard the aforementioned provocative act.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia  A. Asatiani
7 May 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 5, p.12)


STATEMENT OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, having learnt the Decree issued by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 12 May 1991 ‘on the Resolution of the meeting of the People’s Deputies of Oblast, City, Rayon, Village and Community Soviets of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast ‘on Implementation of the Decree by the President of the USSR of 7.01.91 and the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 01.014.91’’ declares, that the aforementioned Decree issued by the supreme state authority of the USSR represents the attack on the territorial integrity of Georgia’s sovereign state. The territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast is indivisible part of  the sovereign state of Georgia no one is authorized to discuss the issue on its attachment to another state.   The Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 12 May of 1991 runs counter to the Constitution of the USSR, the law of the USSR of 26 April of 1991 ‘on Separation of Authorities between the Subjects of the Federation and the USSR’,  Joint Declaration of the President of the USSR and of nine Union Republics, as well as to the documents relating to the new Union Treaty.
The document of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 12 May, regretfully, is adopted in a moment when the Trilateral Interparliamentary Commission has been established at the initiative of the Republic of Georgia  composed of the deputies of the USSR, as well as  the deputies of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR that shall elaborate proposals on regulating the conflicting situation on the territory of the former Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia.  The aforementioned Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR imposes the threat to realization of measures aimed at implementing the Decree of the Soviet of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 24 April 191.  It should be mentioned, that at that meeting, chaired by the Chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities R. Nishanov, ‘the consensus’ has been reached, which considered annulment of the illegal declaration of independence of the former autonomous oblast and participation of representatives of the South Ossetia in the work of joint commission composed of the deputies of the Supreme Soviets of the USSR, RSFSR and of the Republic of Georgia.  Therefore, the action of the deputy A. Chekhoev in the city of Tskhinvali shall be considered as a provocation and gross violation of the ethics and ignorance of the Decree of the Soviet of Nationalities. it also should be mentioned that The Supreme Soviet of the USSR, as the highest legislative body, hasn’t been authorized to consider the applications by the former deputies of the oblast, who, having declared unlawfully the Republic thereby moved out their authority.
The aforementioned Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR once again indicates that the leadership of the USSR, using all the means against the republics striving for independence, is ready even to encroach on the integrity of their territories.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia expresses its firm protest against the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 12 May 1991 and considers it as an interference in the domestic affairs of Georgia that runs counter to the rules of International Law.  Continuation of such policy and attitude towards the Republic of Georgia may entail unpredictable consequences.  In this case the leadership of the Soviet Union shall take the burden of responsibility.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia A. Asatiani
Tbilisi, 14 May 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1990, # 5, p. 79-80)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE USSR on decision of the Meeting of Deputies of the Oblast, City, District, Settlement and Village Councils of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast on “Implementation of the Decree of the President of the USSR of 7 January 1991 and the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the USSR of 1 April 1991”
Having discussed the Decision of the Meeting of Deputies of the Oblast, City, District, Settlement and Village Councils of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, the Supreme Council of the USSR decrees:
1. To take of note of the Decision of the Meeting of Deputies of the Oblast, City, District, Settlement and Village Councils of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast on “Implementation of the Decree of the President of the USSR of 7 January 1991 and the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the USSR of 1 April 1991”.
2. To submit the aforementioned Decision of the Meeting of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast to the President of the USSR, as well as to the Chairman of the Council of Nationalities and the Commission on the National Policy and International Relations of the Council of Nationalities in order to be considered while working on the draft of the New Union Agreement.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the USSR A. Lukyanov
12 May 1991
(Newspaper “Sakartvelo”, special addition, 1995; Personal Archive of the Author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE USSR on the work of the interstate Commission on normalization of the situation in the South Ossetia and its neighboring area
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR decrees:
1. To take notice of the information submitted by Comr. Gusev V.V. on the work of the interstate Commission on normalization of the situation in the South Ossetia and its neighboring area.
2. To address to the state authorities of the Republic of Georgia with a proposal of carrying out all necessary measures in order to settle the regional conflict, suspend the operation of illegal military formations, eradicate the damage caused by earthquake, restore the transport, energy and water supply and establish the necessary life-conditions for population of the region.
3.  To entrusts the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR with a task of securing the support to the regions of Georgia that have damaged by the earthquake through granting material-technical and financial means for elimination of the consequences of the natural disaster.
4.  To accelerate the process of establishment of the State Committee of the USSR on National Issues in compliance with the Law of the USSR of 27 March 1990 and the Decree of the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the USSR of 27 February 1991.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the USSR A. Lukianov
25 June 1991
(Newspaper “Sakartvelo”, special addition, 1995; Personal Archive of the Author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on the law of Georgia on “Creation of the Interior Troops - the National Guard of the Republic of Georgia”
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR notes that with a breach of the requirements set forth in the Decree of the President of the USSR “on Prohibition of establishment of the armed formations incompliant with the legislation of the USSR and Seizure of illegal arms”, the Republic of Georgia, in conformity with the Georgian law on “Creation of the Interior Troops - the National Guard of the Republic of Georgia” has established the battalion authorized to carry firearms.
Aforementioned Decree of the President of the USSR was issued on 25 July 1990 and considered disband of unlawful military formations in 15 days term from the moment of issuing the decree.  However, the legislative and executive authorities of Georgia completely ignored this Decree.
Pursuant to the law of Georgia on Creation of the Interior Troops - the National Guard, it shall be established through universal conscription of the citizens of Georgia those have attained the age of 13.  The recruiting center is created at the central railway station of Sukhumi and 201 people submitted the applications to the Military Commissar of Sukhumi by 13 June of 1991.  Such activity is a breach of Constitution of the USSR and the law of the USSR “on separation of competences between the USSR and the subjects of Federation”, which renders exclusive rights on establishment of the military formations under the jurisdiction of the USSR.  Proceeding from the aforementioned, the practice of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia on creation of the National Guard, regardless its purpose, is unlawful.
The Presidium of the supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1.  To consider null and void the law of the Republic of Georgia on “Creation of the Interior Troops - the National Guard of the Republic of Georgia” that runs counter to the Decree of the President of the USSR “on Prohibition of Creation of the Armed Formations Incompliant with the Legislation of the USSR and Seizure of illegal Arms”.
2. The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Ministry of Interior of the Abkhaz ASSR, KGB of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Procuracy of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Military Commissar of the Abkhaz ASSR shall carry out measures aimed at fulfilling of the tasks incumbent by the Decree of the President of the USSR “on Prohibition of Creation of the Armed Formations Incompliant with the Legislation of the USSR and Seizure of Illegal Arms”.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
2 July 1991
(Newspaper “Abkhazia”, # 32, 13 August 1991)


DECREE # 288 ISSUED BY THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
Pursuant to the decree issued on 14.11.90 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia on introduction of title “The Republic of Georgia” and introduction of new “coat of arms of the Republic of Georgia, by virtue of the decree issued on 22.10.90 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia the former “Ministry of People’s Education” was renamed into “the Ministry of Education”.
The aforementioned changes determined the necessity of changing the seals, stamps and signboards of educational establishments.
However, in a number of population aggregates, where there are several educational establishments of the same type (day nurseries, kindergartens, secondary schools etc), proper numeration of these establishments has not been introduced so far. That is why the only means of distinguishing those educational establishments remain in the language of instruction. It should be pointed out thatsubstantial changes have been introduced to the titles of a number of educational institutions recently.
Taking the aforementioned into consideration, I decree:
1. To introduce the new seals, stamps and signboards, in accordance with the attached samples, to all educational establishments.
2. The Ministries of Education of the Abkhaz and Ajara Autonomous Republics, Departments of Education of towns and regions, directorates of secondary and special education, chancelleries of higher education and leadership of other educational establishments shall secure the introduction of the new patterns of seals, stamps and signboards, worked out by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Georgia, no later that the end of November 1991.
Minister E. Javelidze
5 July 1991
(Archive of the Ministry of Education of Georgia)
 

LAW OF THE ABKHAZ AUTONOMOUS SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC on Changes and Amendments to the Constitution (Organic Law) of the Abkhaz ASSR
(…)
25. To formulate Articles 154, 155, 156 as follows:
(…)
Article 156.  The Prosecutor of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be appointed with a consent of the Prosecutor General of the USSR, the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Georgia and the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR and is accountable to the latter.  In the part of exercising of supervision on observation of the laws the Prosecutor of the Abkhaz ASSR is subordinated to the Prosecutor General of the USSR and the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Georgia.  The Deputy Prosecutors of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be appointed by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR with the consent of the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Georgia upon the nomination of the Prosecutor of the Abkhaz ASSR; District and city prosecutors of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be appointed by the Prosecutor of the Abkhaz ASSR with the consent of the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Georgia.
27. To formulate Article 163 as follows:
“Article 163. The Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR may be changed on the basis of decision of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR adopted by the majority of a total number of deputies of the Abkhaz ASSR, not less than 1/3”.
28. In the text of the Constitution (Basic law) of the Abkhaz ASSR, the words “Georgian SSR” shall be replaced with the words “Republic of Georgia”.
Chairman of the Supreme council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
9 July 1991
(Newspaper “Afxazetis Khma”, # 127, 2 August 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Establishment of the Central Electoral Commission on election of the Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR
Based on the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR “On election of the Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR of 20th Convocation and People’s Deputies to the Local Councils” of 9 July 1991 and pursuant to Article 20 of the Law of the Abkhaz ASSR “on election of the Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR”, the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To set up the Central Electoral Commission on election of the deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR composed of:
V. M. Tsugba… Chairman of the Commission, Sukhumi City; V. V. Antsupov…Sukhumi City; V. I. Gasvian … Sukhumi City; I. Z. Grinenko… Gagra City; L. A. Demirchyan… Gudauta districts; G. A. Eremyan… Sykhumi City; P. L. Kvachakhia… Sukhumi City; I. T. Kvitsinia..; P. M. Lagvilava…Sukhumi City; M. G. Tashiyan … Tkvarcheli City; D. F. Timofeev … Sukhumi City; T. X. Khalbadi … Sukhumi City; V. I. Shonia … Gali district; R. I. Ebzhow… Sukhumi City.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
20 July 1991
(Newspaper “Afxazetis Khma”, # 122, 23 July 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEROGIA on Establishment of Interim Organs of Governance and Fixing the Date of Elections to Sakrebulos (local councils - edit.) on the Territory of the Former Tskhinvali District.
Due to the complicated situation in the former Tskhinvali district, elections to the local Sakrebulos have not been held. As a result, there is no organ of State authority and governmental body at the level of community and village.
Having considered proposal suggested by the Prefects of Gori and the Gori district on establishment of interim organs of Governance and fixation of date of elections to Sakrebulos, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To entrust the Prefects of Gori and the Gori district with a task of appointing their plenipotentiaries as acting Camgeblebi (Chairpersons - edit.) of Sakrebulos on the territory of former Tskhinvali District’s community councils.
2. The term of jurisdiction of the plenipotentiaries shall be expired immediately upon election of Gamgeblebi to local Sakrebulos.
3. To hold elections to the Kurti, Kemerti and Berula community Sakrebulos respectively on 25, 26, and 28 September of 1991.
4. This decree shall come into force immediately upon publication.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Akaki Asatiani
25 July 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 7, p. 93)


LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Changes and Amendments to the Constitution
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
To make the following changes and amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia:
1. To word the first part of Article 1212  as follows:
“The person born in Georgia, from 35 to 65 years old, which has permanently lived in Georgia for at least last 5 years, may be elected as the president of Georgia”
2. To word the Paragraph 10 and 13 of Article 1214 as follows:
10) Signs the laws of the Republic of Georgia; is authorized to return the law with further amendments to the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia or to the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic within two weeks.  If the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia or the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic approves their previous decision with 2/3 of votes, the president of the Republic shall sign the law of the Republic or issue the decree on termination of effect of the law of the autonomous republic, or submit it to the referendum”
13) Is authorized to abolish Decrees issued by the Government of the Republic of Georgia and Decrees and Orders issued by the Ministries and legal acts of other subordinated agencies, as well as the Decrees issued by the Prefects; to terminate the validity of Decrees issued by the Supreme Council of Autonomous Republic and Decrees and Orders issued by the Council of Minister of the Autonomous Republic if they do not comply with the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Georgia”
The president of the Republic of Georgia Z. Gamsakhurdia
25 July 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of Georgia; # 7, 1991, p. 88-89)


DECREE # 342 ISSUED BY THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Regulation of Enrolment in Pre-School Establishment and First Classes of Secondary Schools
The pedagogical science and practice have born it out that education of children in non-native language inflicts immense damage to formation of individuality, causes mental and physical deformation among children and condemns them to being inferior members of society. Nevertheless, due to heavy legacy of the past, there are some incidents when parents, being unaware of elementary requirements of pedagogical science, tend to make wrong decisions - they enroll their children in non-Georgian pre-school establishments and first classes of secondary schools. And all that is happening when huge attention is being paid to restoration and strengthening of State status of Georgian language.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, I decree:
1. To entrust the Ministries of Education of Autonomous Republics, heads of Departments of Education of cities and districts, directors (managers) of non-Georgian pre-school establishments and secondary schools with a task of securing that not a single child of Georgian nationality is enrolled in non-Georgian pre-school establishment and first class of secondary school.
2. To entrust the Department of Education in Secondary Schools with a task of monitoring proper implementation of this decree.
Minister E. Javelidze
31 July 1991
(Archive of the Ministry of Education of Georgia)


DECREE  ISSUED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Stay of Execution of Law of the Abkhaz ASSR Adopted on 9 July 1991 on Introduction of Amendments to Paragraph 14 of Article 92 and Article 156 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR.
On July 9, 1991 the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR adopted a Law on Introduction of Amendments to Paragraph 14 of Article 92 and Article 156 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, according to which the Prosecutor of the Abkhaz ASSR is appointed by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR with the consent of the  Prosecutor General of the USSR and the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Georgia, and is accountable to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR. While monitoring observance of law and order, Prosecutor of the Abkhaz ASSR is accountable to the Prosecutor General of the USSR and the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Georgia.
Deputy Prosecutors of the Abkhaz ASSR, provided there is consent from the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Georgia, are appointed by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR upon proposal of the Prosecutor of the Abkhaz ASSR. Prosecutors of districts and towns of the Abkhaz ASSR, provided there is consent from the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Georgia, are appointed by Prosecutor of the Abkhaz ASSR.
This Law of the Abkhaz ASSR contradicts to Article 77 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, according to which “the Prosecutors of the Autonomous Republics of the Republic of Georgia are appointed by the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Georgia upon proposal of the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republics”.
Pursuant to Paragraph 10 of Article 1214 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, I decree:
1. To terminate implementation of Law of the Abkhaz ASSR Adopted on July 9, 1991 on Introduction of Amendments to Paragraph 14 of Article 92 and Article 156 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, since it contradicts to the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia.
2. Pursuant to article 82 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, to suggest to the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR that in the process of appointment of Prosecutor, deputy Prosecutors and Prosecutors of towns and districts of the Abkhaz ASSR be guided by the requirements of Article 77 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia.
President of the Republic of Georgia  Zviad Gamsakhurdia
5 August 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 8, p.  9-10)
 

DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Stay of Execution of the decree issued on 20 July 1991 by the Presidium of Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR
On 20 July  1991 the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR issued the decree on “Creation of Central Electoral Commission for the Elections of Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR”.
This act of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR grossly violates the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, the current legislation and the law of ASSR on “the Elections of Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR” itself.
Two thirds of the total number of members of the Central Electoral Commission are representatives of the bloc “Soyuz”. 13 Members of the Commission are from Sukhumi, while representatives proposed by the executive committees of Guliripsh, Ochamchira and Sukhumi districts were denied membership of the Commission without any explanation and justification. Therefore, Article 20 of the law of ASSR on  “the Elections of Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR was violated, according to which in the process of creation of central electoral commission, proposals put forward by executive committees of districtss and towns must be taken into due account.
As a result of the decree issued by the Presidium of Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Georgian population of Abkhazia found itself being overtly discriminated against. Unlike the rest of population, electoral rights of Georgians are not protected at all. The fact that the legislation of Abkhazia does not provide for procedures of challenging decisions of the central electoral commission further aggravates the already difficult situation of Georgian electorate. All the aforementioned represent violation of article 32 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, which provides for principle of equality of all citizens in their electoral rights regardless of their ethnic origin.
Holding of elections of Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR through non-democratically and illegally elected central electoral commission determined the very unlawfulness of the elections from the very start.
Pursuant to Paragraph 13 of Article 1211 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia
I decree:
To terminate the execution of the decree issued on 20 July 1991 by the Presidium of Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR on “Creation of Central Electoral Commission for the Elections of Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR” as it contradicts to the Constitution and the current legislation of the Republic of Georgia.
President of the Republic of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia
5 August 1991
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublica”, # 130, 7 August 1991)

 
DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Activities Carried Out during the events of 19-21 of August by the Bureau of the Central Committee of Communist Party (CP) of Georgia, the Republican Committee of CP of Abkhazia, the Oblast Committee of CP of the former South Ossetia and the self-imposed Executive Committee of the Council of People’s Deputies of so called South Ossetia.
In gross violation of the USSR Constitution itself, from 19-21 August 2002 attempted coup d’etat took place in the USSR that gave rise to activation of the USSR-created spy organizations in the neighboring to the USSR sovereign States. Those actions resulted in overt military interventions and attempted interventions in the Baltic States and Georgia, aiming to topple the constitutional regimes and dismantle statehood of those countries.
Statements of organs of Communist Party of Georgia (and the Abkhaz ASSR) and of so called South Ossetia in support of the criminal group of organizers of attempted coup d’etat in the Soviet Union, amount to overt appeal to the illegal junta of foreign country to interfere in internal affairs of the sovereign Georgia aimed at toppling the constitutional government in Georgia and violate its territorial integrity.
“Activities” of the self-imposed Executive Committee of the Council of People’s Deputies of the so-called South Ossetia deserve special mentioning. As it is widely known that for more than 8 months now, this criminal group, thanks to vast support of armed forces of the USSR, has been usurping state power and exercising illegal authority on the part of territory of Shida Kartli. In response to these illegal actions, the Supreme Council and the President of the Republic of Georgia have repeatedly raised protest against the relevant bodies of the USSR and the International community. “Thanks” to the criminal activities of the USSR “competent” organs, the state of lawlessness is still continues to persist, while the aforementioned individuals laid bare their genuine face by fully supporting the so called The State Emergence Committee of the USSR.
Taking all the aforementioned into consideration, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To prohibit the Communist party of Georgia and all Communist Unions on the territory of Georgia and to suspend the functioning of their bodies.
2. To nationalize the property of the Communist party of Georgia and all Communist Unions on the territory of Georgia declaring is as the property of the Republic of Georgia.
3. The Government of the Republic of Georgia shall secure receiving of the property of the Communist party of Georgia and all Communist Unions on the territory of Georgia.
4. The Banks of the Republic of Georgia shall terminate all banking operations from the accounts of the Communist party of Georgia and all Communist Unions on the territory of the Republic of Georgia, including primary, district, regional organizations and economic and other subordinate organizations.
5. The Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Georgia shall address and make decision on bringing to justice those individuals, who have committed crime against the Republic of Georgia in the course of the 19-21 August events unfolded in the USSR.
6. To terminate authority of the Deputies elected at the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia from the Communist Party of Georgia;  The Commission on Mandate and Ethics of Deputies shall submit a proposal to the next session on the authority of those deputies.
7. The persecution or discrimination of citizens with regard of their membership in the Communist Party is inadmissible.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia A. Asatiani
26 August 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 8, p. 164-165)


LAW OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on amendments to the Constitution (Organic Law) of the Abkhaz ASSR
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
To make the following amendments to the Constitution (Organic Law) of the Abkhaz ASSR:
1. To add to Article 98 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR the following words: “laws and other legal acts related to the issue of the legal status of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be decided by two-thirds of the total number of Deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR that is considered by this Constitution.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 August 1991
(Newspaper “Afxazetis Khma”, # 145, 5 September 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on implementation of the law of the Abkhaz ASSR  of  27 August 1991 “on amendments to the Constitution (Organic Law) of the Abkhaz ASSR”
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
The Law of the Abkhaz ASSR of 27 August 1991 “on amendments to the Constitution (Organic Law) of the Abkhaz ASSR” shall come into force from the moment the decision on the political-legal status of the Abkhaz ASSR will be taken by the Supreme Coucnils of Georgia and the Abkhaz ASSR.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 August 1991
(Newspaper “Afxazetis Khma”, # 145, 5 September 1991)


LAW OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on changes to the law of the Abkhaz ASSR on Public Referendum in the Abkhaz ASSR
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
To add to Article 5 of the Law of the Abkhaz ASSR “on Public Referendum in the Abkhaz ASSR” as the paragraph 3 the following:
“The issues related to the holding the referendum that needs constitutional changes shall be decided solely by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR by the two-thirds majority out of the total number of the Deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR as it is considered by the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR”.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 August 1991
(Newspaper “Afxazetis Khma”, # 145, 5 September 1991)


LAW OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on changes to the law of the Abkhaz ASSR “on election of the Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR”
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
To introduce to the Law “on election of the Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR” the following changes and amendments:
(…)
2. Due to the necessity of stabilization of inter-ethnic relations in the Republic in time of elections of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR, to add to Article 15 of the law of the Abkhaz ASSR “on election of the Deputies to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR”, as a provisional measure, the following wording: “Only Abkhaz nationals are authorized to participate in the elections as the candidates at the following electoral districts: ## 7, 8, 9,11, 14, 15, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 54, 57, 58, 60, 62 and only Georgian nationals at the following districts: ##1, 2, 5, 13, 16, 17, 20, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 56, 59, 61, 64, 65”
11. To formulate Paragraph 2 of Article 53 as follows:
“The candidate to the Deputy shall be considered elected if he/she got more votes than another candidate regardless the number of electors participating in voting”.
12. This law shall come into force with immediate effect.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 August 1991
(Newspaper “Abkhazia”, # 37, 31 August 1991)
 

TEMPORARY LAW OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Rules of Election and Appointment of Officials by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR
To introduce the following procedures of election and appointment of officials by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR in accordance with Articles 93,99,104 and 111 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR:
1. The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be elected from the Abkhaz Deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR  by secret ballot for a term of five years not more than two consecutive terms as Chairman.
2. The First Deputy to the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be elected from the Georgian Deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR by secret ballot upon the submission of the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR for a term of five years not more than two consecutive terms.
3. The Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be appointed by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR upon nomination of the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR from the Georgian nationals by simple majority of votes.
4. The First Deputy to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be appointed by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR upon nomination of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR from the Abkhaz nationals by simple majority of votes.
5. The Deputies to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, the Ministers, Chairmen of the State Committees and other agencies of state management under the jurisdiction of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be appointed by 2/3 of votes upon nomination of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR.
6. The ethnic composition of standing and other commissions shall comply with the ethnic composition of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
7. This law shall be adopted and changed pursuant to Article 62 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR and shall be in effect within the term of authority of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR of the 20th convocation.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 August 1991
(Personal Archive of Author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Bringing into Effect the Temporary Law of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Rules of Election and Appointment of Officials by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR”
The Supreme Council of the Abkhazian ASSR decrees:
To bring into effect the Temporary Law of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Rules of Election and Appointment of Officials by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on 1 October 1 1991.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 August 1991
(Personal Archive of the Author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ  ASSR on termination of activity of the Abkhaz Republican Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia
Due to the termination of the activity of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR and prohibition of the activity of the Communist Party of Georgia, and in the course of statement of the Abkhaz Republican Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia on support of so called State Committee on Emergency Situations,
the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To terminate activity of the Republican Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR.
2. Ispolkoms of the People’s Deputies shall exercise adequate measures in conformity with the acting legislation aimed at regulating the issues of employment and social security of the former Party personnel.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 August 1991
(Newspaper “Afxazetis Khma”, # 145, 5 September 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on the Law of the Republic of Georgia  “On Introduction of Changes and Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia”
The Law of the Republic of Georgia of 31 July 1991 “On Introduction of Changes and Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia”, expanding the authority of the President of the Republic of Georgia, entitled him with the right to suspend the laws of the Abkhaz ASSR and returning them back to the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic for reconsideration and adoption with a two-thirds of votes. In addition to the aforementioned, the amendments and changes to the Constitution entitled him with a right of suspension of those decrees of the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia that contradict to the Constitution and laws of the Republic of Georgia.
The Law on “Introduction of Changes and Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia” was adopted in violation of the current Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, according to which the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR is entitled to independently decide on all issues under its competence by simple majority of deputies of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Taking into account the fact, that the Law of the Republic of Georgia on “Introduction of Changes and Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia” was adopted in a unilateral manner and in violation of the sovereignty of Abkhazia, the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To consider the Law of the Republic of Georgia on “ Introduction of Changes and Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia” as having no legal force and not subject to implementation.
2. In order to stabilize the situation and avoid inter-ethnic tensions, to immediately dispatch Comr. V.G. Kolbaia - First Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR  to the Republic of Georgia in order to put forward proposal on abrogation of legal acts, adopted in violation of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Chairman of the Supreme Council the of Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 August  1991
(Personal Archive of the Author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Decree Issued by the President of the Republic of Georgia on “Suspension of the Law of Abkhazian ASSR of 9 July 1991 on Introduction of Amendments and Changes to Paragraph 14 of Article 92 and Article 156 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR”.
By the virtue of the decree issued by the President of the Republic of Georgia on 5 August 1991, those articles of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, defining the procedures of appointment of the Prosecutor of the Abkhaz ASSR and prosecutors of cities and districts of the Autonomous Republic, have been suspended and it is offered to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR when appointing the Prosecutor and/or his/her Deputies, prosecutors of cities and districts of the Abkhaz ASSR, to be guided by Article 177 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, according to which prosecutors of the Autonomous Republics are to be appointed by the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Georgia upon the proposals from the Supreme Council of Autonomous Republics.
This decree contradicts to Article 166 of the Constitution of the USSR and violates the right of the Autonomous Republic to independently decide on the issues of personnel policy.
In accordance with Article 2 of the law of USSR on “Separation of Competencies between the USSR and Subjects of the Federation”, if there is contradictions between the Constitution of the USSR and Constitution of the Union Republic of the USSR, the Constitution of the USSR shall prevail.
In addition, the decree of the President of the Republic of Georgia has been issued in violation of Article 121/4-paragraph 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, according to which suspension of laws of the Autonomous Republic can be carried out within two weeks time-frame.
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
To consider the decree issued by the President of the Republic of Georgia on “ Suspension of the Law of Abkhaz ASSR of July 9, 1991 on Introduction of Amendments and Changes to Paragraph 14 of Article 92 and Article 156 of the Constitution of Abkhazian ASSR” as having no legal force and not subject to implementation.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 August 27 1991
(Personal Archive of the Author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on the laws of the Republic of Georgia “on Monetary Regulation in the Republic of Georgia”,  “on the National Bank of the Republic of Georgia” and “on the Banks and Banking Activity”
The laws “On Central Bank of the Abkhaz ASSR (The Bank of Abkhazia)” and “on the Banks and Banking activity” were adopted by the Session of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on 28 February 1991 in conformity with the laws of the USSR “On the National Bank of the USSR” and “on the Banks and Banking Activity”.  Pursuant to these laws the Bank of Abkhazia is  included into unified system of the Central Bank of the USSR that shall carry out unified monetary, fiscal and foreign currency policy of the USSR.
The laws adopted by the Republic of Georgia “on Monetary Regulation in the Republic of Georgia”,  “on the National Bank of the Republic of Georgia” and “on the Banks and Banking Activity” have established the monopoly of the Republic of Georgia on monetary and fiscal issues on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR; Georgian Republican Bank of the State Bank of the USSR and other specialized Banks are declared as the property of the Republic of Georgia.
Moreover, several of the norms set out in the Georgian laws regarding the banks are not in agreement with the laws of the USSR, in particular: cash flow, emission, foreign currency regulation, monetary accommodation.  The exclusive right of the USSR on currency issue and withdrawal of banknotes is breached.  That is an attempt to change the banking system established by the USSR aimed at withdrawal of Abkhazia from the subordination of the unified banking system and introduction of the own currency of Georgia.
The laws adopted by the Republic of Georgia grossly violate the sovereign rights of Abkhazia in the part of realization of potential of the Abkhaz ASSR in banking activity rendered by the legislation of the USSR.
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To consider null and void on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR the laws adopted by the Republic of Georgia “on Monetary Regulation in the Republic of Georgia”,  “on the National Bank of the Republic of Georgia” and “on the Banks and Banking Activity”, which undermine unified monetary, fiscal and foreign currency policy of the USSR.
2.  The Central Bank of the Abkhaz ASSR shall secure efficient performance of  the bank institutions and services in compliance with the laws “On Central Bank of the Abkhaz ASSR (The Bank of Abkhazia)” and “on the Banks and Banking activity”.
3.  The Ministry of Finance of the Abkhaz ASSR shall not comply with the instructions of the Republic of Georgia  related to the implementation of aforementioned laws of the Republic of Georgia and shall inform the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR in case of such instructions.
5.  This Decree shall be sent to the Board of the National Bank of the USSR.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
30 August 1991
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Certain Acts Issued by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Georgia
On 31 July of 1991 the Ministry of Education of the Georgian SSR issued the Order #343 that prohibits the Ministry of Education of the Abkhaz ASSR, heads of Departments of Education of cities and regions, directors (managers) of non-Georgian pre-school establishments and secondary schools to enroll in non-Georgian pre-school establishment and first class of secondary school a single child of Georgian nationality.
The mixed matrimony is a characteristic trait for multinational Abkhazia.  Therefore, the children not always speak the language of nationality they belong to and due to objective reasons not a Georgian language is native one for them.  Implementation of this law will establish serious impediments to the normal development of a child.  The right to choose the language of education,  in any cases, remains under the competence of parents.  The Orders, like the aforementioned, violate the human rights and take anti-democratic and anti-human character.
The executive institutions of the Republic of Georgia widely exercise attempt to interfere within the sphere of exclusive competence of the Abkhaz ASSR;  in accordance with the Order #288 of the Ministry of Education of 5 July 1991, the Ministry of Education of the Abkhaz ASSR is instructed to introduce the new seal, stamp and signboards, in accordance with the attached samples, to all educational establishments.  Therefore, and pursuant to this document,  Abkhazia is obliged to have the seal, stamp and signboards at all educational establishments that introduce the affiliation of the establishment exclusively to the Republic of Georgia and the Ministry of Education of Georgia without mentioning the title of the autonomous republic.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1.  To consider null and void on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR the Order #342 of the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Georgia.
2. To consider null and void on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR the Regulations on introduction new seal, stamp and signboards to all educational establishments attached to the Order #288 of 5 July 1991 of the Ministry of Education of Georgia.
3.  The city and district division of interior (militia), as well as the Department of Interior Affairs shall prevent producing the seals and stamps considered in the Regulations.
4.  The Ministry of Education of the Republic of Georgia shall elaborate in two-month term and submit to the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR the programme aimed at improving the quality of teaching of national languages  in pre-school establishments and in schools of Abkhazia.
5. The Ministry of Education of the Abkhaz ASSR shall exercise its function in compliance with the Decree #31 of 24 January of 1989 issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, Order #149 of 26 July of 1988 issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, as well as other legal acts issued by the Cabinet of Ministers and the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR, state and executive educational organs of the USSR.
Henceforth the decisions and acts adopted by the Ministry of Education and other state organs of the Republic of Georgia pertinent to the educational sphere shall be implemented only after getting approval of the Supreme Council and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR.
(…)
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 September 1991
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 13, 10 October 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on securing the economic basis for the sovereignty of Abkhazia
In due course of the adoption of the law of the USSR “on organs of state authority and management of the USSR during transitional period” the substantive structural changes have been introduced to distribution of competences within the state organs of management of the USSR.  The Union organs are authorized to carry out the function of coordinator in the economic sphere.
In this connection it’s necessary to secure the economic basis for the sovereignty of Abkhazia and decide the issues relating to the financing and material-technical supply of enterprises, institutions and economic establishments of the Union and Republic subordination.
By current state there are 243 enterprises, institutions and organizations subordinate to the Union and Union-Republic.  The economic analyze of those institutions shows that the centralized system of material and technical supply of the institutions fails to provide resources for the operation of economic establishments.  In addition to all paid taxes, dues and fees, these organizations also make allocations to their superior organizations.  In current year these organizations allocated in the organizations of the Union subordination 3, 333, 600 roubles.
Considering the interests of multi-national Abkhazia regarding the securing of sovereign economic base and pursuant to the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR and Declaration of Independence of the Abkhaz SSR,
the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1.  To entrust the Cabinet of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR (Comr. Mikanba V.T.) with the following tasks:
- to secure before 1st January 1992 transfer and receive under the jurisdiction of the state-management authority of the Abkhaz ASSR the Union and Union-Republic subordinate institutions, enterprises and economic organizations allocated on the territory of Abkhazia…
- to secure interstate transaction on the course of implementation of this Decree and coordination with the relevant Ministries and Agencies of the USSR and the Republic when deciding the issues infringing the interests of institutions, organizations and enterprises transferring under the jurisdiction of Abkhazia;
- to elaborate proposals on establishment of the State Committee on Property Management by 5 October 1991;
- to elaborate and endorse the Regulations on the State Committee on Property Management;
- to elaborate and approve within a week term the Guidelines “on Rules and Procedures on transferring the Union and Union-Republic institutions, enterprises and organizations, allocated on the territory of Abkhazia under the jurisdiction of the Abkhaz ASSR”
2.  The Ministry of Justice of the Abkhaz ASSR, before 1 January of 1992, shall accomplish the registration all economic subjects transferring under the jurisdiction of  Abkhazia.
3.  The State Planning Committee of the Abkhaz ASSR (Comr. Ashkhantsava V.A), the Ministry of Finance (Comr. Sichinava R.B.) shall secure material-technical supply of institutions, organizations and enterprises transferring under the jurisdiction of Abkhazia…
(…)
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR V. Ardzinba
27 September 1991
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 15, 12 October 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Creation of the State Customs Service of the Republic of Abkhazia
The industrial-economic potential and geographical location of Abkhazia lays good ground to develop economic relations with foreign countries.  The state Committee on foreign economic and inter-state relations has been established.  There is a number of joint enterprises in progress.  The issues on  introducing the flights from Sukhumi to foreign countries, as well as introduction of free economic zone in Ochamchire District are under consideration.
In order to develop littoral trade, foreign tourism and economic relations, the presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1. To create the state Customs Service of the Republic of Abkhazia.
2. To negotiate the issues relating to the structure, personnel and activity of the state Customs Service of Abkhazia with the Customs Committee of the USSR.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
27 September 1991
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Suspension of Effect of the Decree issued on 27 September 1991 by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR “on Creation of the State Customs Service of the Republic of Abkhazia”
On 27 September 1991 the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR issued a decree on “Creation of the State Customs Service of the Republic of Abkhazia” and agreed on structure, personnel and pattern of activities of the service with the Customs Committee of the USSR.
The aforementioned decision taken by the Presidium contradicts the Law of the Republic of Georgia on the “ Customs Service of the Republic of Georgia”, adopted on 15 September 1991.  This law does not entitle the Autonomous Republics of Georgia with authority of creating customs services; moreover, the aforementioned decree contradicts Article 82 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, according to which laws of the Republic of Georgia are equally binding on the whole territory of the Republic, including its autonomous republics.
Besides, by issuing the aforementioned decree, the Presidium violated Article 103 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, which does not entitle it to take decisions of legislative character. Therefore, by doing so, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR went beyond its competance.
Taking all the aforementioned into consideration and being guided by Article 121 Paragraph 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, I decree:
To suspend implementation of the Decree issued on 27 September 1991 by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Creation of the State Customs Service of the Republic of Abkhazia”  since it contradicts both the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia and the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR.
President of the Republic of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia
8 October 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 10, p.13)  
        

DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on the Decree issued on 27 September 1991 by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR “on Creation of the state Customs Service of the Republic of Abkhazia”.
On 27 September 1991 the Presidium of Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR issued a decree on “Creation of the State Customs Service of the Republic of Abkhazia” and agreed on structure, personnel and pattern of activities of the service with the Customs Committee of the USSR.
The aforementioned decision taken by the Presidium contradicts the Law of the Republic of Georgia on the “ Customs Service of the Republic of Georgia” adopted on 15 September 1991.  This law does not entitle the Autonomous Republics of Georgia with authority of creating customs services; moreover, the aforementioned decree contradicts Article 82 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, according to which the laws of the Republic of Georgia are equally binding on the whole territory of the Republic, including its autonomous republics.
It should be pointed out, that by issuing the aforementioned decree, the Presidium violated Article 103 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, which does not entitle it to take decisions of legislative character. Therefore, by doing so, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR went beyond its competance.
By virtue of decree issued by the President of the Republic of Georgia, implementation of the Decree issued on 27 September 1991 by the Presidium of Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Creation of the State Customs Service of the Republic of Abkhazia”  was suspended, since it contradicts the Constitution and the Laws of the Republic of Georgia.
In accordance with Article 104, Paragraph 8 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia guarantees supremacy of Georgian Laws on the whole territory of the Republic, and in accordance with Paragraph 24 of the same Article, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia observes the proper application of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia and makes sure that constitutions and laws of the Abkhaz ASSR and Ajara ASSR do not contradict  the Constitution and Laws of the Republic of Georgia.
Taking all the aforementioned into consideration, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To declare null and void the decree issued on 27 September 1991 by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Creation of the State Customs Service of the Republic of Abkhazia” since it contradicts the Constitution and Laws of the Republic of Georgia and the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR.
2. To advise the Supreme Council of Abkhaz ASSR to invalidate the decree issued on 27 September 1991 by the Presidium of Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Creation of the State Customs Service of the Republic of Abkhazia”
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia  Akaki Asatiani
8 October 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 10, p. 32-33)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF NATIONALITIES OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE RSFSR on Situation Established in the North Ossetian SSR
Having heard the information of the Commission on elaboration the measures aimed at stabilizing the situation in the region, the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR decrees:
1.  To take notice of the information on the situation in the North Ossetian SSR delivered by the Commission.
2. To address to the Presidents of the USSR, the RSFSR and the Republic of Georgia with request to set up intergovernmental commission on immediate settlement of political, legal, economic and other problems emerged due to current events in the region and elaborate the measures to exercise control over the implicit implementation of the achieved understandings and agreements.
3. To propose inclusion on the agenda of the 5th extraordinary Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR the issue “on implementation of the Resolution issued by the 3rd Extraordinary Congress of the people’s Deputies of the RSFSR “On the Situation in the South Ossetia”.
4. To advise to the Supreme Councils of the USSR and the RSFSR to speed up the process of adoption of the laws of the RSFSR “On Refugees and Displaced Persons” and “On Citizenship of the RSFSR”.
5. In case of failure in implementation of reached understandings and agreements, and taking into account the events in the South Ossetia, as well as increasing number of refugees to the North Ossetia running counter to the interests of the RSFSR, to address to the President of the RSFSR with a proposal to consider aforementioned issue.
6. The Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, within the ten-day term, shall consider the issue on caring out additional measures in order to grant material assistance to the North Ossetian SSR.
The Chairman of the Council of Nationalities
of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR R. G. Abdulatypov
16 October 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR, 1991, # 44, p. 1715)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE NORTH OSSETIAN SSR on Appeal of the Session of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies to the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR
Having discussed the appeal of the Session of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of 13 September 1991, considering a new wave of escalation of the violence in the South Ossetia and urgent need to protect the population against deportation and genocide, the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR decrees:
1. To address to the President of the RSFSR and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR for securing the fundamental human rights and carrying out immediate measures for putting an end to the bloodshed in the South Ossetia.
2. To ask the President and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR for considering the appeal of the South Ossetian Oblast Council of the People’s Deputies of 1st September 1991.
3. To ask the 5th extraordinary Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR for inclusion on the agenda the issue on implementation of the Resolution issued by the 3rd Extraordinary Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR “On the Situation in the South Ossetia”.
4. To entrust the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR with a task of setting up the delegation, composing of the representatives of the South Ossetia, aimed at entering into negotiations with the state structures of the Republic of Georgia .  The principal task at an initial stage of the negotiation shall be achievement of agreement on immediate elimination of violations in the territory of the autonomous oblast.
5.  To address to the world community with the appeal to render the assistance to the South Ossetia in order to stop the genocide and settle the conflict; the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR urges the United Nations to send the observers and experts to the South Ossetia and the regions of Georgia in order to investigate the cases of gross violations of the human rights.
The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the South Ossetian SSR A. Galazov
22 October 1991
(Newspaper “Youzhnaia Ossetia”, # 158, 7 November 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on suspension of implementation of the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR on “Securing Economic Bases of Sovereignty of Abkhazia” and the Decree issued on 22 October 1991 by the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Subordination to Jurisdiction of the Abkhaz ASSR of all Enterprises and Organizations that have previously been under the Union and Republican Jurisdiction”
The Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR issued the decree on “Securing Economic Bases of Sovereignty of Abkhazia”. In this regard, the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR on 22 October 1991 issued the decree on “Subordination to Jurisdiction of the Abkhaz ASSR of all Enterprises and Organizations that have previously been under the Union and Republican Jurisdiction”. By the virtue of the same decree issued by the Council of Ministers, a special working group was set up that was entrusted with a task of coordinating all activities in that direction.
The aforementioned decree envisages transferring, freeing of charge, to jurisdiction of Abkhazia and its ownership of all enterprises and organizations located on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The aforementioned decrees issued by the Supreme Council the Abkhaz ASSR and the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR are illegal and must be invalidated on the following grounds:
To issue a decree regulating transfer of the Union and Republican subordination enterprises and organizations under the jurisdiction of Abkhazia goes beyond the competence of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR;
By issuing the aforementioned decrees, provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia have been violated, since according to the Constitution all issues related to the ownership and management of property of the Autonomous Republic must be decided upon agreement with the Supreme Council and Government of the Republic of Georgia.
Taking into account all the aforementioned I decree:
1. To suspend implementation of   the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Securing Economic Bases of Sovereignty of Abkhazia” and of the Decree issued on 22 October 1991 by the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Subordination to Jurisdiction of the Abkhaz ASSR of all Enterprises and Organizations that have previously been under the Union and Republican Jurisdiction” and declare them as legally null and void.
2. To advise a newly elected Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR to reconsider this issue.
President of the Republic of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia
Tbilisi, 24 October 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 10, p. 22-23)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE RSFSR on the Situation in the North Ossetian SSR
Having heard the information of the Commission of the Deputies on the situation in the North Ossetian SSR, the Supreme Council of the RSFSR expresses deep concern at the situation established in this republic.
As a result of the violation of human rights in the Republic of Georgia the flow of refugees from the South Ossetia and other regions of Georgia to the North Ossetia is increasing.  Currently the total number of refugees exceeds of 85,000 people.  Such situation substantively worsens the social conditions of the population and intensifies the tension in the North Ossetia.  As a matter of fact the leadership of Georgia didn’t take into consideration the appeal of the 3rd extraordinary Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR regarding the situation in the South Ossetia.  The complicated situation in the North Ossetia and unsettled conflict in the South Ossetia may lead to unpredictable consequences.
Aiming at normalization of the situation in the North Ossetia and in the whole region, the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR decrees:
1.  To offer to the President of the RSFSR to take all possible measures, and if necessary the strict economic sanctions against the Republic of Georgia in order to achieve early regulation of the conflict in the South Ossetia, restore the human rights respect and grant additional material assistance to the North Ossetian SSR.
2.  To ask the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR for inviting the experts of the CSCE to consider the situation established in the South Ossetia and elaborate practical measures for the normalization of the situation.
First Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR R. Khasbulatov
25 October 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR, 1991, # 44, p. 1709-1710)


RESOLUTION OF THE CONGRESS OF THE PEOPLE’S DEPUTIES OF THE RSFSR on the course of implementation of the Resolution of the 3rd Extraordinary Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR “on the situation in the South Ossetia”
Due to the extremely tensed situation has established since December of 1990 in the South Ossetia,  large number of casualties, refugees, destroyed houses and people left without livings, the 3rd Extraordinary Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR adopted the Resolution “on the situation in the South Ossetia”.  It proposed to the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia to restitute political status of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast in all structures of state authority, to release arrested Chairman of the Council of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast Torez Kulumbegov and other unlawfully detained officials, to take measures to return the refugees to the places of their permanent residence.
The leadership of the Republic of Georgia has ignored these reasonable proposals.  As a result, the situation over the last seven months has become more acute and reached the state of a real catastrophe.  The capital city of the South Ossetia - Tskhinvali and the settlement of Znauri are under the permanent artillery bombardment.  More than 100 villages and settlements of the oblast are given to arson and devastated.  The number of refugees from the South Ossetia and other regions of Georgia is more than 100,000.  Existing situation runs counter to the national and political interests of the North Caucasus in whole.
Taking into consideration the fact that the events in the South Ossetia pose the treat to stability and security of the RSFSR, the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR decrees:
1.  Together and in agreement with the Republic of Georgia, to take measures aimed at regulating the conflict in the South Ossetia, suspension of the activity of the illegal armed formations, raising the blockade of the motorways, return of refugees to the places of their permanent residence and securing the normal living conditions of the population of the region.
2. In case of disobedience on the side of the Republic of Georgia to carry out all necessary measures; the President of the RSFSR, the Supreme Council of the RSFSR, shall impose rigorous sanctions, including the economic ones against the Republic of Georgia aimed at restoration of human rights and conflict settlement in the South Ossetia.
3. To entrust the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR with a task of solving the issue on additional material and financial assistance to the refugees.
4. To address the President of the USSR, the Ministry of Interior of the USSR and the Ministry of Defence of the USSR to take measures within the competence of their agencies for establishment stability in the South Ossetia.
5. To propose to the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR to bring a suit against the Republic of Georgia on compensation of the assistance granted to the refugees from the South Ossetia and other regions of Georgia by the RSFSR.
First Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR R. Khasbulatov
1 November 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR, 1991, # 45, p. 1771-1772)

STATEMENT OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
Over the recent period the Parliament of Russia, and now the Congress of the RSFSR have adopted categorical ‘Decisions’ and ‘Resolutions’, as well as the appeals to the central authorities of the USSR  aimed at imposing special sanctions against Georgia and its population.
Regretfully we have to state that certain officials at the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR and outside of it, using the conflict in so called South Ossetia, provoked to some extent by the leadership of the former USSR, try to put a pressure on the Government and the President of Russia and made them continue the traditional imperial policy toward Georgia.
The thesis on aggression of Georgia is repeatedly voiced in order to mislead the Russian and International society.  At the same time a main initiator of eruption of the interethnic conflict in Georgia – the leadership of the former USSR - is intentionally concealed.  Declaration of the Chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Mr Abdulatipov on existence in North Ossetia 100 thousand of alleged refugees from Georgia is an outrageous lie.  let us remind you that according to the All-Union census of 1989, the total number of population in South Ossetia was 65.238.  Taking into consideration a number of Georgian refugees from South Ossetia that has already reached 20 000 people, there should not be even a single dweller on the territory of this oblast.  The question is raised – whom the Russian troops are ‘protecting’ there?  Who are conflicting sides there?
It is known that a part of Ossetian population willing to leave the territory of Georgia has already got the permission to immigrate, as well as the compensation from the government of Georgia;  therefore, those people may not be considered as refugees.  Moreover, many of Ossetian families are leaving for North Ossetia and after getting the status of refugee and relevant pecuniary aid, they return in Georgia, to the places of their former dwelling.  Is the number of ‘refugees’ inflated at their expense?
The authorities of the North Ossetia, taking ‘advantage’ of the distress of the people, try to receive additional financial resources for alleged assistance to the refugees and the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR finds there proposals rather appropriate to justify such allocations.  In reality, resources are aimed at rendering the military support to the Ossetian extremists and escalation of military operations in Georgia.  The Government of Georgia considers such developments as aggression against the independent Republic of Georgia.
We constantly declare that the conflict in so called South Ossetia and its consequences have been initiated not by the Georgian side and proceeds from the geopolitical interests of the Ossetian nationalism and imperial ambition of the USSR’s leadership.
As the conflict is unleashed on the territory of the Republic of Georgia, where the troops of the USSR together with Ossetian extremists are carrying out military operations, only the Soviet Government can be specified as an aggressor and all of the material damages to the Georgian side shall be compensated by the Government of the USSR or by its successor.
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of Georgia and its Government express the firm protest against declarations voiced by the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR and the Russian Congress that may be used by hostile forces for worsening the relations between Russia and Georgia.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, on its turn, is seeking the ways for regulation of the conflict in so called South Ossetia and has decided to make an appeal to the UN asking for sending international experts to Georgia.
Tbilisi, 5 November 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 11, p. 31-32)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Abolishment of the State of Emergency on the Territories of City of Tskhinvali and Java District.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To abolish the state of emergency on the territories of town of Tskhinvali and Java district.
2. The Ministries of Interior and Defence of the USSR must immediately withdraw troops under their jurisdiction from the territory of former South Ossetia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia A. Asatiani
25 November 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 11, p. 24)         


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on the Current Situation of Mobilization Reserves and Conscription to the Active Military Service
The situation over the recent period has significantly worsened with regard of accumulation of mobilization reserves of the Republic of Abkhazia.
First of all this is a result of the fact, that most of conscripts from Abkhazia perform the service in the  facilitating military establishments.
The number of male-youth, the citizens of Abkhazia, willing to get the education in high-military educational institutions, has significantly reduced.
That is a result of insufficient performance of the Military Commissariats and executive committees that fail to exercise efficient pre-conscription activity.
The Youth organizations of Abkhazia keep distance from this very important task.
In order to increase the authority of the military service, prevent the trends to weakening the mobilization, and maintain alertness of military units and detachments deployed on the territory of Abkhazia, the presidium of the Supreme council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1.  The Council of Ministers of Abkhazia together with the military commissariats shall elaborate and approve the measures on accumulation and strengthening of mobilization resources of Abkhazia before 1 January 1991.
2.  To introduce the conscription to the military units deployed on the territory of Abkhazia of the call-up age youth in December 1991 through the competition except the people eligible for postponement of service.
4. The conscription shall be accomplished by 20 December 1991.
5. The military Commissars of the Republic, Sukhumi City and districts shall prevent integration of conscripts from Abkhazia to other military structures, as USD, commandant’s office, military registration and enlistment office etc.
6. The facts of detaching the conscripts to the aforementioned entities will be carefully investigated and the officials found guilty will be punished right up to removal from the office and transferring to the reserve.
The Procuracy, Ministry of Interior shall reveal the persons deviating from the service and bring to account in accordance of the legislation.
This Decree comes into force with immediate effect after its adoption.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia  V. Ardzinba
27 November 1991
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 99, 30 November 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Creation of the State Security Service of Abkhazia
Due to the abolishment of the KGB of the USSR and its subordinate structures in the republic, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR Decrees:
1.  To abolish the KGB of Abkhazia;
2. To create the State Security Service of Abkhazia on the base of the KGB of Abkhazia;
3. The Council of Ministers of Abkhazia shall:
- elaborate the draft Regulations on the State Security Service of Abkhazia, its structural and staff arrangement and submit it to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR.
- secure allocation of adequate appropriations and material resources for the functioning of the State Security Service of Abkhazia
4. The financing of the State Security Service of Abkhazia will be financed from the Republic budget of Abkhazia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
27 November 1991
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 58, 13 December 1991)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Current Situation in Shida Kartli
The Ossetian separatists, having usurped power and enjoying vast support from the troops of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR and the Soviet Army, continue their anti-Constitutional and anti-State activities, thereby undermining the territorial integrity and sovereign rights of the Republic of Georgia.
On 26 October 1991 a session of the Supreme Council of the so called Republic of South Ossetia addressed issues relating to change of the title of the Republic, creation of new structures of power, adoption of constitution, endorsement of all the previously taken decisions on joining Russia, introduction of state of emergency, general mobilization, creation of Ossetian guard and other issues. Znaur Gasiev was elected at the session first Deputy Chairman and acting Chairman of the Supreme Council of the so-called Republic of South Ossetia.
It is noteworthy, that at the session it was acknowledged that after a decision of September 4 1991, which was taken by an illegal organ- Session of Deputies of South Ossetia elected at all levels, a constitutional vacuum prevailed in the region. This admission notwithstanding, the Ossetian separatists active in Shida Kartli seek to fill this “constitutional vacuum” with even more illegal, anti-constitutional actions. And the best proof of the aforementioned is the Session of Supreme Council of the so-called Republic of South Ossetia and decisions taken at the session.In accordance with the Law of the Republic of Georgia on “State of Emergency” and recent decisions taken by the highest state authorities of the Republic of Georgia, there is no legal basis for deployment of Troops of the Ministry of Interior of USSR and detachments of the Soviet Army on the territory of Shida Kartli, moreover, their presence in the region represents one of the major factors of destabilization any hostile activities directed against Republic of Georgia.In order to guarantee the sovereignty, state security and territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia and pursuant to Article 121 Paragraph 2 of the Republic of Georgia,
I decree:
To declare invalidated and legally null and void the decision taken on 26 November 1991 by the anti-constitutional and anti-state institution  - Session of the Supreme Council of the so-called Republic of South Ossetia.
The Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Georgia shall undertake all necessary measures against those who created an anti-constitutional organization aiming at undermining sovereignty of the Republic of Georgia and cessation of the region from the Republic of Georgia.
To demand from the competent bodies of the USSR immediate withdrawal from the territory of the Republic of Georgia of Troops of the Ministry of Interior and detachments of the Soviet Army deployed in Shida Kartli.
President of the Republic of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia
2 December 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 12, p. 5-6)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA  on Current Situation in Shida Kartli
The Ossetian separatists having usurped power continue their anti-Constitutional and anti-State activities.  The very potent proof of the aforementioned is the fact that on 26 October 1991 a session of the Supreme Council of the so called Republic of South Ossetia addressed issues relating to change of the title of the Republic, creation of new structures of power, adoption of constitution, endorsement of all the previously taken decisions on joining Russia, introduction of state of emergency, general mobilization, creation of Ossetian guard and other issues. The convocation of session of the Supreme Council of the so-called Republic of South Ossetia and decision taken at the session are gross violations of Article 2, Paragraphs 3 and 6 of Article 72, Articles 73  and 104.
The Ossetian separatists are supported by the troops of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR and the Soviet Army, and in accordance with the current legislation of the Republic of Georgia and recent decisions taken by the highest state authorities of the Republic of Georgia, there is no legal basis for deployment of Troops of the Ministry of Interior of USSR and detachments of the Soviet Army on the territory of Shida Kartli, moreover, their presence in the region represents one of the major factors of destabilization any hostile activities directed against the Republic of Georgia.
In order to guarantee the sovereignty, state security and territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia and pursuant to Article 104 Paragraph 24, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To declare invalidated and legally null and void the decision taken on November 26 1991 by the anti-constitutional and anti-state institution  - the Supreme Council of the so-called Republic of South Ossetia.
2. The Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Georgia shall undertake all necessary measures against those who created an anti-constitutional organization aiming at undermining sovereignty of the Republic of Georgia and cessation of the region from the Republic of Georgia.
3.  To demand from the competent bodies of the USSR immediate withdrawal from the territory of the Republic of Georgia of Troops of the Ministry of Interior and detachments of the Soviet Army deployed in Shida Kartli.
Deputy Chairman of Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Nemo Burchuladze
3 December 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 12, p. 36-37)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Decree Issued on November 26 1991 by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR
On 26 November 1991 by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR issued decree on “ The Current Situation of Mobilization of Reservists and Conscription for the Active Military Service”.
The decree envisages the following: accumulation and strengthening of mobilization resources of USSR, procedural norms of conscription for military service in Soviet Army detachments deployed on the territory of Abkhazia. That means creation of military formations of foreign States and will lead to destabilization of societal-political situation in the Abkhazian ASSR.
This decree issued by the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR constitutes gross violation of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgian and contradicts the decree issued on 9 September 1991 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia on “Creation of Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Georgia”. By virtue of this decree, the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Georgia is authorized to establish a National Guard. The Constitutions of Abkhazian ASSR does not provide for military service in Abkhazia and it does not entitle the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR with authority to take decisions on such issues.
Pursuant to Paragraph 24 of Article 104 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
To declare invalidated and legally null and void the decree issued on November 26, 1991 by the Supreme Council of Abkhazian ASSR on “The Current Situation in the Sphere of Mobilization of Reservists and Conscription for Military Service”, since it contradicts both the Constitutions of the Republic of Georgia and the Abkhaz ASSR.
Deputy Chairman of Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia Nemo Burchuladze
3 December 1991
(Bulletin of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, 1991, # 12, p. 36-37)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE RSFSR on the course of implementation of Decree issued by the 5th Extraordinary Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR “on the situation in the South Ossetia”
Having heard the information of the Government of the RSFSR upon the request of the Deputies Gurevich L. B.; Zasukhina S. F.; Lisina V. P. and Shuiykov V.A. on the course of implementation of Decree issued by the 5th Extraordinary Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR on the situation in the South Ossetia, the Supreme council of the RSFSR decrees:
1.  To make a note of the lack of efficient measures on the side of the government of the RSFSR in realization of the decisions of the third and fifth extraordinary Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR concerning the situation in the South Ossetia.
2. The Government of the RSFSR shall report the Supreme Council of the RSFSR before 25 December 1991 on implementation of the Resolutions of the Congresses, as well as on political, economic and organizational measures aimed at conflict settlement in the South Ossetia, human rights protection and return of refugees to the places of their permanent residence.
First Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR R. Khasbulatov
12 December 1991
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR, 1991, # 52, p. 2119-2120)


RESOLUTION on Denunciation of the Treaty on Establishing the USSR
Being guided by the Declaration on State Sovereignty of the RSFSR and in compliance with Section 15 of Article 15 of the Constitution (Basic Law) of the RSFSR, the Supreme Council of the RSFSR decrees:
To denounce the Treaty on establishing the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, approved at the I Congress of the Soviets of the USSR on 30 December 1922 in the City of Moscow.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR R. I. Khasbulatov
Moscow, 12 December 1991  
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RSFSR and the Supreme Council of the RSFSR, 1991, # 50, p. 2050)


DECLARATION OF THE FIRST CONGRESS OF THE OSSETIAN PEOPLE  on Restoration of National-political and Territorial Integrity of Ossetia
Ossetian people that inherited cultural valuables of ancient Skiff-Sarmanto-Alan valuables and maintaining its soil forming Ossetian nation today found themselves separated.  Two centuries ago, trying to preserve the homeland and territorial-political integrity, Ossetian people voluntarily joined Russia.  However, in 1920 the territory and the people of Ossetia were divided into North Ossetia included within the Russian Federation and South Ossetia that became the part of Georgia.  Ossetians’ attempt to maintain unity was met with fierce resistance of Menshevik’s Georgia that resorted bloody terror against Ossetians residing in the South Ossetia.  After 70 years Georgian authorities still use the policy of genocide.
Taking into account the fact of suspending the effect of the Union Treaty of 1922 and other legal acts of the USSR and expressing the will of the people of Ossetia towards the restoration of unity of the country, the extraordinary Congress of the people of Ossetia Declares:
1. The restoration of territorial integrity and national-political unity of the Ossetian People is the supreme goal through which the Ossetians will be able to preserve themselves as the nation.  Ossetian people are determined to reach this goal solely through the civilized forms.
2. Restoration of Ossetia’s territorial integrity within the unified state is the only way for realization Ossetians’ right on self-determination based on voluntary union with the Russian Federation and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
This extraordinary Congress calls upon the Russian Federation and other independent states to recognize the rights of the Ossetian people to restore unified national state.
The Extraordinary Congress of the Ossetian People
Vladikavkaz, 13-14 December 1991
(Newspaper “Severnaia Ossetia”, # 254, 21 December 1991)

ALMA-ATA DECLARATION
The independent states:
The Republic of Azerbaijan, the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, the Republic of Turkmenistan, the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Ukraine,
seeking to build democratic law-governed states, the relations between which will develop on the basis of mutual recognition and respect for state sovereignty and sovereign equality, the inalienable right to self-determination, principles of equality and noninterference in the internal affairs, the rejection of the use of force, the threat of force and economic and any other methods of pressure, a peaceful settlement of disputes, respect for human rights and freedoms, including the rights of national minorities, a conscientious fulfillment of commitments and other generally recognized principles and standards of international law;
recognizing and respecting each other's territorial integrity and the inviolability of the existing borders;
believing that the strengthening of the relations of friendship, good neighborliness and mutually advantageous co- operation, which has deep historic roots, meets the basic interests of nations and promotes the cause of peace and security;
being aware of their responsibility for the preservation of civilian peace and inter-ethnic accord;
being loyal to the objectives and principles of the agreement on the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States;
declare on the following:
Co-operation between members of the Commonwealth will be carried out in accordance with the principle of equality through coordinating institutions formed on a parity basis and operating in the way established by the agreements between members of the Commonwealth, which is neither a state, nor a super-state structure.
In order to ensure international strategic stability and security, allied command of the military-strategic forces and a single control over nuclear weapons will be preserved, the sides will respect each other's desire to attain the status of a non- nuclear and (or) neutral state.
The Commonwealth of Independent States is open, with the agreement of all its participants, to the states--members of the former USSR, as well as other states--sharing the goals and principles of the Commonwealth.
The allegiance to co-operation in the formation and development of the common economic space, and all-European and Eurasian markets, is being confirmed.
With the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States the USSR ceases to exist.
Member states of the Commonwealth guarantee, in accordance with their constitutional procedures, the fulfillment of international obligations, stemming from the treaties and agreements of the former USSR.
Member states of the Commonwealth pledge to observe strictly the principles of this declaration.
Alma-Ata, 21 December 1991
(Journal “Dimplomaticheskiy Vestnik”, 1992, #  # 1, p. 7)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA on Dislocation of the Military Units, Establishments of Border-guard and Internal Forces, and Navy Forces and on Changes of Order of Their Functioning on the Territory of Abkhazia
Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia decrees:
1. Military units, establishments of border-guard and internal forces, and navy forces shall be dislocated on the territory of Abkhazia pursuant to the will of people and the Constitution of Abkhazia.
Their further presence in Abkhazia shall be solely and completely under the competence of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia and shall be determined by political agreements and legal norms.
Any legal acts, regardless the issuing agency, opposing this order and aimed at undermining of the defense power of the republic, destabilization of the military and political situation in the region and breaching the requirements of the Constitution of the republic, shall be considered invalid.
2. Considering the fact that the bodies of local defense management (commissariats, civil defense, technical defense societies), as well as military divisions No 5482, 3697 and their property, equipment, weapons, premises, ammunition depots  and others shall be assigned under the jurisdiction of the republic pursuant to the Clause 11, Constitution of Abkhazia.
At the time being the staff of the aforementioned military structures is not a subject of reorganization from Abkhazia’s side and shall be regulated in according of the interstate agreements until the final settlement of the matter.
3. Officials of the commissariats, civil defense headquarters and military-technical societies of Abkhazia have no longer any right to pass or annihilate their property pursuant the previous procedures without relevant instruction of the Council of Ministers of Abkhazia.
4. The Abkhaz Council of Ministers shall determine the order of the execution of par 2 and 3 of this Decree.
5. The Military Commissar, Head of the Civil Defense Headquarters, Chairman of the Military-technical Society (DOSAAF) shall submit their proposals on the staff-organization structure under their subordination to the Abkhaz Supreme Council before 15 January 1992.
6 The present Resolution comes into force from the moment of its signing.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
29 December 1991
(T. Nadareihvili, Genotsid  v Abkhazii, Tb., 1996, p. 37-38)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Establishment under the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia the Interim Council on Coordination of the Activity and Re-subordination of the Military and Militia Units Dislocated on the Territory of Abkhazia
Due to the disintegration of the USSR and liquidation of the Union administrative structures, including the troops of the Interior Ministry of the USSR, and following the interests of the multinational population of Abkhazia an Interim Council for the coordination of the activities and re-subordination of the defence and Militia Troops dislocated on the territory of Abkhazia shall be established under the subordination of the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia, composing the following officials:
Interim Council Chairman — V. G . Ardzinba, the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia; First Deputy Chairman of the Council - colonel A. I. Arshba, the First Deputy Minister of Interior of Abkhazia; The Deputy Chairman of he Council - Lieutenant-colonel L. R. Gogzhiyan; Members of the Council: colonel Т. N. Chkadua,  Military Commissar of Abkhazia; colonel S. P. Dbar,  Military Commissar of Sukhumi city; colonel В. G. Mirvelov, Military commissar of Gagra city; Major A. B. Klimov, the commander of 5482 military unit; Lieutenant-colonel G. K. Agrba.
The Interim Council on coordination of the activities and re-subordinating military and Militia units shall follow the approved Regulation.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
29 December 1991
(T. Nadareishvili, Genotsid  v Abkhazii, 1996, p. 38)


1992
DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCILF OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH OSSETIA on holding the public referendum of the Republic of South Ossetia
In conformity with Articles 4,5,9,14 and 17 of the Law of the Republic of South Ossetia “On Public Referendum”, the Supreme Council of the Republic of South Ossetia decrees:1.  To hold the Public Referendum of the Republic of South Ossetia on Sunday, 19 January 1992.
2.  To bring to the referendum two questions:
a) Do you support the independence of the South Ossetia?
b) Do you support the Decree issued by the Supreme Council of the independent Republic of the South Ossetia of 1 September 1991 on unification with Russia?
(…)
Acting Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of South Ossetia Z. N. Gassiev
Tskhinval, 3 January 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on measures for maintaining the public order and lawfulness in Abkhazia
The Presidium of the Supreme Council notes that public-political environment has significantly worsened over the recent period due to the actions of disobedience to the new state structures of Georgia carried out by the public organizations.
(…)
… These actions take illegal character; unauthorized demonstrations, processions and strikes, pickets and blockades of the railroad have become the norm.  The organizers of these disorders, covered up with the slogans of protection the Constitutional rights, encourage the public disorder themselves.
(…)
Against the background of armed confrontation and human casualties in Tbilisi, the destabilization of the public-political situation and operation of economic establishments of Abkhazia aggravates the complicated situation in the Republic and may lead to the clash of large groups of people.
(…)
Guiding with the Constitution of Abkhazia, the Presidium of the Supreme Council decrees:
1.  The Council of Ministers, city and district Councils of the People’s Deputies shall take immediate measures in order to maintain public order in the cities and districts of Abkhazia, strengthen control over, and management of the organizations, institutions and enterprises.
2. The Procuracy, Ministry of Interior, The Service on Public Order of Abkhazia shall reveal and bring to the justice in accordance with the legislation those persons that will be found guilty in public disorder, including the organizers of unlawful strikes and demonstrations.
(…)
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
13 January 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 11, 17 January 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Additional Measures for Regulation the Public Order and Securing the Lawfulness in Abkhazia
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia notes that against the background of existing public and political situation the criminogenic environment has become complicated.  The crimes become more and more dangerous and take massive character.  The Soldiers of the National Guard that is declared unlawful on the territory of Abkhazia actually carry the firearms.
(…)
The presidium of the Supreme council of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1.   To establish the rule that only law-enforcers of Abkhazia and officers and servicemen of the military unites under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia are authorized to carry firearms on the territory of Abkhazia; the authorization on carrying the gun shall be rendered by the competent authority of Abkhazia.
Other normative acts authorizing to carry firearms, as Identification Cards and Permission on carrying firearms, have no legal effect and shall be considered unlawful on the territory of Abkhazia; such IDs and permissions shall be confiscated and annulled.
2. Law-enforcement agencies of the Republic of Abkhazia (The Procuracy, The Ministry of Interior, State Security Service, formations of the Interior Troops under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia) shall immediately set up the joint activity aimed at seizing of illegal arms from the population and individuals on the territory of Abkhazia.
3. The Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Abkhazia and formations of the internal troops under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia shall carry out joint patrol in the public places and streets of the towns and settlements with participation of public representatives in order to secure public tranquillity and order.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
20 January 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 14, 28 January 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Transferring of the agencies of Procuracy and the Ministry of Interior under the Jurisdiction of Abkhazia
Due to the termination of the existence of the USSR as a state and abolishment of state management structures, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia decrees:
1. To transfer under the jurisdiction of Abkhazia:
- the Procuracy of Abkhazia;
- the Ministry of Interior of Abkhazia.
2. To subordinate the Line Division of the Interior of Sukhumi Railway Station to the Ministry of Interior of Abkhazia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of  Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
24 January 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE  ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Re-subordination of the Environment Procuracy and the Transport Procuracy under the Procuracy of the Abkhaz ASSR
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia notes that pursuant to the previous wording of Article 155 of the Constitution of Abkhazia, the district prosecutors, functioning on the territory of Abkhazia, were appointed by the Prosecutor of Georgia.
Article 155 of the Constitution of Abkhazia currently has been changed and in accordance with the new edition of this Article all district and regional prosecutors on the territory of Abkhazia are appointed by the Prosecutor of Abkhazia.  Proceeding from the aforementioned the Environment and Transport Prosecutors shall be re-subordinated to the Prosecutor of Abkhazia.
In this course the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia decrees:
To re-subordinate Sukhumi Environment and Transport Prosecutors of the Abkhaz ASSR under the Prosecutor of the Abkhaz ASSR retaining the right on supervision on their activity from the side of the Prosecutor of the Republic of Georgia in compliance with the current legislation of the Republic of Georgia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of  Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
24 January 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA on Endorsement of the Provisions of the Interim Council on Coordination of Activities and Re-subordination of Military and Police Forces Attached to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia decrees:
To endorse the Regulations of the Interim Council on Coordination of Activities and Re-subordination of Military and Police Forces Attached to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia (The Provisions is attached).
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
13 February 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


Regulations of the Interim Council on Coordination of Activities and Re-subordination of Military and Police Forces Attached to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia
1. The Council represents a State structure attached to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia, is subordinate to it and is designed for implementation of defense and military policy of Abkhazia.
The Council is composed of civilians and professional officers of the Armed Forces, Interior Troops, Ministry of Interior and Security Service.
The composition of the Council and number of its members shall be endorsed by the Presidium of the Supreme Council through open voting upon the proposal of the Chair of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia and can be changed in accordance with the evolving circumstances.
2. The Council shall work out and submit to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia for consideration proposals on defense issues and military policy. It shall cooperate with leadership of the Armed Forces in carrying out control on preparation and activities of all troops within the borders of Abkhazia.
3. The Council shall promote and contribute, to the maximum possible extent, combat readiness of all troops of Abkhazia, carry out leadership over those military structures that are under the jurisdiction of the Republic of Abkhazia.
4. The Council shall be entitled to offer its proposals to the relevant military commanders and high rank officials in different Ministries of Defence on the issues related to personnel policy, selection of officers of those military units, that are located on the territory of Abkhazia.
5. The Council shall take care to create all the necessary conditions for proper functioning of troops and shall draft legal acts on social and legal protection of servicemen and their families, as well as put forward proposals on granting different privileges to them and submit these proposals to the Presidium of the Supreme Council and the Government of Abkhazia.
In association with the bodies of Prosecutor’s Office of Abkhazia, the Council shall exercise control over implementation of legislation and military policy of Abkhazia.
6.  In order to address the daily issues in a proper and timely manner, the Council shall set up a standing working body and a headquarters. Number of personnel, structure, military ranks and remuneration of the personnel of working body and headquarters, as well as material means necessary for implementation of their duties, shall be defined through a decree issued by the Council and can be changed in accordance with the evolving circumstances.
7. All civilians, organizations, enterprises, ministries and agencies, as well as commanders of military units, commanders of military agencies, enterprises and organizations shall be obliged to render timely and effective assistance to representatives of the Council throughout the territory of Abkhazia.
13 February 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECLARATION OF THE MILITARY COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
The founding State documents of the Republic of Georgia are: “the Act of State Independence of Georgia”, declared by the National Council of Georgia on 26 May 1918 and the Constitution of Georgia, adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Georgia on 21 February 1921.
The Democratic Republic of Georgia, founded on the principles laid down in these documents and other legal acts adopted in 1918-1921, was recognized both de jure and de facto by the League of Nation and by the major member -States of it.
It was determined that the Constitution of Georgia would be exercised “permanently and uninterruptedly” (chapter 1, General Provisions, Article 10). After the adoption of the Constitution, the Parliament of Georgia did not determine procedures of its abrogation or suspension. Adoption of such a decree became possible through a decision made by the people through referendum, without which the Constituent Assembly was authorized neither to abrogate nor suspend the Constitution.
On 2 January 1992 the current Constitution of Georgia ceased to be functional and as a result the justice was restored. The period, contradicting the Constitution of Georgia from legal point of view, came to an end.
The Constitution of Georgia was adopted on 21 February 1921 when Georgia was at war with the Soviet Russia. This reality predetermined incorporation into the Constitution of some protective mechanism that would guarantee validity and continuity of the document in case of annexation and occupation of the country.
The Soviet Regime, being unable to introduce constitutional changes without compromising validity and continuity of the Constitution, had grossly violated that principle through abolishment of the Constitution and having resorted to military force changed local elected and democratic structures, and established its own political regime and replaced a Constitution adopted by the independent Georgian State with the Constitution of the Georgian SSR (GSSR).
The Authorities of the Republic of Georgia overthrown on 2 January 1992 was a legal successor not of the Democratic Republic of Georgia of 1918-21, but it was a successor of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia proclaimed to have come into existence on 25 February 1921. Hence, it recognized the supremacy not of the Constitution of Georgia adopted by the Constitutive Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Georgia on 21 February 1921, but rather observed the totalitarian principles of Constitutions of the Georgian SSR adopted in 1922, 1927, 1937 and 1978 and were not immediate successor of the Parliament of Georgia, but were Authorities created on the basis of the aforementioned constitutions.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, based on the results of the referendum held on 31 March 1991, adopted the Act of State Independence of Georgia on 9 April 1991, thereby restoring independence of Georgia attained by the virtue of the Act of Independence of 26 May 1918, and recognized the legality of the Constitution of the Democratic republic of Georgia. The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia failed to carry out in real life the principles declared by itself.
The Georgian Authorities refused to declare themselves a legal successor of the Democratic Republic of Georgia and did not restore the Constitution of 1918. Moreover, instead of establishment of a democratic State of Georgia, it has established the authoritarian regime.
On 22 December the President having usurped the power has unleashed war against the nation and suffered a natural defeat.
The Military Council of the Republic of Georgia that represents the State power at the moment deems it unacceptable to replace one illegal authority by the other similarly illegal one and emphasizes the necessity of restoration of lawful constitutional regime in Georgia.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the Military Council of the Republic of Georgia declares that:
1. Without changing the current borders and State –territorial arrangement of the Republic of Georgia (with current status of Abkhazia and Ajara), it recognizes the international legal acts and supremacy of the Constitution of Democratic Republic of Georgia of February 21, 1921 and its implementation with due account of current realities.
2. Elections to the Parliament of Georgia shall be held based on the principles set out in the Constitution of Georgia of 21 February 1921, no later than autumn of 1992.
3. The Military Council of the Republic of Georgia alongside the Interim Government shall resign and confer power to a newly elected Parliament of Georgia at the very first session of the Parliament.
Members of the Military Council of the Republic of Georgia: T. Kitovani, J. Ioseliani
21 February, 1992
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublica”, # 36, 25 February 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE MILITARY COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Action of Legislation in the Republic of Georgia
In accordance with the Declaration issued by the Military Council of the Republic of Georgia on 21 February 1992 and taking into account the supremacy of the Constitution of the Republic adopted on 21 February 1921 and current realities, the Military Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. Until bringing the current legislation to conformity with the principles of the Constitution of Georgia, the current legislation shall remain in force on the territory of the Republic of Georgia except for those legal acts that run counter to the principles of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia.
2. To entrust the Interim Government of the Republic of Georgia with a task of bringing the current legislation to conformity with the principles of the Republic of Georgia.
On behalf of the Military Council: T. Kitovani, D. Ioseliani
24 February 1992
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublica”, # 36, 25 February, 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA on Re-subordination of the Military Commissariats (Registration and Enlistment Offices -edit.) of Abkhazia
Due to the decision on subordination of the Military Commissariats under the Ministry of Defence of Georgia,
the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia decrees:
1. to subordinate the Military Commissariats of Abkhazia under the jurisdiction of the Coordinating Council on Activity and Re-subordination of Military and Militia Units established at the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia.
2. The Council of Ministers of Abkhazia together with the Coordinating Council on Activity and Re-subordination of Military and Militia Units shall determine the procedures of further functioning of the Military registration and enlistment offices of Abkhazia.
3.  This Decree shall come into force from 1 March 1992.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
25 February 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


LAW OF ABKHAZIA on amendments to the law “on Legal Regime of the State of Emergency in the Abkhaz ASSR”
To add, as the paragraph 3 to Article 2 of the law “on Legal Regime of the State of Emergency in the Abkhaz ASSR” the following:
“In compliance with the certain established circumstances, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia can pronounce the special regime of conduct of the citizens with further submission to the Supreme Council of Abkhazia to be considered not later of 3 days”.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
26 February 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 33, 29 February 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Additional Measures for Regulation the Public Order and Securing the Lawfulness in Abkhazia
The Supreme Council of Abkhazia decrees:
1.   To establish the rule that only law-enforcers of Abkhazia and officers and servicemen of the military unites under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia are authorized to carry firearms on the territory of Abkhazia; the authorization on carrying the firearms shall be rendered by the competent authority of Abkhazia.
Any other Identification Cards and Permission on carrying firearms have no legal effect and shall be considered unlawful on the territory of Abkhazia; such IDs and permissions cannot be considered as a base for exemption of the bearer of firearm from the liabilities.
2. Law-enforcement agencies of the Republic of Abkhazia (The Procuracy, The Ministry of Interior, State Security Service, formations of the Interior Troops under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia) shall immediately carry out the joint activity aimed at seizing of illegal arms from the population and individuals on the territory of Abkhazia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
26 February 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 33, 29 February 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA on Announcement the Special Regime of Conduct of the citizens on the Territory of Abkhazia
Due to the strain public-political and crime situation in Abkhazia, and in order to assure the protection of citizens and restoration of lawfulness and public order, incompliant with the law of Abkhazia on State of Emergency, the Supreme Council of Abkhazia decrees:
I.  To introduce the special regime of conduct of the citizens on the territory of Abkhazia since 21.00h of 2 March 1991.
II. In order to exercise the special regime of conduct of citizens:
1. To prohibit the movement of motorcars and people from 23.00h to 06.00h of the next morning.
2. To prohibit demonstrations, processions and other actions that may destabilize the situation.
3. To prohibit the strikes.
4. The demonstrations can be organized only in conformity with the law.
5. In order to exercise the special regime of conduct of citizens:
- the search of motorcars and persons shall be permitted;
- the individuals who commit a breach of peace, and are not the residents of Abkhazia, shall be called to account and sent to their places of residence at their own expense.
- the guns, ammunitions, explosives and firearms that are not registered pursuant to the statue-established rules shall be seized;
(…)
7.  This Decree shall remain in force until the special decision is taken by the Supreme Council of Abkhazia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
26 February 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 33, 29 February 1992)


LAW OF ABKHAZIA on Subordination of Certain State Management Organs
(…)
This law establishes the subordination of certain state management organs of Abkhazia.
Article 1. In due course of the reorganization of the Security Committee of the Republic of Abkhazia, it shall be withdrawn out of the structure of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Abkhazia and attached under the subordination of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia.
Article 2. In order to provide appropriate conditions for the privatization in the republic, the State Committee on the State Property Management and Privatization shall be withdrawn out of the subordination of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Abkhazia and attached under the subordination of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia.
Article 3. Considering the worsening of ecological condition and the necessity of conducting the urgent measures for its improvement and preservation of the recreation resources of the republic, the State Committee for Environment Protection shall be withdrawn from the structure of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Abkhazia and attached under the subordination of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia.
(…)
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
5 March 1992
(T. Nadareishvili, Genotsid v Abkhazii, p. 40-41)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Creation under the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia of the Interim Council on Coordination of activity of military units dislocated on the territory of Abkhazia
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
1. Do to the disintegration of the USSR and abolishment of the Union structures, including the military troops of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR, being guided by the interests of the multinational population of Abkhazia, considering the difficult public-political situation and necessity of its expeditious regulation - to set up under the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia  the Interim Council on Coordination of activity of military units dislocated on the territory of Abkhazia.
2. The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia shall approve the Regulations on interim composition of the Council on coordination of activity of the military units dislocated on the territory of Abkhazia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
6 March 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE # 291 ISSUED BY THE CABINET OF MINISTERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on the Decree # 255  on ”Transfer of Some Enterprises and Organizations under the Jurisdiction of the Ministry of Trade of the Abkhaz ASSR” issued by the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR on 26 November  1991
The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
Based on Article 16 of the Law of the Republic of Georgia on the “Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia”, to suspend the decree #255 on ”Transfer of Some Enterprises and Organizations under the Jurisdiction of the Ministry of Trade of the Abkhaz ASSR” issued by the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR on 26 November 1991 as an arbitrary and anti-Constitutional act that aims at violating the ownership right of the Republic of Georgia on the aforementioned enterprises and organizations.
Acting Prime-Minister of the Republic of Georgia T. Sigua
Acting Head of the State Chancellery
of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia G. Beridze
10 March 1992
(Decrees Issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia, March 1992, p. 131)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Procedures of Appointment of the Leading Personnel Within the System of the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Abkhazia
Based on the Decree “On Transfer of the agencies of the Procuracy and the Ministry of Interior under the Jurisdiction of Abkhazia” issued by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia on 24 January 1992, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
To introduce the following procedure of appointment:
- the First Deputy Minister, Deputy Ministers of the Ministry of Interior shall be appointed under the Decree issued by the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Abkhazia with prior consent of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia followed by the Order of the Minister of Interior of the Republic of Abkhazia;
- heads of departments (divisions) of the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Abkhazia shall be appointed by the Minister of Interior of the Republic of Abkhazia;
- heads of city and district divisions of Interior Affairs and transport interior divisions shall be appointed under the Decrees issued by the Minister of Interior agreed with the heads of local authorities and the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
17 March 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA on Endorsement of the Military Oath
The Presidium of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia decrees:
To approve the text of the Military Oath.
Chairman of the Presidium of  Supreme Council of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
17 March 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


Oath of Allegiance
I, joining the Internal Forces of the Republic of Abkhazia, make an oath and solemnly swear to be an honest, brave, disciplined, vigilant soldier; keep the State and Military secrets; behave in full conformity with the Constitution and Law of Abkhazia; obey the orders of Commanders and Superiors.
I swear to master Military skills in good faith; protect the Military and National property; defend the Republic of Abkhazia regardless any danger to my life.
17 March 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Temporary Procedure of “propiska” (registration of citizens at their places of residence - edit.) of the Citizens on the Territory of the Republic of Abkhazia
Before the privatization of dwelling fund and fulfilling the land reform, and before adoption of the law “on Citizenship of the Republic of Abkhazia”, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
1. The following persons shall be registered (propiska) at the dwelling houses of the cities, towns and town-type settlements regardless the space of the dwelling places:
a) Spouse - in the dwelling place of his/her spouse;
b) Under age children and wards - in the dwelling place of parents or tutors;
c) Adult children having no family of their own or having under age children and are not married - in the dwelling place of parents;
d) Parents - in the dwelling place of children;
e) Under age sisters and brothers having no parents, disable own sisters and brothers regardless the age if they have no family - in the dwelling place of sister or brother;
f) Military servicemen and retired officers from the Military Forces of the CIS after accomplishment of the active duty if they were conscripted from that settlement - in the dwelling place they occupied before conscription, or in the dwelling place of parents or other relatives.
g) The persons previously residing in the settlement that left it for the purpose to find temporary job or get the education outside of the republic - in the dwelling place they resided before departure.
h) The persons released from penitentiary facilities after serving the sentence, and also the persons that had been removed restrictions from conditional punishment with obligatory involvement in labour - in the dwelling place of their parents or relatives they lived with before conviction.
The citizens temporarily left the dwelling shall be registered at dwelling place regardless  its size (space) if by statute-established rules they retain the right on “propiska”.
2. “Propiska” of persons invited by enterprises, organizations or agencies as the necessary specialists shall be carried out on the exceptional basis and if the inviting agency provides the place of residence from its dwelling fund.
3. The students of high-schools and vocational establishments, trainees and students of qualification courses - arriving for temporary residence - are allowed to be registered for a time of study, as well as the members of their families.
4. The decision on registration (propiska) on the territory of Abkhazia shall be taken by the Commission on Propiska at the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia and the Commissions under the local governing agencies at the towns, villages and settlements of the Republic of Abkhazia; the composition of the Commissions are approved by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia.
5. To determine the following procedures for taking decisions on and carrying out propiska of citizens:
a) The Central Commission on Propiska is entitled to make decision on propiska for the citizens migrating within the territory of the Republic of Abkhazia and those that arrive from outside of the republic;
b) The local city and district commissions are entitled to make decision on propiska for the citizens moving within the cities, towns or settlements;
c) Propiska of persons that attained the age of 16, as well as the persons that lost and restored or changed the passport, shall be carried out by the local passport services;
d) The relevant local agencies shall draft the documents and perform the registration of migration of the citizens (relevant dwelling and statistic offices);
e) The leadership of the relevant Interior Department shall submit the documents and background papers on propiska to the Central Commission on Propiska;
f) The decision on propiska is implemented by the passport services of the cities, towns and settlements of the Republic of Abkhazia simultaneously exercising registration, filing and address-enquiry works.
7.  To consider null and void on the territory of Abkhazia the Decree issued by the Council of Ministers of the USSR #678 of 28 August 1974 “on Certain Procedures of Propiska of the Citizens”.
8.  The Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Abkhazia shall provide to the departments of Internal Affairs of the City Sukhumi, divisions of interior affairs of towns, villages and settlements the stamps and letter-heads for citizens’ propiksa in two days term.
9. The organs of local governance of towns and districts of the Republic of Abkhazia in two days term shall provide the composition of the commissions on propiska to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia for approval.
10. The Central Commission on Propiska at the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia shall exercise control over fulfillment of procedures set out in this Decree.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
24 March 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Taking Under Jurisdiction and State Management of the Republic of Abkhazia the Enterprises, Organizations and Agencies of the Union and Union-republic Subordination Located on the Territory of Abkhazia
In order to fulfil the Decree issued by the presidium of the Supreme Council of the Abkhaz ASSR of 27 September 1991 #17-25-II “on Securing the Economic bases for the Sovereignty of Abkhazia”, the Council of Ministers of Abkhazia decrees:
1. To take under the jurisdiction and state management of the Republic of Abkhazia the enterprises, organizations and agencies of the union and union-republic subordination located on the territory of Abkhazia in conformity with the annex.
2. The Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Abkhazia shall register all economic subjects transferring under the jurisdiction of the state management of Abkhazia respecting subordination of enterprises and organizations to the Ministries and Agencies of Abkhazia approved by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia of 5 March 1992 and pointed in the annex.
3. The Ministries of Industry, Agriculture and Food, Energy, Transport and Communication, Trade, Justice, Economy, Education and Culture, Health Care, and the State Committees on Construction and Architecture, Forestry, Resorts, Tourism and Sport, State Property Management and Privatization of the Republic of Abkhazia shall carry out immediate inventory of aforementioned enterprises, organizations and agencies.
4. To take a note that the Procuracy of Abkhazia, in order to protect the property rights and economic interests of the Republic of Abkhazia, shall carry out necessary measures to prevent embezzlement and misappropriation of the state property, including prosecutors’ guarding at the places.
5. The Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Abkhazia, together with the field Ministries, Agencies and the Committee on State Property Management and Privatization of the Republic of Abkhazia, shall decide the issues of financing and material-technical supply of the enterprises, organizations and agencies taking under the jurisdiction of the state management of Abkhazia.
First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Abkhazia V. Mikanba
Executive Manager of the Council of Ministers of Abkhazia Kh. Jikia
24 March 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Recruitment into the Active Military Service and Measures for Observance the law “On General Obligatory Military Service”
Despite the measures taken by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia, the Ispolcoms of district and city Councils of the people’s Deputies, military registration and enlistment offices and law-enforcement agencies take quite a passive position with regard of recruitment into the active military service and mobilization of reservists that is a violation of the law “On General Obligatory Military Service”.
Heads of organizations, agencies, collective farms and educational institutions do not organize preparatory works with under-conscripts.  They provide the job places to the citizens without adequate papers on military registration and “propiska”.
In order to adjust recruitment into the active military service and for the strict observance the Law “On General Military Service”, Presidium of the Abkhaz Supreme Council decrees:
1. To call for the active military in April-June in the troops of the Interior Forces of the Republic of Abkhazia the citizens who have attained the age of 18 by the day of recruitment and have no right for postponing the service.
2. To establish the recruiting Commission of the Republic under the chairmanship of the Head of United Military Mobilization Department of Sukhumi in order to subordinate the regional recruiting Commissions and to monitor their activities.
3. To establish that the call for the active military service outside of the Republic of Abkhazia shall be done pursuant to the concluded agreements and on the basis of the order approved by the Chairman of the Interim Council on coordination of the activities of the armed troops.
4. The Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Abkhazia, in coordination with the military-mobilization Services shall strictly observe the procedures of recruitment and initiate the criminal prosecution against those citizens who try to avoid serving in military.
5. The heads of secondary schools, vocational institutions and high schools shall submit the lists of conscript-age citizens to the military-mobilization services.
6. The military-mobilization services shall provide before the 1st May the data on the citizens of conscript-age.
7. The Standing Committee of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia on Human Rights and Inter-ethnic relations shall draft and submit to the Supreme Council of Abkhazia before the 1st May the draft-law “On General Obligatory Military Service” and “On Alternative Military Service”.
8. The Decree comes into force promptly after its adoption.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
31 March, 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 59, 7 April 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA  on changes to the Decree by the Supreme Council of Abkhazia “On Introduction of Special Regime of Conduct of the Citizens on the territory of Abkhazia”
Pursuant to Article 2/3 and 4/6  of the Law of the Republic of Abkhazia on legal regime of the state of emergency, the supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
1. To formulate Article 2 of the Decree issued by the Supreme council of Abkhazia “On Introduction of Special Regime of Conduct of the Citizens on the Territory of Abkhazia” as follows:
“to prohibit organization of meetings, demonstrations, street processions and other events that may destabilize the situation”.
2. To exclude paragraph 1 of  Article 4 from the aforementioned Decree.
3. To formulate sub- paragraph 6 of Paragraph 5 as follows:
“To impose the fine on the organizers of meetings, strikes, demonstrations and street processions of  5 000 roubles through court proceedings;
Repeated breach shall be fined of 10 000 roubles”
4. This Decree shall come into force from he day of its adoption.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
10 April 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA on Adding to the list of the Decree by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia “On Securing the Economic Basis of the Sovereignty of Abkhazia”
Due to disbanding of the military unit # 10935 dislocated in the village of Okhurei of Ochamchire district, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
To add to the list of “organizations, agencies and institutions of the union and union-republic jurisdiction located on the territory of Abkhazia” the following items:
- premises, buildings and other properties located on the territory of the unit #10935 and declare them as the property of the Republic.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
28 April 1992
(Personal archive of the author)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE ABKHAZ ASSR on Conscription in April-June of 1992 to the active military service the Citizens born in 1965-1974
In the course of implementation of the Decree issued by the Supreme council of the Abkhaz ASSR of 31 March 1992… The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR decrees:
1.  Executive Committees of the city and district Council of the People’s Deputies, heads of administration, together with the recruiting commissions, in April-June of 1992 shall carry out conscription to the active military service the citizens born in 1965-1974.
2. (…)
The Ministry of Interior shall assist to the military-mobilization departments in search of persons evading from the active military service and take decisive measures to bring them to the justice.
3. The Procuracy of Abkhazia shall response to the facts of breach of the legislation…
(…)
5.  The Ministry of Finance of Abkhazia (Comr. Sichinava) shall cover the costs of transportation of conscripts in accordance with the bills submitted by the Military-mobilization Department of Abkhazia.
6. In time of conscription the Ministry of Health of Abkhazia shall not admit inpatient treatment or examination of citizens born in 1965-1974, which do not have Military Card, without written consent of the recruiting commissions save in the cases of urgent medical assistance.
(…)
30 April 1991
(Newspaper “Afxazetis Khma”, # 76, 12 May, 1992)
    

DECREE ISSUED BY THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Solution of the Complex Problems Related to Formation and Functioning of Border Zone of the Republic of Georgia.
After the restoration of the State independence of the Republic of Georgia and radical political changes in the former Soviet Union Republics in general, and in the Caucasus region in particular, it became sheer necessity to create a border zone along the land and marine borders of the Republic of Georgia and to take immediate measures aimed at its formation.
The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Georgia - alongside other interested ministries and agencies and in conformity with the International legal norms and taking into account the experience of sovereign states in the sphere of protection of State border- must elaborate a complex action-plan and solve a number of problems related to formation and functioning of border service, establishment of its material-technical base and preparation of highly skilled personnel for the border guard.
In order to secure the territorial integrity and inviolability of borders of the Republic of Georgia and formation of normal border service that would allow to rule out any violations of political and economic character and would rest on healthy, and good neighborly relation with all the adjoining States, the State Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To note that pursuant to the decree #128 issued by the Government of Georgia on 6 February 1992 a border zone was established on the whole territory of the Republic. Pursuant to the aforementioned decree, the width of border zones of administrative units of the Republic of Georgia must be determined, and the width of those units has to be no wider than 21 kilometer.       
2. To entrust the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Georgia - alongside other interested ministries and agencies must submit, without undue delay, to the Government of Georgia:
- A scheme for construction of border facilities and communication means with indication of their sizes, type of facility, components, volume of work and time limit of construction, budgeted costs and sources of financing…
(…)
- Draft resolution on introduction of passport regime along the whole length of land and marine border zone, including the frontier towns, ports, and sea areas of the Republic …
4. With respect of specifics of management and economic activity in the border zone, and in order to secure material-technical and food supply for all type border contingents, to bring under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defence those kolkhozs (Collective Farms-edit.), rural enterprises, enterprises involved in processing of agricultural products and other facilities that are located in the border zone (pursuant to the annexes 1, 2, and 3).
6. To note that pursuant to the decree issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia on 6 February 1992 in the course of introduction of partial amendments and additions to the decree #48 issued on 13 February 1992 on “Reform of Agricultural Lands in the Republic of Georgia”, it was stipulated that:
(…)
- the Lands within 21 kilometers of the border zone are the State Lands and cannot be privatized. In the border zones, it is prohibited to allocate personal plots, including plots for individual house construction.
7. In order to secure effective management of all agricultural and processing enterprises, as well as other enterprises of food industry providing food for all arms of service, a special service dealing with the above issues shall be created by the Ministry of Defence of Georgia.
8. To permit the conscripts from the border zone and other regions of the republic to carry out alternative service, upon their will, at the agricultural and other economic enterprises in the border zone.
10. To allocate for the Ministry of Defence, as an exemption and within capability for temporary use of 3 hectares of cropland for each military check point and commandant’s office, and 0.25 hectare of cropland for every household of commissioned and non-commissioned officers.
11. To permit to agricultural organizations unlimited use of pastures and hayfields, which previously used those pastures and hayfields in the border zone under the existing rules.
12. To entrust the leaderships of executive bodies of the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Ajara and other regions adjacent to border zones with a task of rendering maximum possible support to the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Georgia in their endeavors to carry out effective protection of the State borders.  In order to facilitate the border guards, the voluntary groups shall be set up at the settlements that will help in construction of border facilities and communication means, as well as in maintaining the adequate order in economic activities.
Chairman of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia E. Shevardnadze
Secretary of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia V. Goguadze
7 May 1992
(Collection of Normative Acts issued by the State Council of the Republic of Georgia, volume 1, Tbilisi, 1995, p. 54-58)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on the Decree # 46 issued on 24 March 1992 by the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR on “Transfer Under the Jurisdiction of the Republic of Abkhazia the Enterprises, Agencies and Organizations of the Union and Union-Republic Subordination Located on the Territory of Abkhazia”
On 24 March 1992 the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR issued a decree according to which those enterprises, agencies and organizations located on the territory of Abkhazia that were under the Union and Union-Republic subordination before the disintegration of the USSR, have come under the jurisdiction of the Abkhaz ASSR. According to the same decree, the Ministry of Justice of Abkhazia was entrusted with a task of ensuring registration of these economic institutions.
The State Council of the Republic of Georgia notes that the aforementioned decree of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR contradicts the legislation of Georgia due to the following circumstances:
Pursuant to the decree issued on 15 September 1991 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia on “Status of Enterprises, Agencies and Organization of Union and Union –Republic Subordination Located on the Territory of Georgia”, all these enterprises, agencies and organizations of Union and Union-Republic subordination are declared to be the property of the Republic of Georgia and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Georgia is entrusted with a task of managing them.
This decree of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia has a legal effect on the organizations located on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR, since the Abkhaz ASSR is an integral part of the Republic of Georgia and legal acts adopted by the highest Authorities of the Republic of Georgia are valid on the whole territory of Georgia.
It should be pointed out that pursuant to decree issued on 15 September 1991 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, all enterprises, agencies and organizations of formerly Union and Union Republic subordination and located on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR have already been transferred under the exclusive jurisdiction and ownership of the Republic of Georgia.
Therefore, the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR was not authorized to transfer enterprises, agencies and organizations of formerly Union and Union Republic subordination and located on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR under the jurisdiction and management of Abkhazian authorities prior obtaining consent from the Government of Georgia or the Committee on Management of State Property of Georgia.
Proceeding from the aforementioned and pursuant to Article 19 of the Statute of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia, the State Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. To repeal the decree # 46 issued on 24 March 1992 by the Council of Ministers of Abkhazian ASSR “Transfer Under the Jurisdiction of the Republic of Abkhazia the Enterprises, Agencies and Organizations of the Union and Union-Republic Subordination Located on the Territory of Abkhazia”.
2. To entrust the Government of Georgia, through the Committee on Management of State Property and relevant ministries and agencies, with a task of taking care and maintenance of the property of the Republic of Georgia and securing property rights and interests of the Republic.
Chairman of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia E. Shevardnadze
 Secretary of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia V. Goguadze
19 May 1992
(Collection of Normative Acts issued by the State Council of the Republic of Georgia, volume 1,  p. 67-69)


RESOLUTION ISSUED BY THE EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE NORTH OSSETIAN SSR
Having discussed the tragic events in the South Ossetia, the Extraordinary Session of the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR notes that despite all measures taken by the leadership of the South Ossetian SSR in the course of the three-year war provoked by Georgian national-extremists that resulted in casualties of many hundreds of Ossetian people, disasters and suffering of the population, and also despite the promises of the new leadership of Georgia on peaceful developments, a new act of genocide against the Ossetian people has been committed recently.  Georgian armed formations traitorously assaulted the column of refugees: helpless children, women and elders and fired them point-blank on 20 May 1992.  Reportedly  36 people have been killed…
Realizing the responsibility towards the people of Ossetia and expressing its will, the extraordinary session of the Supreme council of the North Ossetian SSR resolves:
1.  To condemn the act of Genocide committed by the Georgian national-extremists against the Ossetian people.
2.  To announce public mourning on the territory of the North Ossetian SSR from 21 to 24 of May of 1992.
3.  To lodge the emphatic protest to the State Council of Georgia due to the committed act of vandalism and continued war against the Ossetian people.
5. To bring up to strength the Republican Guard, including the detachments of Cossack and carry out the enrolment of volunteers in order to be sent for defending the Republic of South Ossetia.
6. To block the Georgian Military High-way; to cut-off the gas supply to Georgia…
7.  To address to the leadership of the Russian Federation with request of providing the necessary amount of arms, ammunitions, techniques and properties for the Republican Guard of the North Ossetia.  In case of objection from the side of the Russian Federation, the North Ossetian SSR retains the right to nationalize aforementioned properties.
8.  To entrust the Republican Defence Committee with a task of producing the weapons at the enterprises of the City Vladikavkaz.
(…)
Chairman of the Supreme council of the South Ossetian SSR A. Galazov
Vladikavkaz, 21 May 1992
(Newspaper “Severnaia Ossetia”, # 97, 22 May 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA on Permission to Change the Last Name and Biographical Particulars on National Affiliation upon Request of Citizens
In order to provide free choice to the citizens of the Republic of Abkhazia in the course of choosing the last name and national affiliation, the Presidium of the supreme council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
1. To give a permission to the Ministry of justice to change the last name and biographical particulars on national affiliation by the request of citizens.
2. To declare null and void on the territory of the Republic of Abkhazia the last sentence of the part 2, paragraph 3 of the “Regulation of the passport Regime of the USSR” approved by the Council of Ministers of the USSR on 28 August 1974 (# 677).
3. To entrust the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Abkhazia with a task of approving the Regulation on changing the last name and biographical particulars on national affiliation upon the request of citizens.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
26 May1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, #98, 2 June 1992)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION on Entering on the Agenda of the Forth Session of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation the issue “on the Situation in the North and South Ossetia”
Having heard the information of the chairman of the Commission on National-state Arrangement and International Relations of the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation about the situation in the South Ossetia and taking into account escalation of the armed conflict and continued violation of human rights on the territories of the South and North Ossetia, the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation decrees:
To entrust the Committee of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation on Interstate Issues, Regional Policy and Cooperation, Committee on International affairs and Foreign Economic Relations and the Committee on National-state Arrangement and International Relations with a task of preparing the issue “on the situation in the North and South Ossetia” together with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defence of the Russian federation in order to put it on the agenda of the session of the Supreme Council of the Russian federation of 3 June 1992.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation R. I. Khasbulatov
28 May 1992
(Bulletin of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the RF and the Supreme Council of the RF, M., 1992, # 23, p. 1578)


DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH OSSETIA
Proceeding from the fatal threat over the South Ossetia and due to the murderous acts, genocide and violations from the side of the Republic of Georgia that brought to the edge of extinction the people and culture of the South Ossetia in time of disintegration of the USSR in 1989-1992,
Based on the right of self-determination defined by the Statutes of the UNO and other international-legal acts,
Taking into consideration the results of the elections to the Supreme Council of the Republic of South Ossetia of 9 December 1990 and the will of the people expressed at the referendum of 19 January 1992,
Implementing the Declaration on State Sovereignty of the Republic of South Ossetia,
The Supreme council solemnly declares
the independence of the South Ossetia and establishment of the independent state of South Ossetia.
From now and then the territory of the South Ossetia is indivisible and only the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of South Ossetia are in effect on its territory.
This act comes into effect from the moment of its adoption.
Supreme Council of the Republic of South Ossetia
Tskhinval, 29 May 1992
(The South Ossetia. Chronicle of Events of the Aggression of Georgia 1988-1992, by B. Chochyev and M. Jioev, Tskhinval, 1996, p. 1)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA on Decree issued by the State council of Georgia “on Regulation of Problems on Formation and Operation of the Border zone of the Republic of Georgia”
On 7 May of 1992 the State Council of the Republic of Georgia issued the Decree “on regulation of problems on formation and operation of the border zone of the Republic of Georgia” aimed at regulating the border-guard service and establishing the special regime along the Russian-Georgia state border that territorially belongs to Abkhazia.
The frontier stretches over 21 km.  The collective farms of Salmenskiy and Mikelripshskiy, reserves of Pskhui and Rodinskiy, as well as some woods of the forestry farms that belong to Abkhazia are brought under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Georgia.  The rules of management of the rural territories within 21-km zone have been established.
The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Georgia has been entrusted with a task of setting the passport regime and elaborating the programme on construction of frontier facilities and communication means in this zone.
Given Decree runs counter to Articles 11, 72 and 93 of the Constitution of Abkhazia and the Declaration on State Sovereignty. The Republic of Abkhazia enjoys sovereignty, has its state borders, independently decides issues related to the administrative-territorial settlement, performs the measures on its territory aimed at strengthening of the territorial integrity.
The Supreme council of the Republic of Abkhazia decrees:
1. To declare null and void on the territory of Abkhazia the decree issued by the State Council of the Republic of Georgia “on regulation of problems on formation and operation of the border zone of the Republic of Georgia” of 7 May 1992.
2. The further decisions of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia that infringe the Constitutional basis and state sovereignty of Abkhazia shall not be implemented on the territory of Abkhazia since their adoption.
3. The coordinating council of the activity of the military units shall elaborate the action plan for determining the legal aspects of the state borders of the Republic of Abkhazia.
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Abkhazia V. Ardzinba
3 June 1992
(Newspaper “Respublika Abkhazia”, # 104, 10 June 1992)


DECISION TAKEN BY THE JOINT SESSION OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE NORTH OSSETIAN SSR AND THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE SOUTH OSSETIA
Taking into consideration the critical situation consequent to the armed operations against the peaceful population of the South Ossetia, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the North Ossetian SSR and the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the South Ossetian Republic decide:
1. To consider necessary immediate meeting of the leaders of the South Ossetia, North Ossetia and Georgia in order to establish cease-fire and settle the issue at quadripartite negotiations with participation of the Russian Federation;
2. To entrust Biragov Y.G. and Chochyev A.R. with a task of determining the representatives from the Russian Federation, Georgia, North and South Ossetia to the quadripartite negotiations as observers in order to secure effective control over the implementation of the paragraph 1 of this decree.
3. To entrust Kulov L.M. with a task of negotiating with the leadership of Georgia and Russian Federation an issue on establishment of joint press-center for objective dissemination of the information regarding the situation in the region.
4. To ask the President of the Russian Federation B. Yeltsin for speeding up the implementation of measures aimed at stabilizing the situation in the South and North Ossetia in conformity with the Resolutions of the III and IV Congress of the People’s deputies of the Russian Federation.
Chairman of the Supreme council of the North Ossetian SSR A. Galazov
Deputy Chairman of the Supreme council of the South Ossetia A . Chochyev
8 June 1992
(Newspaper “Severnaia Ossetia”, #110, 10 June 1992)


protocol of the meeting between the cheirman of the state councel of the republic of Georgia E. A. Shevardnadze and the cheirman of the supreme council of the NORTH OSSETIAN SSR A. KH. GALAZOV
On 10 June 1992 in the village of Kazbegi a meeting between the Chairman of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia -E. Shevardnadze and the Chairman of the Supreme Council of North Ossetian SSR A. Galazov took place.
The following officials participated in the negotiations: First Deputy Prime-Minister of the Republic of Georgia, Minister of Defence T.K. Kitovani, Deputy Prime-Minister on Inter-Ethnic Relations and Human Rights of the Republic of Georgia A.I. Kavsadze, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of North Ossetian SSR S.V. Khetagurov, Ministers of Interior and Security of North Ossetian SSR G.M.Kantemirov and T.E.Kusov.
In the course of the meeting the Parties agreed on the following:
1. To achieve an immediate cease-fire in the zone of Georgian-Ossetian conflict.
2. To set up, until 12 June 1992, a joint, quadripartite group of observes that shall include representatives of parties involved in the conflict.
3. With a purpose of stabilizing the situation in the conflict zone, to start establishment of joint peacekeeping military unity that shall be composed of veterans of the Afghanistan war.
4. To set up, until 12 June 1992, a joint press-center that shall be composed of representatives of all interested parties and shall prepare and disseminate agreed-on and objective information.
5. In the immediate future to organize meeting and negotiations between leaders of armed formations of the parties involved in the conflict.
6. To work out complex of measures aimed at return of refugees to their homes until the onset of winter chill.
7. To reiterate the necessity of creation of a joint operative-investigative group for investigation of crimes committed on 20 May 1992 in the village of Kekhvi.
8. To encourage cooperation of law-enforcing bodies and special services of the parties.
9. To deem it appropriate for the Russian Federation and the Republic of Armenia in the negotiation process aimed at settlement of the conflict.
10. To call upon the populations of the Republics, representatives of creative intelligentsia, women and youth organizations, mass media, and sport associations to provide active support to the peace efforts of leadership of the Republics, their drive for restoration of traditional friendship between the Georgian and Ossetian nations and restoration of economic and cultural ties between them.
11. On behalf of the participants of the meeting in Kazbegi to appeal to the Georgian and Ossetian nations.
On behalf of the Republic of Georgia E. A. Shevardnadze
On behalf of the North Ossetian SSR A. Kh. Galazov
10 June 1992
(Newspaper “Severnaia Ossetia”, # 111, 11 June 1992)


AGREEMENT on Principles of Settlement of the Georgian - Ossetian Conflict
The Republic of Georgia and the Russian Federation,
Striving for immediate cessation of bloodshed and achieving comprehensive settlement of the conflict between Ossetians and Georgians,
Being guided by the desire to witness speedy restoration of peace and stability in the region,
Reaffirming commitment to the principles of the UN Charter and the Helsinki Final Act,
Acting in the spirit of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as rights of ethnic minorities,
Taking into account the agreement reached in Kazbegi on 10 June 1992,
Have agreed upon the following:
Article 1
1. From the very moment of signing this agreement, the opposing parties commit themselves to undertake all necessary measures aimed at termination of hostilities and achievement of comprehensive cease-fire by 28 June 1992.
2. From the moment of termination of hostilities, on 28 June 1992 the opposing parties shall withdraw their armed formation with a view of creation of corridor adjacent to the line of juxtaposition. The withdrawal of armed formations shall be completed within three days.
Passage through the line of juxtaposition, corridor and its width shall be determined by the joint group of observers.
Article 2
In order to secure demilitarization of the conflict region and to rule out the possibility of involvement of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in conflict, the Russian Federation shall withdraw the Tskhinvali-distrcit deployed 37th engineer-sapper Regiment and 292 separate fighting helicopter regiment within 20 days from the moment of cease-fire and separation of opposing parties.
Article 3
1. In. order to exercise control over the implementation of cease-fire, withdrawal of armed formations, disband of forces of self-defense and to maintain the regime of security in the region, a mixed Control Commission composed of representatives of opposing parties shall be set up and this Commission shall carry out its functions in close cooperation with the joint group of military observers created in accordance with the agreements reached in Kazbegi.
2. Every Party participating in the work of Commission shall appoint its own representatives. Headquarters of the Control Commission shall be located in the town of Tskhinvali.
3. Until the aforementioned tasks are implemented, joint forces on coordination of activities aimed at establishment of peace and maintenance of order shall be created within the Control Commission. In addition, special mixed groups of observers, attached to the Control Commission, shall be deployed along the security perimeter.
4. The Control Commission and attached to it forces shall start immediate implementation of those tasks assigned by the present agreement.
5. In case of violation of provisions of this Agreement, the Control Commission shall carry out investigation of relevant circumstances and undertake urgent measures aimed at restoration of peace and order and non-admission of similar violations in the future.
6. Financial provision for activities of the Control Commission and forces attached to it shall be provided by the Parties on equal footing.
Article 4
The Parties shall start immediately negotiations on economic restoration of the regions located in the conflict zone and creation of proper conditions for return of refugees.
The Parties deem it inadmissible to apply economic sanctions and blockade, and any other impediments to free movement of commodities, services and people and commit themselves to provide humanitarian assistance to the affected population.
Article 5
The Parties shall seek objective and balanced mass media coverage of the settlement process. To this end, a multilateral press-center shall be established within the Control Commission.
Article 6
This Agreement shall come into force immediately after it is signed.
Sochi, 24 June 1992, in a set of three in Georgian, Russian and Ossetian languages, and each of these three copies are of equal validity.
On behalf of the Republic of Georgia E. A. Shevardnadze
On behalf of the Russian Federation B. N. Yeltsin
(Newspaper “Svobodnaya Gruzia”, # 82, 27 June 1992)  


DECREE ISSUED BY THE PRESIDIUM OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on the Current Situation in Abkhazia
The Presidium of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia notes that despite the numerous official warnings and collegial advises offered to the Abkhazian leadership to desist from voluntarism and denounce violent methods in carrying out personnel policy, the Abkhaz leadership continues its destructive actions.
On 24 June 1992 in Sukhumi, armed individuals surrounded the building of the Ministry of Interior, and inflicted serious body-injury to G. Lominadze - the Minister of Interior of Abkhazia. This fact resulted in expression of indignation by the population of the Autonomous Republic, especially by ethnic Georgians-as a result acts of disobedience occurred (more than half of regional and town departments of the Ministry of Interior do not obey the Ministry), full scale industrial strike was declared, for several hours electricity supply and telecommunication means have been disrupted and there were serious outages in functioning of other means of communication as well. There is a serious danger of further escalation of the situation that would lead to chaos and the situation may become uncontrollable.
According to the information available to the State Council, the considerable part of the population of Abkhazia does not trust and does not obey the Chairman of Supreme Council of Abkhazia.
Taking into the current situation, the Presidium of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia decrees:
1. In order to avoid further deterioration of the situation and potential for contradictions and clashes, Mr. T. Nadareishvili - the First Deputy Chair of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia- is entrusted with a task of coordinating of emergency measures aimed at stabilization of the situation.
2. Mr. T. Nadareishvili, in association with Mr. V. Ardzinba - the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Abkhazia and Abkhaz deputies, political parties and leadership of regions are entrusted with a task of undertaking all necessary measures aimed at overcoming the current difficulties and restoring normal tempo of life.
3. Mr. Nadareishvili shall inform the State Council and the Interim Government of Georgia about the measures undertaken and the ongoing processes.
Presidium of the State Council of the Republic of Georgia.
(Newspaper “Svobodnaya Gruzia”, # 84, 2 July 1992)

Overview

Despite of some resemblance and intermingling, The Georgians, ethnically and linguistically, are unrelated to the Indo-Europeans (Russians, Armenians, or any Western European groups). They form a group of their own, named "Ibero-Caucasian", "South Caucasian" or "Kartvelian" (the latter is the Georgians' own name for their nation). Professor Nikolai Marr, a prominent scholar of the Caucasian languages, brought into use the term "Japhetic" to designate a group (which includes Georgian) which he and other scholars believed to have inhabited the Mediterranean basin before the arrival of the Indo-Europeans circa II millenium BCE. These scholars believe that of this group of people, known as "Proto-Iberians", the Georgians and the Basques (in Spain) are the sole survivors, though the extinct Etruscans in Italy may have belonged to a kindred family. Certain affinities between the Basque and Georgian languages, as well as resemblances in popular customs, traditions and legends have been (and still are ) used to highlight their probable affinity.

The Georgian language belongs to the Paleocaucasian Ethnolinguistic Family, the representative people of which are the direct descendents of the oldest population of Caucasus. This Family is divided into three branches:

1) Western Caucasian, or Abkhaz-Adighian - unifies modern Abkhazians, Abazians, Adighians, Cherkezians and Kabardians;

2) Eastern Caucasian, or Chechen-Dagestanian - Chechenians, Ingushs and Dagestanians (Avarians, Lezgians, Darguelians, Laks and etc.);

3) Southern, or Kartvelian- represented by Georgian people, which consist of three main subethnical groups - Karts, Zans or Mengrel-Chans and Svans. Division of the previous Kartvelian language into Georgian, Zanian and Svanian branches begins in the III-II mill. B.C.

The Georgian language is the state language of Georgia. Georgian is the only language in the Ibero-Caucasian family that has its own ancient script. The most ancient writings date back to the 5th century AD, though recent findings suggest earlier existence of the literary language. The Georgian script is a unique writing system, conveying the sound composition of the Georgian speech and forming the written and printed symbols of the national Georgian language.

The development of the Georgian alphabet can be broken into three stages: Asomtavruli (unknown dates), Nuskha-Khutsuri (from the 9th century, still used by the Georgians Orthodox Church), and Mkhedruli (contemporary Georgian script, from the 11th century).

Both the ancient and modern alphabets are extremely simple, precious and economic. Each sound has its corresponding symbol and vice versa. Nowadays, the Georgian alphabet includes 33 symbols (5 vowels and 28 consonants). The shape of the letters is unique but their arrangement suggests influence from Indo-European languages.

Asomtavruli is the oldest Georgian script, believed by some Georgian scholars to be derived from Sumerian alphabet (although their no conclusive proof for this). The script is unique in its shape and symbolism.

The Georgian alphabet showing: First column, the Ecclestical (Khutsuri) script; Second column, the Mkhedruli or modern alphabet; Third column the phonetic values


Language and Nationalism

Language remains one of the key elements in the Georgian identity and a fundamental instrument in forging a nation. Its importance became evident in the late 19th century when the Russian imperial policies endangered its status within the Georgian lands. The rise of the national-liberation movement was in part triggered by the desire to save and revive the Georgian language. Thus, Ilia Chavchavadze, Akaki Tsereteli and other prominent members of this movement sought to safeguard the language and adopted a special motto ‘mamuli, ena, sartsmunoeba’ for their program of national awakening in which the language (ena) became one of the three pillars of the national movement. Language also became a subject of bitter dispute between conservative and progressive elements in Georgian society as the Mtkvardaleulni and Tergdaleulni groups discussed the language reform; the latter called for a language reform, which incensed the conservatives, and employed vernacular language in their publications in order to make them more accessible to the common people. The Society for Advancement of Literacy Among the Georgians played an important role in spreading literacy to the masses and Jacob Gogebashvili’s Dedaena served as an important textbook in this process.

During the Soviet era, the Communist authorities made several attempts to abolish the Georgian language as the state language in Georgia, which led to massive protests and revitalized Georgian nationalist sentiments. Georgian dissidents, especially Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Merab Kostava, campaigned under the slogan “ena, mamuli, sartsmunoeba” (language, fatherland, faith) that placed major emphasis on the Georgian language as a rallying point for the Georgian nationalism. In April 1978, the power of Georgian nationalism was revealed when thousands of Georgians took to the streets to protest the Soviet government’s decision to remove Georgian as the official state language of the republic. Facing escalating demands, the government decided against removing the disputed clause and effectively acknowledged its defeat. Currently, Article 8 of the Constitution declares Georgian as the state language of Georgia and the Georgian and Abkhaz languages on the territory of Abkhazia.

Discussions on the place and importance of the language in Georgian history often led to deviations. In 1920s, the Georgian language was studied by Nikolay Marr and his disciples, who founded the Japhetic theory in linguistics. The theory claimed that Japhetic languages, Georgian among them, had existed across Europe before the advent of the Indo-European languages and could be recognized as a foundation over which the Indo-European languages had imposed themselves. Using this model, Marr attempted to apply the Marxist theory of class struggle to linguistics, arguing that these different strata of language corresponded to different social classes. In 1924, he went even further and proclaimed that all the languages of the world descend from a single proto-language which had consisted of four enigmatic elements sal, ber, yon, rosh.

Another important discussion stems from the 10th century scholar Ioane Zosime’s hymn Kebai da didebai kartulisa enisa (Praise and Glorification of the Georgian Language) that glorifies the Georgian language and its unique mission. Ioane Zosime preached, “Buried is the Georgian language as a martyr until the day of the Messiah’s second coming, so that God may look at every language through this language. And so the language is sleeping to this day. And in the Gospels this language is called Lazarus… And friendship it spoke because every secret is buried in this language and dead for four days. Therefore David the Prophet spoke, saying: ‘A thousand years is like one day.’ And within the Georgian Gospels, in Matthew, sits a part, which is a letter, and it will say to all the four thousand secrets. And such are the four days and the man who was dead for four days, for this [it is] buried with him through the death of its baptism. And this language, beautified and blessed by the name of the Lord, humble and afflicted, awaits the day of the second coming of the Lord…”

This hymn spawned messianic tendencies in Georgia of the 1980s and 1990s. Many Georgian dissidents, especially Zviad Gamsakhurdia, explained the hymn in a strictly messianic context, turning it into a major element of nationalist ideology. It was argued that Ioane Zosime’s reference to the Georgian language as Lazarus and his four-day burial referred to the eclipsing of a Japhetic civilization, of which proto-Georgian culture was part, by Indo-European newcomers and the soon-to-be expected revival of Georgia. Furthermore, Gamsakhurdia and his supporters went so far as to claim that at the Judgement Day, the Georgian language, and nation, will take the position of universal spiritual leader and judge of the mankind. Such sentiments, although on the decline, still remain widespread in Georgia and sustain Georgian beliefs of superiority and unique spiritual mission of their language. In recent years, scholars, nationalists and populist politicians often campaign against the influx of Western, particularly American, pop culture and the perceived decline of the Georgian language through numerous English loan-words. The younger generation is especially susceptible to adopting foreign words in the vernacular language.


First Printed Georgian Books

The Catholic and Georgian missionaries in Rome (Italy) helped introduce printed books to the Georgian rulers by the early 17th century. The newly established Catholic Theatine and Capuchin missions also required manuals of the Georgian language and devotional texts for their operations. So, when, in 1626, King Teimuraz I of Kartli-Kakheti sent Nicephorus Irbach (Irubakidze-Cholokashvili) on a diplomatic mission to Rome, the Georgian envoy was enlisted to help solve these problems. During his stay at the Vatican, Nicephorus collaborated with Catholic scholars to produce an extensive Georgian-Italian vocabulary, as well as a brief collection of prayers in colloquial Georgian.

The dictionary, the first Georgian book to be printed, was printed in 1629 and contained over 3,000 words printed in large, clear type of the Mkhedruli alphabet. In 1670, Maggio’s textbook on Georgian grammar appeared in Rome as well. Other religious texts soon followed and, despite their many inaccuracies in light of the limited knowledge of Georgian in Europe, these publications played an important role in the development of Georgian printed culture. In late 17th century, King Archil emigrated to Russia, where he established a vibrant Georgian community at Vsesviatskoe near Moscow and turned his efforts to establishing printing presses that produced Georgians books.

By the late 17th and early 18th century, the number of Georgian books in print had increased but all of them were produced in Moscow or Rome and difficulties of transportation and distribution prevented their circulation within Georgia. The decision to establish a permanent printing press in Tbilisi belonged to King Vakhtang VI (r. 1704-1723), whose reign proved to be a period of constructive activity in almost every sphere. With the help of the prominent Georgian cleric Anthim the Iberian, archbishop of Wallachia (present-day Romania), King Vakhtang set about installing a printing plant in Tbilisi. Archbishop Anthim was himself a master printer and engraver of the first order and pioneer in Rumanian printing, and he sent one of his ablest disciples, the master printer Mihaî Isvanovicî, known in Georgia as Mikheil Stepaneshvili, to open the first Georgian press in Tbilisi.

Opened in 1709, the press operated for the next 14 years producing mainly religious texts. One of its greatest achievements was the first print version of Shota Rustaveli's Vepkhistkaosani published in 1712. Before its destruction at the hands of the Ottomans in 1723, the press produced the following titles: Four Gospels in Georgian, 1709; Psalms of David, 1709 (2nd edition 1711; 3rd edition, 1712; 4th edition 1716); Book of Liturgies, 1710; Prayer-Book, 1710 (2nd edition 1717) Book of Hours, 1710 (2nd edition 1717; 3rd edition 1722); Germanos the Monk, Manual on How the Teacher Should Instruct His Pupil, 1711; Shota Rustaveli's Vepkhistkaosani, 1712; Missal (translated from the Greek) 1713; Book of Church Ritual, 1719-1720; Paraklitoni (a liturgical book of the Georgian orthodox Church), 1720; The Book of the Knowledge of Creation (a Persian astronomical treatise, translated by King Vakhtang VI and other scholars), 1721; books of the Bible, including the Prophets and the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke, 1709-1722.