From the beginning of mankind till today woman has been a source of inspiration; however woman’s role in social, political, economic and other important spheres has been subject of dispute. Development  of  society  has  caused  women  to  feel  more  self-conscious.  In  addition,  men  and women’s roles and social stereotypes have been reconsidered and new conclusions, viewpoints and attitudes have been established.

After the commencement of politically motivated women’s movement in the 60s of the 20th century, some viewpoints about a woman’s role have been altered in literature and scholarly world. On the one hand, women authors’ emancipated literature appeared which were created on the basis of women’s stories. On the other hand, there emerged feminist literary theory, which established the concept of female author (femininity, as an ethic category) in literary theory (English- Femininity, German - die Weiblichkeit, Russian - Женственность).

According  to  feminist  criticism,  women  writers’  texts  are  distinguished  as  they  expose experience,  emotions  and,  in  general,  thoughts  motivated  by  women.  The  emergence  and development of feminist literature  was politically conditioned in its basis. The primary aim of this theory  was  to  motivate  women  and  facilitate  their  literary  activities  by  means  of  critical  analysis, even with conscious marginal preconditions.

In parallel with studies oriented on women, in the last decade scholars started to draw their attention to gender studies.  Like in feminist literary studies, here emphasis is made on the issue of role  distribution  between  men  and  women  which  is  not  based  on  biological  sex-distinction.  If  in feminist  literary  studies  biological  difference  is  represented  by  an  English  term  –  sex,  in  gender studies  it  became  possible  to  determine  social  and  cultural  components.  Nowadays,  a  term  taken from grammar – gender is widely used.

Unlike  feminist  studies,  the  main  concern  of  gender  studies  is  not  the  issue  of  femininity. Gender  definitions  in  socio-cultural,  historical  and  public  discourse  are  represented  as  the  main objective of gender studies.  Currently, term gender is equally used in humanities and social sciences as well as law and economics. Each field defines the term in accordance to its specificity.  

If we consider literature as continuation of collective, folklore texts and have a look through ancient era, it will become obvious that female authors coexisted among numerous men writers. As it is known, Greek poet Sappho was named by Plato among top 10 writers.

In medieval centuries, churches and monasteries served as main educational institutions where it was possible to  acquire  basic literacy skills  and read books. For women there were only limited possibilities  and  mainly  in  Europe.  They  could  acquire  the  profession  of  a  nanny  (governess)  and become educated to some extent.

In the era of renaissance and humanism, when individuality of a human being, self-cognition and  the  desire  to  take  insight  into  oneself  rose,  there  emerged  some  possibilities  for  women  to become educated. They started to make education available for both sexes as it was envisaged as a precondition for humanistic relations in family. For example, Agrippa Von Nettesheim and Erasmus Von Rotterdam supported the availability of education for women.

Despite the fact that through creative works women strived to display a universe perceived by women  and  based  on  their  own  experiences,  women’s  fiction  writings  were  not  appropriately perceived.  Women writers’ works had to be evaluated from the perspective of women readers and women  critics.  Only  in  that  case  it  was  possible  to  see  the  real  and  genuine  thoughts  of  women writers.    Only  women’s  society  was  able  to  comprehend  women  writer’s  texts,  feel  their  thoughts and meanings, which was unachievable by that time.

 In order to defend their own ideas and opinions and preserve their works and provoke positive opinions among readers, many women writers had to avoid  their names and write under male pen-names.    In  the  18th  and  19th  centuries  women  wrote  anonymously,  without  signing  their  works  or they wrote under male pen-name. This was the only way for most women to penetrate into literary world which was legitimate only for men.

From the beginning of the 20th century a number of formal-legislative amendments were made concerning  women’s  issue.  High  schools  for  girls  were  founded,  which  made  it  possible  to  get higher  education,  a  lot  of  professions  and  work  places  became  available  for  women  which  were previously  occupied  only  by  men.  In  the  20s  of  the  20th  century  women  were  granted  the  right  to vote. Correspondingly, social changes were reflected in women writers’ creative works.   

It  is  worth  mentioning  that  since  women’s  writing  became  a  discrete  area  of  literary  studies there  emerged  a  need  to  divide  their  works  into  periods  and  define  their  historical-cultural characteristics. According to some scholars, in spite of the fact that women’s writings are wide and belong to different historical periods, their study should be started from the period of activation of women’s movement, in other words from the period when women writers commenced to create their writings  consciously  and  from  the  position  of  women  writers,  with  new  literary  viewpoints  where woman’s position, her universe, viewpoints, perspectives and interests where highlighted.    As it is known  there  were  times  when  woman  only  participated  in  literary  processes,  when  there  was  no gender  definition  in  literary  studies,  when  woman  was  obliged  to  be  only  participant  of  literary processes, which was dominantly masculine, when woman even had to write under male pen-name in  order her texts  to  be  adequately perceived and attention to  be drawn. It  is  obvious that women writings of that time could not reflect the nature and literary content which was peculiar for women writings  later.  However,  in  spite  of  the  above  mentioned,  creative  works  of  women  writers  are frequently  analyzed  by  taking  into  consideration  common  features,  existing  historical  and  social factors.  

In  comparison  to  Western  literature,  Eastern  literature  with  its  traditions and  dichotomy  was much more “masculine”. It is primarily conditioned by eastern nature. Woman, an object of love and obedience, only rarely managed to  literary transform her interests, desires and longings and reflect them in literature. East  was more austere towards women and this attitude could be traced back to religion.    

The  issue  of  women  authors,  the  place  and  role  of  gender-marked  literature  in  Georgian literature  is  completely  unstudied.  The  manifold  nature  of  the  issue,  in  addition  historical  and contemporary processes which exist in Georgian literature serve as a proof that this issue should be thoroughly studied in future.            

Fiction  and  Literature  are  the  world  of  the  author,  the  creator,  which  is  full  of  the author's  perception  of  the  world,  the  author's  ideas,  impressions,  attitudes,  desires,  goals  and intentions  and  many  more  features  that  are  outlined  in  Fiction.  Sensations,  performances  and attitudes  are  universal  and  do  not  vary  due  to  gender.  Literary  text  equally  accommodates  in general,  universal,  common  desires  and  expectations  of  both  women  and  men,  ,  but  often,  a woman-author's  perceived  world  is  more  delicate  artistically  and  differs  from  the  text  by  the member  of  "the  stronger  sex";  it  as  much  more  emotional  and  colorful,  and  text  has  different architectonics, content, beginning and ending as well.

If  we  appeal  to  the  literary  traditions  and  remember,  we  will  see  that  the  authors  of Georgia  and  elsewhere,  for  centuries  were  mostly  men.  In  Georgian  literature,  women's literature begins by  Queen Borena (in the eleventh century, the wife of Georgian King Bagrat the fourth, the daughter of Ossetian King). She dedicated a verse in iambic pentameter to Saint Mary. Queen Borena’s iambic verse is very sophisticated and an important form of art. In early times iambic pentameter had a very simple form, but Queen Borena’s verse is well-formulated and refined to perfection.

Naturally,  many  of  the  feminine  works  did  not  survive  and  reach  us.  We  can  only assume that the authors in Georgian literature were also women authors. Georgian literary law for various reasons is not favorable to women, although Georgian princesses (The daughters of the  king  Erekle  II:  Ketevan,  Mariam  and  Tekla  Princesses)  poetic  creations  should  be mentioned.  Here  it  is  clear  that  the  romantic  tendencies,  which,  as  has  been  recognized,  on grounds of nationality laid the foundation of Georgian romanticism.

After  the  loss  of  independence  and  Russia's  accession  became  an  uncured  pain  for Georgian  intelligence.  Among  them  were  women.  Women  participated  in  the  1832  coup  in which was intended to struggle for Georgia's independence.

It should be noted that in Georgia in the second half of the nineteenth century Women's movement  started  to  exist,  which  aimed  at  expanding  women's  rights.  In  this  regard,  worth mentioning is the activities of Barbare Eristavi-Jorjadze. Barbara was twelve years old when she was married. The young woman was totally unprepared for this stage of life , but she obeyed her fate; They settled in Gremi, with her husband a former military officer, Zakaria  Jorjadze. As a young woman she already became mother of  three children ( Michael, Noshrevani,  Manana). Barbare Jorjadze frequently published articles in the newspaper " Iveria " on a variety of social issues, trying to express an opinion on women's rights , which caused an aggressive reaction in men.  

Georgian  Women's  Movement  as  a  political  phenomenon  did  not  exist,  although  it should be noted that in 1919 , the first democratic elections in the Republic of Georgia, the right to vote was given to all citizens above 20 years old , regardless of gender or national origin. As we can see , the role of women spurred in the twentieth century and the twenty-first century already saw the further strengthening of the role of women.

Female authors, or women-writers were needed by the Soviet Georgia almost as that of women  tractorists,  or,  women  drivers.  Therefore,  along  with  A.Machavariani’s,  Michael Kvlividze’s Otar Chiladze’s poems and novels were published Anna Mkheidze’s stories (Journal Tsiskari, 1981, #2), along with Besik Kharanauli and Jansug Charkviani – Malvina Mukbaniani’s and  Janeta  Koridze’s  stories  (Journal  Tsiskari,  1981,  #9).  Collections,  verses,  short  stories  and even novels by women authors were being published, but it is not surprising that men produced more than women.   

Literature  -  loving  women  were  mainly  involved  in  scientific  research,  became  post-graduate  students  or  candidates,  defended  their  thesis  and  then,  in  the  best  case,  were  higher educational  lecturers  and  even  they  remembered  their  poetry-literary  sentiments,  they  were fully committed to teaching Western literature and history of Georgian literature. However, it must  be  said  that  there  are  good  drivers,  including  women  and  there  are  really  good  women writers,  including  in  the  Soviet  Georgia.  Women  author  as  a  separate  identity  is  identified  in post-Soviet Georgian literature.

The  activation  of  women  writers  on  literary  arena  in  the  post-Soviet  era  became necessary due to the values and stories that the women had to tell. Woman, as a condition, and woman as the problem became the subject of a separate interest.

The feminine factor of Female authors in many cases is completely clear, in some cases, there is no boundary between men’s and women’s creativity. The role and purpose is often more apparent in the case of women. Feelings and desires in a woman's compassion, and a key feature of  the  main  women  author.  Therefore,  their  creations  are  experiencing  a  variety  of  emotions and feelings, the only woman have.


Khamenei 2003  Sosan Jafari Parast Khamenei, Zu den Weiblichkeitsbildern im islamischen Fundamentalismus und deren  Entgrenzung  in  der  modernen  iranischen  Prosa  am  Beispiel  der  Werke  von  Scharnusch Parsipur,  Inauguraldissertation  zur  Erlangung  der  Doktorwürde  am  Fachbereich  III  Sprach-  und Literaturwissenschaften  der  Universität  Gesamthochschule  Siegen,  Berlin,  im  September  2003, urn:nbn:de:hbz:467-774

Laakoff 1975 Laakoff, R. T. Language and woman*s place. New York: Harper & Row, 1975

Маслова 2001 Маслова В. Лингвокультурология, Для студентов высших учебных заведений, Москва, 2001,
УДК 008(100)(075.8) ББК 81.2-5я73 М31

Peters 1988 Peters ursula, Religiöse Erfahrung als literarisches Faktum. Zur Vorgeschichte und Genese
frauenmystischer Texte des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts. Tübingen 1988.

Richter-Schroeder 1986 Richter-Schroeder  Karin,  Frauenliteratur  und  weibliche  Identitaet,  Frankfurt  am  Mein,
Hain, 1986

Schlieker 2003 Kerstin Schlieker, Frauenreisen in den Orient zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts (Weibliche
Strategien  der  Erfahrung  und  textuellen  Vermittlung  kultureller  Fremde,  Disertation  zur
erlangung  akademischen  Grades  eines  Doktors  der  Philosophie  der  Philosophischen
Fakultaeten der Universitaet des Saarlandes), Verkag fuer Wissenschaft und Kultur, 2003.

Tsiskari 1981 Literary Journal Tsiskari, Tbilisi 1981, #2

Tsiskari 1984 Literary Journal Tsiskari, Tbilisi 1984, #9

Nino Popiahvili - Woman writer – Georgian literary experience

From the beginning of mankind till today woman has been a source of inspiration; however woman’s role in social, political, economic and other important spheres has been subject of dispute. Development  of  society  has  caused  women  to  feel  more  self-conscious.  In  addition,  men  and women’s roles and social stereotypes have been reconsidered and new conclusions, viewpoints and attitudes have been established.

After the commencement of politically motivated women’s movement in the 60s of the 20th century, some viewpoints about a woman’s role have been altered in literature and scholarly world. On the one hand, women authors’ emancipated literature appeared which were created on the basis of women’s stories. On the other hand, there emerged feminist literary theory, which established the concept of female author (femininity, as an ethic category) in literary theory (English- Femininity, German - die Weiblichkeit, Russian - Женственность).

According  to  feminist  criticism,  women  writers’  texts  are  distinguished  as  they  expose experience,  emotions  and,  in  general,  thoughts  motivated  by  women.  The  emergence  and development of feminist literature was politically conditioned in its basis. The primary aim of this theory  was  to  motivate  women  and  facilitate  their  literary  activities  by  means  of  critical  analysis, even with conscious marginal preconditions.

The  issue  of  women  authors,  the  place  and  role  of  gender-marked  literature  in  Georgian literature  is  completely  unstudied.  The  manifold  nature  of  the  issue,  in  addition  historical  and contemporary processes which exist in Georgian literature serve as a proof that this issue should be thoroughly studied in future.            

Fiction  and  Literature  are  the  world  of  the  author,  the  creator,  which  is  full  of  the author's  perception  of  the  world,  the  author's  ideas,  impressions,  attitudes,  desires,  goals  and intentions  and  many  more  features  that  are  outlined  in  Fiction.  Sensations,  performances  and attitudes  are  universal  and  do  not  vary  due  to  gender.  Literary  text  equally  accommodates  in general,  universal,  common  desires  and  expectations  of  both  women  and  men,  ,  but  often,  a woman-author's  perceived  world  is  more  delicate  artistically  and  differs  from  the  text  by  the member  of  "the  stronger  sex";  it  as  much  more  emotional  and  colorful,  and  text  has  different architectonics, content, beginning and ending as well.

Literature  -  loving  women  were  mainly  involved  in  scientific  research,  became  post-graduate  students  or  candidates,  defended  their  thesis  and  then,  in  the  best  case,  were  higher educational  lecturers  and  even  they  remembered  their  poetry-literary  sentiments,  they  were fully committed to teaching Western literature and history of Georgian literature. However, it must  be  said  that  there  are  good  drivers,  including  women  and  there  are  really  good  women writers,  including  in  the  Soviet  Georgia.  Women  author  as  a  separate  identity  is  identified  in post-Soviet Georgian literature.

The  activation  of  women  writers  on  literary  arena  in  the  post-Soviet  era  became necessary due to the values and stories that the women had to tell. Woman, as a condition, and woman as the problem became the subject of a separate interest.

The feminine factor of Female authors in many cases is completely clear, in some cases, there is no boundary between men’s and women’s creativity. The role and purpose is often more apparent in the case of women. Feelings and desires in a woman's compassion, and a key feature of  the  main  women  author.  Therefore,  their  creations  are  experiencing  a  variety  of  emotions and feelings, the only woman have.

Key Words:

Woman writer, Georgian literature, feminist criticism.

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia


Only society, equipped with civic consciousness will retain identity and take a stand in  the
modern global world. The research aims at revealing distinctive characters of Georgian way of
thinking based on the examples from scientific works and fiction.
Interesting explanation  regarding  the  essence  of  citizenship is  given  by  a  great  Georgian
scientist Saint Grigol Peradze in his series of letters “Content of real citizenship” (interpretation
of The Lord's Prayer - Our Father). He postulates:” Aim of citizen’s life and of citizenship itself
should  be  God".  Civic  Consciousness  in  the  history  of  Georgian  literature  originates  from
hagiography and immediately comprises double service. Hagiography hero serves for conversion
of physical and spiritual “desert” into “city”.
The  poetry  of  great  Georgian poet Vazha-Pshavela  possesses  all  characteristics  of  highly
developed civic  consciousness.  Vazha-Pshavela  is  considered to  be  “a poet  of  future”  (critic
Tamaz Chkhenkeli), also “a poet of soul” (Grigol Kiknadze), because his creative work is directed
towards spiritual forces of a human and serve for spiritual prosperity.


Civic consciousness, citizenship, Grigol Peradze, literature, Vazha---Pshavela


In order to define an essence of civic consciousness, it’s necessary to describe a term
citizen (citizenship) in the light of literary tradition. In the majority of world languages
(Georgian, Russian, English, German) base for this word is a large urban area – city,
ქალაქი,  город.  The  Brockhaus  and Efron  Russian Encyclopedic  Dictionary  gives
historical meaning of term “citizen”: “In Greece and Rome a “citizen” (πολίτης, cives)
was called not a  resident of  a city in  general, but  only a  member of a  civil unity“
(Brockhaus, Efron,1890-1907).
In  the  above  Encyclopedic Dictionary  it is  stated that  in old  Greece, the word
πολιτεία (citizen) implied a whole body of citizen’s rights, from which the followings
were the most important ones: marriage, purchasing of realty, claiming, participation in
general  meetings,  holding  posts.  In  Rome,  two  kinds  of  citizen’s  right  were
distinguished:  1.  Public (jura  publica)  and private  (j.privata). First  mainly  implies
political rights, while the second one - marriage and ownership of realty. Due to the
above, Roman citizens were divided into full and underprivileged members of the city.
After French revolution a word “citizen” was used not only in the field of political
legislation, but in conversational speech as well; it replaced forms of address "monsieur"
and "madame".

Meanings  of  terms  "Citizen"  and  "Citizenship"  in  Georgian  ecclesiastical literature

Great  Georgian  lexicographer  Sulkhan-Saba  Orbeliani  (1658-1725)  defines
“citizen”  as  one,  being  in  the  city  (Orbeliani,  1991,  p.  509).  Georgian  Apostolic
Symphony – dictionary defines “citizen” and “citizenship” based on all lexical units of
old Georgian versions: “citizen” – the one, living in the city, гражданин; „I am a Jewish
man, from Tarsus, Cilicia, not a citizen of a strange city, case 21,39“ (Dictionary, 2009,
p. 252). In the same dictionary we see word combinations - “mentally good citizen” and
“citizen of a heaven”. In old Georgian texts, being a “mentally good citizen” is a way
to save a soul and find a heaven; “because our real citizenship is in heaven“(dict).
“Citizen  of  a  heaven”  – this  form of address is  used by Georgian  figure of 19th
century Mikhail Sabinin, who is an author of “The Paradise of Georgia”, a voluminous
lithographed edition of biographies of important Georgian Orthodox Christian saints. In
the preface he thanks for assistance mother superior Nina from Samtavro monastery and
called her a “Citizen of a heaven”: „some materials were given to me by The bride of
Christ  and  a  citizen  of  heaven,  mother  superior  Nina  from  Samtavro
monastery“(Sabinin, 2015, p. 7).
Following formulation is given in Georgian Easter chant: “Christ is risen and life is
citizening“; thus, a citizenship is more than life,  it’s associated with spiritual victory,
it’s superiority to everything terrestrial.  
In  Georgian  Hagiographic  texts,  citizenship  comprises  lives  of  Saints.  Great
Georgian hagiographer of 10th century Giorgi Merchule in his  work  “Life of Grigol
Khandzteli” used the following epithet, when talking about saint Grigol –“the one who
converts desert into a city” (უდაბნოთა ქალაქმყოფელი). Saint Grigol of Khandzta
constructed monasteries in the South of Georgia (modern Turkey), on the land ravaged
by  Arabian  conquerors  in  the  8-th  century.  His  epithet  do not  describe  physical
construction  only  but  initially  implies  filling  of  spiritual  emptiness  with  bliss,
conversion of spiritual “desert” into a “city”.  
According  to  the  above,  in  Christian  tradition  and  old-Georgian  literature,
citizenship  has  a  meaning  of  active,  dynamic  process  –striving  towards  spiritual
developmentv and prosperity.

Saint Grigol Peradze's viws about citizenship

Interesting explanation is given by a great Georgian scientist of 20th century, doctor
of theology Saint Grigol Peradze in his series of  letters “Content of real citizenship”
(interpretation of The Lord’s prayer - Our Father) – these are sermons, pronounced in
Saint Nino’s Church in Paris. In 1988-1989 these letters were published in journal of
Georgian  Patriarchy  “Jvari  Vazisa”.  Grigol  Peradze  thoroughly  reasons  about
spirituality of citizenship, the essence of word, features of the real citizen. Following
thesis seems to be the main postulate of Grigol Peradze: “Aim  of citizen’s life and of
citizenship itself should be God” (Peradze, 1988, p. 41).
The  author  states,  that main  feature  of  a  citizen  is  “consciousness”, “conscious
membership” of homeland: “a citizen means each conscious member of homeland; it’s
not a one, owning property, but the one who feels great property: life, its essence and
liability"(Peradze,  1989,  p.  80).  Thus,  civic  consciousness  is  not  determined  by
unconscious liabilities, implemented without reasoning, but the mental and spiritual
perception of personal liabilities and significance of life.
Grigol Peradze emphasizes meaning of  word “citizen” in the context of someone,
fighting against evil: „this is a word massive and rich in content...citizenship implies
spiritual life of saint: his struggle against himself, his circle and darkness, i.e. struggle
for implementation of aimed ideas and principles” (Peradze, 1989, p. 80).
Saint  Grigol  Peradze  enumerates  in  detail  features  of  citizen  and  makes  very
interesting conclusion; he states that civic activity is not required only from saints, but
from  the  whole  society  in  general:  „citizenship  demands  from  each  citizen
consciousness, honesty, ability of thinking, wisdom, courage; citizenship requires to see
things in cheerful light, prudence, steadiness, modesty, which is not characterized for
slave but for educated person; citizenship is ability to see a human in people and to
appreciate it" (Peradze, 1989, pp.  80-81). Grigol Peradze considers Pater Noster to be
a source of “citizenship” and emphesizes following part of the prayer - „and forgive us
our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors“ – just these words reveal an essence of
real  citizenship.  Forgiving  of  neighbour  is  very  difficult  for  person  –  it  needs
suppression of revenge and passions, sacrificing.  

Artistic  representation  of  civic  consciousness  in  Vazha-Pshavela's  poems
“What has made me a man?” and "My Entreaty"

 “If  I  am  asked  what  will  I  wish  for  my  country,  I  would  say:  certainly
consciousness...  good  and  the  evil  of  the  life  is  mainly  connected  with  this
consciousness-ignorance. Everything written by the mankind for its benefit was written
when recovering consciousness, but unfortunately not every nation was conscious in
this period: one nation excels the other in consciousness“(Vazha-Pshavela,1979, p. 196)
– these words belongs to great Georgian poet of 19th century Vazha-Pshavela (1861-
1915). Thus, “consciousness” or “recover consciousness” of each  person is the main
base of nation’s development.
Vazha-Pshavela is  a  pseudonym of Luka  Razikashvili and literary means  a  “man
from Pshavi”. Professor of London University, translator of Vazha’s works in English
– Donald Rayfield notes: „As the Georgian futurists admitted, when repudiating all the
past, ‘Vazha stands outside time and space’. He is qualitatively of a greater magnitude
that any other Georgian writer” (Rayfield, 2013, p. 187). Among various themes found
in Vazha-Pshavela’s creative work, a civic-social one is certainly the most important. It
is artistic realization of writer’s inner, spiritual requirements. Poems “What has made
me a Man?” and “My entreaty” give vivid reflection of this passion.  
Motif of sacrifice has a basic place in Vazha’s works. Poem “What has made me a
Man?” reveals two poetic phenomena – humanity and being a rain. A lyrical character
wishes to be a rain:
“What has made me a man
 Why haven’t come I as a rain?” (Vazha-Pshavela, 1986, p. 87).
 The  rain  is  a  “child  of  heaven”,  “beads  of  clouds”,  “worshipper  of  the  sun”,
“disappointer of death”. The sweat of rain makes dying surroundings to revive and this
in its part make a poet happy. Overwhelming love strives for blending with nature; it
desires  to make  nature  alive and  is ready for  sacrificing.  This  motif  in  Georgian
literature is presented from of 12th century poem, masterpiece named “Vepkhistkaosani”
(“The Knight in the Panther's Skin”). Avtandil’s (character of the above poem) singing
merges with nature; his inner, spiritual energy revives inanimate objects, makes animals
listen carefully, even stones listen to his song. The same motif can be found in works of
romantic poet Nikoloz Baratashvili, who wishes to be the sun at sunrise to revive dried
meadow, to make birds and flowers happy. In newest Georgian literature, this theme is
most impressionably revealed in works of Galaktion Tabidze and Terenti Graneli. In
Galaktion’s works, there is no border between the world and poet’s heart  (“I and  the
Terenti  Graneli  is  courageous  to  state:  “I  wish  I  was  everywhere  like  God”
(miniature “Blood drops from heart”) – it is not a blasphemy, but overwhelming desire
to spread in world and merge with space.
Thus, “being a rain” in Vazha’s poem is not neglect of humanity but its acceptance
and recognition, preservation of similarity with God, what can be achieved only through
sacrificing and care of nears. In this poem, poet develops an idea of Christian love, of
correct sacrifice. During defining an essence of citizenship, Saint Grigol Peradze was
writing:  “citizenship  means  sacrificing,  self-burning  for  giving  a  light  to  other”
(Peradze,  1989,  p.  80).  Vazha-Pshavela’s  lyrical  character  is  a  bearer  of  civic
Ilia II, Catholicos-Patriarch of modern Georgia, gives highly appreciates to Vazha-
Pshavela’s poem “My Entreaty”: “It’s a result of highest Christian thinking, a praise of
modesty, love, heroism, loyalty; its author is a real friend of God and not only a gifted
person”( Ilia II, 2006, p. 1).
In this poem, Vazha desires to be in the place of grass and not a scythe, he even
agrees to be a lamb, but never a wolf; anxiety makes him happy. Leading theme of this
poem is Christian perception of the happiness. Being a “grass” or a “lamb” is considered
to be a happiness by the author, i.e. citizenship, implemented with modesty. Taking care
of other and  protection of oppressed  makes him happy. It’s a  visible side of internal
suffering, which is difficult to stand, but at the same time is desirable for the author:
„Only suffering makes me happy”. Doing a good is a huge internal desire of the poet
(even it is not appreciated by others). Indifference and lack of cordiality is like a death
for him.  
Being a  “grass” and a “lamb” is  not  considered as helplessness by the author; he
never lets himself be eaten by a wolf and never lays his head in front of a scythe. Wolf
and scythe are symbols of indifference, cruelty, lack of cordiality and tenderness. Vazha
damns such life and is not going to arrange a truce with it. Uncompromising struggle
with evil is Vazha’s choice and the main goal of his characters.


According to the present-day interpretation given in dictionaries, citizenship means
legal belonging to certain State: „Status of citizenship gives certain rights and liabilities
(defined under the  current law) to person, living in State“(Dictionary, 2011,  p. 129).
Thus, citizenship implies rights and liabilities, defined under legislation.  
Hence, a term “citizenship”, from the standpoint of historical and literal traditions,
also present social-political conditions, comprises, on the one hand, spiritual features (a
way of spiritual perfection) and ,on the other hand, rights and liabilities defined under
the law. These  two sides fill  each other.  A citizen is responsible to God,  State and
society. That’s why in Georgian hagiography saint Grigol from Khandzta is called “A
man  of  heaven and  an  angel  of  the  earth”, i.e.  mediator  between  earth and  heaven,
executor of both liabilities. In new Georgian writings (Akaki Tsereteli’s poem “Tornike
Eristavi”, Alexander Kazbegi’s story “Khevisberi Gocha” etc) this harmony is given in
following formulation -“God’s word –nation’s word”.  


The research publishes the partial results of the doctoral dissertation “The issues of
formation and development of civic consciousness in Vazha-Pshavela’s creative works
– methods and activities of teaching”. It is a winner project (DO 335/2-110/14) in call
for Ph.D programme grants (2014) announced by  “Shota  Rustaveli National Science
Foundation” (Georgia) and is supported by the foundation. Research directions: Literary
studies, Education studies-methodology. It is held at Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State
University, faculty of Psychology and Education sciences.

Brockhaus, F. A., & Efron, A. (1890-1907). Encyclopedic dictionary. Saint-Peterburg
Civic Dictionary. (2011). Tbilisi: Sezani.
Georgian Apostolic Symphony-Dictionary (2009).Tbilisi: Tbilisi State University Press.  
Orbeliani, S. S. (1991). Explanatory Dictionary. Vol. I. Tbilisi: Merani.  
Peradze, G. (1988). "Content of Real Citizenship." Jvari Vazisa: 80- 84.
Rayfield, D. (2013). The Literature of Georgia. New York: Routledge.  
Sabinin, M. (2015). The paradise of Georgia. Tbilisi, Georgia: Diadema. first published
in 1882.
Vazha-Pshavela. (1979). Newly Revealed Works. Tbilisi.
Vazha-Pshavela. (1986). Works. Tbilisi: Sabchota Saqartvelo


Marine Tsiklauri
Tbilisi, Digomi massif, Q. IV, building 13, ap.25.

ARCHBISHOP ANANIA JAFARIDZE Series: Georgians’ historian destiny separated from Georgian church © Anania Jafaridze. 1999. Introduction Urums living in Ottoman Empire Increase of rights of Greek Church in Turkey Georgians’ Hellenization in Ottoman Empire Grecian-Urums exile on the modern territory of Georgia Georgians’ Hellenization on the modern territory of Georgia Surnames Eparchy of Georgian patriarchate of Manglis-Tcalka 1999

In the series of monographs of "Georgians' historian destiny separated from Georgian church" archbishop Anania Jafaridze expounds the destiny of that Georgians who lived on the conquered territories of Georgia and who left the national churches becoming the perish of the foreign church. Unfortunately, a big part of them were ethnically degenerated.

In the above mentioned work which is based on the historical sources is expounded the destiny of orthodox Georgians who lived in the South of Georgia (concretely in Lazeti and Meskheti) conquered by Ottomans and according to the Ottomans' jurisdiction they became the perish of Grecian patriarchate of Constantinople. The work consists of the paragraphs: Georgians' Hellenization, Urums living in Ottoman Empire, Increase of rights of Greek Church in Turkey, Georgians' Hellenization in Ottoman Empire, Grecian-Urums' exile on the modern territory of Georgia, Changed Surnames and so on.

The book is intended for the consolidation of national consciousness in Georgian migrants in order to keep them with national churches and not to allow them to become perish of the foreign church.

Publishing house blesses the company "Esab" and its personals for the assistance.


There was the process of different tribes' Hellenization in Old Greece and Byzantium between them was Georgian. After the fall of Byzantine Empire the process continued even in Ottoman Empire. Furthermore, Georgians' process of assimilation with Greeks continued even on modern territory of Georgia in XIX century, concretely in province of Tbilisi. A lot of scientists write about the Hellenism in Ottoman Empire, especially have to be mentioned work of Tcate Batcashi but on the modern territory of Georgia the process is described by Jacob Akhuashvili and other researchers.

Georgians' Hellenism was conditioned by the different reasons. It could be political, economical and especially religious factors. It has to be mentioned that the major reason of Georgians' assimilation with the other nations was low level of national self-knowledge in XVI-XIX centuries.

I.Akhuashvili writes: "what had taken our ancestor to this kind of existence?" The answer partly can be found in work of F.Bodenshtet (1847) who writes: "Georgian is careless and they do not think for tomorrow…they are faithful as their sword, fast and quick as their horses…" but only this kind of positive characteristics were not enough for the national-knowledge solidity. Following the thought of N.Nikoladze ?Consciousness is the way which makes you able to differ evil from kind also mastering science which requires mental exercises, work and some more solid will. The same author emphasized the importance of social awareness and care of knowledge. I.Akhuashvili continues in the above mentioned work about the Georgians' denationalization: ?I think it is time to call everything its name although as great ilia says: ?evil does not like disclosure, but it not the reason to blame ourselves, become deaf, cut tongue when this evil beat us in ourselves and gives a cry all around the world about our nonentity to our shame. consequently, it is necessary to reveal the reasonable evil…as the true reasonable revealing even of a whole nation is taken into consideration as a kind deed and a clever nation is grateful for it and not angry.

In case of the same occasion, I mean repeat of the history our people have to meet this with the high level of self-knowledge. The fact that the danger of national degeneration is real, even nowadays, is seen from the example that the descendents of the inhabited Georgians in Russia cannot keep their nationality after two or three generations and are assimilated within the nations. And this kind of problem can become more and more dangerous if lots of young Georgians leave looking for some jobs out of borders. Consequently, research of the past is necessary for us.

But what was that which made Georgians to become Greek? It was the Ecclesiastical jurisdiction, concretely that Georgians who were becoming perish of Orthodox Patriarchate of Constantinople for some reason -were becoming Grecians.

As it is known Meskheti or Samckhe Saatabago was wide stretched densely populated country. At least one-third of Georgians lived there and following the notification of XV century Georgians were numerous people at that time.

By the Caucasus and near east scale Georgian people were really numerous and it can be seen even after the century wars in the beginning of XIX century when Georgians were 44% of the whole Transcaucasia population. Their number greatly exceeded Azerbaijanis' and Armenians' number. There were impressive number of Georgians In XVI-XVIII centuries in Meskheti. Unfortunately as far as it is known Georgians from Meskheti degenerated at all. Part of them became Muslim, Gregorian or Catholic and the remaining Georgians under Patriarchate of Constantinople jurisdiction became Grecians.

About the created conditions in order to spread jurisdiction in Meskheti is written by Vakhushti as he describes Patriarchate of Constantinople was religiously obliged to pay attention on the abandoned Orthodox Georgians and take care of them.

By 1659 year there was established Mohammedanism in Meskheti, consequently there was built mosques which made the population to be without churches and church-services. So the population of Meskheti was divided in two parts. High stratum-became Mohammedan, but the peasants being without leaders kept the faith of Christianity but Georgian churches were not serving peasants any more having no financial resources for some reasons and with this high stratum did not care about it anymore. As for the high stratum they did not take care of Georgian churches. So Georgian peasants left without Georgian churches or shepherd because of low level of self-knowledge were divided between Greek and Armenian Catholics churches and the part of the peasants which had no influence of non-Georgian churches imitating the high stratums became Mohammedan. As for the high stratums, Ottoman Empire made the financial trap for them which gave them the alternative between property and religion. Unfortunately high stratums preferred Muslim religion to poverty and a bit later their families and servants became Muslim too. Surly it caused the loss of the self-consciousness and made the Georgians to become Tatars. This kind of condition was the reason of the abandoned churches in Qartli, Odishi and in Kakheti, nevertheless they were the saint places for the population who were not Mohammedans and tried to visit them, although there were not bishops or monks.

As we have mentioned part of the peasants remained Christians although for the necessity of these people priests had not been sanctified any more as there were not Georgian bishops consequently Constantinople sent Grecian priests for the peasants. There are protected notifications about deeds of the Greek priests. Eqvtime Takaishvili describes the action of the priests although in another historical epoch. Eqvtime writes: ?The Greek priests tried a lot to rule the villages although the entire village spoke in Georgian, they also tried to set up Greek church-service. For the mentioned purpose one of the priests with insidiousness got the old Georgian Ecclesiastical books…??

Generally, the whole numerous Georgians in Meskheti did not become Mohammedan. Especially their quantities were more in East. There were Orthodox Georgians whose care was up to Patriarchate of Constantinople given by Ottoman Empire like the other linguistically different orthodox living on the Balkan Peninsula. The result was quick without delay as Georgian orthodox population learned Turkish and ecclesiastically became the flock of the Constantinople. Soon some may say about them that ?they lost the language but kept the religion not betraying it?. Christian Turkish orthodox Georgians became perish of the foreign, Greek church.

Urums living in Ottoman Empire

Border of Georgians' ethnical exiles were up to Euphrates and even further away consisting river's head and its ravines, concretely the river named Karasud. There were Georgian villages even in Erzurum in XVII century and Georgian bishop of Erzurum seems to be the last Georgian bishop in Meskheti.

The territories along the Erzurum till the black sea were also inhabited by Georgians concretely population of Meskheti was changing by the population of Lazeti. Lazistan or Trapizon's Vilaieti was the country of Lazs and Tchans. Above mentioned wide stretched land with the head of Mtkvari and Chorokhi ravines were also Georgians' one of the Ethno genesis territory. Here were formed Georgian nation; some say that here was ?Arian Qartli?. Lately here was formed ?Georgians' kingdom? (Tao-Klarjeti) which had been the heart of the strong Georgian culture till it became mohammedan.

By the Turkish historian thought “To the north from the river Arezi and Zangi there was Dagestan and Georgia in the 40 days of journey till the sea of Khazars.” Its east side reaches Erzurum. Antioch Patriarch Makar (XVII) who travelled round the whole Meskheti proves that the border of Georgia to the south was up to the river Euphrate's. This kind of information is even proved by Chelebi. For a long time these territories were considered as Georgia and nearby the river Arezi and Erzurum lived Georgians. Arqangelo Lamberti travelled on the territories of Erzurum and found several Georgian villages which had its own Erzrumian leader. In the middle of the XVIII century T. Gabashvili proved not only Georgian churches existence in Gurmishkhani and but also the memories of population that the territory was called as Georgia.

As it was mentioned there were Georgian villages in Erzurum and the territories of Gumishkani had been counted as Georgian by the population. Nowadays by the mentioned information we can definitely say that Urums or the old Greek population was exiled by the Russian government from Erzurum and Gumishkhani to Trialeti and Qvemo qartli. Orthodox population of Gumishkhane and Erzurum were allowed by Ottomans and Russian authorities to move to Greece but orthodox inhabitants refused to exile requiring the territory of province of Tbilisi for dwell. As it seems in XIX century the population calling Gumishkhane as Georgian Territory in XVIII century wanted to stay in Georgia refusing Greek land for living. As scientist I.korelov says the origin of Urums is unknown.

Urums are that very Greeks living in Georgia whose native language is Turkish and are exiled by the Russian authority from Erzurum-Gumishkhane territories as orthodox population. They don't know Greek and with the signs of ethno geography are closer to Georgian-Caucasus's-ottomans' than to Greeks'. There was the thought about Urums' that they are Turkish population who became orthodox. This kind of thought was presented by Greek Orthodox Church leader Panas Eftim who thinks that Urums are that Turks who have become Christian by force. As it is know they have changed the religion but preserved the language. This kind of thought existed about Anatolian Greeks but Greeks who lived on Balkan Peninsula were considered as Slavs by the scientists of XIX century. In the article of 1853 year??British politics-Turkey? F. Engel writes: ?Greeks in Turkey mostly are of Slav origin but their language became Greek???

Why the Greek population of Ottoman Empire was taken as non-Greeks we will discuss it later but now we have to turn back to the thought of I.korelov about Urums. He thinks that Urums from Trialeti lived in Erzurum Vilaieti, mainly to the south-west of it.

As we have mentioned Patriarch Makar found the Georgian villages near Erzurum in XVII century which population was still orthodox having bishop. As it was mentioned even population of Gumishkhani considered themselves as Georgians. Following Korolov, Nowadays a part of Urums left Gumishkhan's territory. Here is the reason why Urums who have left Qaldea and Basiani still have Georgian culture. Nowadays they live in Qvemo Qartli and Trialeti. Even I. Korolov writes that: In Empire of Trabzon there was Chaldea which was lightly colonized by Elins. Here in the mass of foreigners population was not in the habit of keeping them under the influence of its language and habits- to helinizate.

It is possible that the population of Gumishkhani is Georgians. Generally, word ?Urums? means Romanians in Turkish. As it is known Byzantium is a scientific term but The Empire of Byzantium is called as Rome by the population. After Selchuks conquest of the Byzantium Empire even osmals were called by the name of the country-Urums. Georgian historians Vakhushti and Papuna Orbelians call Osmals Urums too and even exiled Turkish Orthodox population was called so. Consequently, Minor Asian is called Urum nevertheless its religion or ethnic.

There are Urums inhabited in Georgia who consists of Kiliss, Kanetes, Pasenss and Lazs. All of them have Greek self-knowledge. Even Lazs who are part of the polulation of Tsalka are Greek inhabitants of Trialeti.

Increase of rights of Greek Church in Turkey

After the fall of Constantinople Greek-orthodox Patriarchate was not abolished by Turks, on the contrary, it was given some state functions. By the sultan's thought it has to be the balance and justice between Christians. It was unacceptable to force such a big country to become Muslim at that time. It was even unthinkable to force the country with huge quantity of population and culture become Muslim. The sultan Mehmed II who cared for the justice and justice between Christians created the second patriarchate for Armenians next to the Greek's one. At that time rights of Monophysite people were restricted in the former Byzantium Empire while the governor restored them for the oppressed people.

After this Turks divided Christians in two main fractions that were living on the Turkish territory and declared above mentioned patriarchate as their spiritual leaders. After such kinds of separation of Christian perish Greeks, Bulgarians, Serbs, Albans, Valakhs, Moldavians, Croatians, Carrageen, Syrians, orthodox Arabs, Melkhits, Lazs were under the rule of Greek patriarchate. There are not Meskhs in this list as at that time Meskheti was not conquered by Turks. But in the XVII_XVIII centuries vanishing Georgian patriarchate Greeks fulfilled their rights up to Georgian orthodox perish.

Lazs or Laz-Tchans were the majority of Trabzon population with Qarts. After the Cesarean Trabzon conquest by Turks gradually started the process of changing the religion. The second part of the people who remained orthodox called themselves Greeks and thus gradually forgetting native language got accustomed to Turk-Georgian language but we have to mention that this people reached XIX century not losing its roots at all.

G.Atchariani writes: ?There are orthodox Lazs who are under the control of the Greek patriarchate in Istanbul. They speak Greek and call themselves Greeks. Nevertheless they can be recognized by their accent? They live on the territory of Lazistan concretely on the west side from Platiny to the east till Trabzon and the south of Trabzon till Gumishkhane. Platana, Trabzon, Gumishkhane are the main towns where we can meet them. In the beginning of 1830 years according the treatment of Adrianople a group of Christians from Gumishkhan were inhabited in Qvemo Qartli. These were Turkish Christians who were officially Greeks or Urums by official papers. We should mention that orthodox non-Greek population in Turkey or Europe is also known as Greeks. Frequently in many papers, when there is a talk about religion even Georgian perishes and Georgian churches are called as Greek. Nobody paid any attention that among the exiled Greek population from Gumishkhane were Georgian-Lazs. On the contrary tsarism backed it up to spread knowledge about Greek origin as it was considered as the best way for the Russification. Nowadays there are not Christian Lazs officially they are called Greeks although they still remember about their origin-that they are Lazs.

I.Korelov writes that after the depriving of political rights by Turks Christians were allowed to create independent communities. Mehmed II allowed greeks free religion faith and solved the question of dispersed Greeks inhabiting them in Constantinople. Christians were also given the charter of freedom and safety.

All the things were done to court Greek Church as politically deprived churches were needful to keep order in the country and to neutralize non-orthodox states' power. In any way Greek churches were under the control of Turks.

Tc.Batcashi writes: ?According to ?Kamun-name? which was established by Mehmed II in 1476 year non-Muslims got its status in Constantinople. They were Orthodox and Armenian patriarchates and chief of Jews' Rabin?. After all orthodox population (Greeks, Bulgarians, Serbs, Albans, Valakhs, Moldavians, Georgians) were considered as one Greek community. Patriarch having ecclesiastical or court power had an influence on them and could even condemn to panel servitude. Patriarchate or bishops owned the control of schools and books of orthodox population. They also had the private privilege.

As far as it is known term ?nation? has the religious definition, consequently, every Muslim was Turkish and every orthodox was Greek.

?Between Christians not only Porte (the government of Turkey) but even patriarchate of Constantinople did not recognize any other nation except Greek and generally Balkan Peninsula's whole orthodox population was under the control of jurisdiction of Constantinople patriarchate. This jurisdiction was not only the religious but it also had the secular meaning. Greek patriarchate, his metropolitans and bishops had the rights of court and taxes toward the orthodox Christians-Greeks, Bulgarians, Serbs, Albans, Valakhs, Moldavians, Georgians…?Every school where children of orthodox population were studying was under the control of Constantinople's patriarchate. As usual the process of study was in Greek. Even religious rites were held in Greek and after all these processes in scientific, economic or religious spheres Greek language become popularized. So the guard of Greek language was the patriarchate of Constantinople refusing other national cultural developing?.?

Romania which was historically called as Vlakheti or Moldavia became depended on Turkish forces in XVI century. In 1716 year Romania was given by Turks to a wise community called ?Fanariots?. Fanar was called a district in Constantinople which was inhabited by Greeks who worked on Turks helping them to rule orthodox population. Here was also inhabited Constantinopolitan patriarch. After paying lots of money Fanariots got the right to rule Romania.

?Buying the right to rule the country Fanariots owned unlimited power consequently they started to cover the cost of paid money which brought country to pauperization?. Greek Fanariots' last purpose was to create ?Greek court?.

A.Skurati writes : ?Trying to achieve creating Greek court from Balkans, Greek Fanarians inculcated Greek language and culture by force. In this case Greek hierarchy backed it up. Greeks were nominated as bishops and even church-service was in Greek in towns?.

Here can easily be seen that Romanians, Georgians, Balkans were made to become Greeks in Ottoman Empire. More or less they did it.

Greeks from Fanari took themselves as premium caste of aristocracy, although great part of them were consisted of merchants, sellers and people like these. Gradually, Fanarian Greeks could hold higher and higher posts in Ottoman Empire. Concretly, In 1716 year post of chief of Vlakheti was given to one of these Fanarian. Since then big territory of Vlakheti was ruled by Greeks for century.

Holding higher posts in Vlakheti Greeks have become ?Grammarians? so called bibliophile in Georegian, who was private secretary of chief. Also private reporter which was no less than other posts. Groom, keeper of chief's seal and document keeper were also the posts which were held by Greeks.

In XVI century Greek elements began to invade Vlakheti and by Fanarians government it reached its culmination. Greek Fanariots tried to fill ecclesiastical hierarchy with ethnical Greeks in Vlakheti and Danube. This kind of politics conditioned that among 12 metropolitan there were 7 of Greeks and even in case of national membership of bishops circumstance was the same.

After all churches of Vlakheti were changed on Greek manner and gradually even Romanian language was lost which caused closing of schools. Romanian language like shameful slang was changed by Greek which already presented administrative and instructive language. There were allowed only Greeks to be teachers in ecclesiastic academy in Romania. Subsidies were given only to those churches where Greeks were the head of public worship.

As O.?Gvinchadze thinks Greek bishops of Vlakheti did not like Antimoz Iverieli consequently the rebelion against Greek chief of Vlakheti was discussed by world patriarchate Ieremia III who established the deed which made Antiomoz as man of revolution and rebel against the Ottoman Empire and Vlakheti. After all Antimoz was deprived all kind of ecclesiastical deeds in 1716.

As it seems after falling of Byzantium Empire Greek church lost its political influence on the whole country although instead of it got the new rights, concretely, if Bulgarian, Georgian or other churches had autonomy which shortened Constantinople's rights on non-Greek perish, now all the Christians were under the control of Greek centre. Definitely, this kind of behavior made churches to lose their rights and even autonomous - autocephalous independence which caused disorder of ecclesiastical laws. To say long story shortly invaders preserved the Empire although they used Constantinople in this work.

Fortunately Turks had never been able to conquer the whole Georgia. They only got the part of South Georgia and Meskheti placing its perish under the command of Constantinople.

Georgians' Hellenization in Ottoman Empire

As it was mentioned Georgians ethnical exile was up to Euphrates, there was Georgian bishop in Erzurum in XVII century though in XVIII century population of Gumishkhan could remind that not so long time ago their territory was called Georgia. During the centuries Osmals gradually occupied large territories of Georgia, consequently, the border instead of Erzurum was near Borjomi and Qobuleti. Turks were greatly opposed by Georgians as in XVI century it can be seen that Georgians from Erzurum and Euphrates held partisan wars against them harming quite well. This is proved by the war in 1514 where Ottomans were struggling against Persians and during the war even Georgians were drawn into the war against Ottomans. At the beginning of the war Ottomans started attack Persians although they retreated. Catherino Dzeno writes: ?retreated commander in chief went toward Euphrates? but Georgians put obstacle in their way robbing them with light armies. Anyone who dare to leave the army even with a little distance Georgians broke them down. Their strikes were so frequent that even Akinjs who were got accustomed to travel 40 or more miles a day did not dare to leave their army as furious Georgians were ready to kill them all. They were killed not only by swords but even by starvation as they could not manage to supply the army with necessary product because of unprofitable environment. They were ready to be killed by a horrible death instead of the other one.

This note is proved by other authors adding even some details. Although neither Georgian nor foreigner authors gives us information about Georgians who were struggling against Ottomans. We do not know even their court they were from. They were not from Qartl-Khakheti as at that time the court could not manage to struggle against Ottoman's army. M.?Rekhviashvili wonders that it could be army of Imereti against Turks in 1514 but whoever it was it is more possible that it were Georgians from Euphrates and Erzurum as they struggled in partisan way laying siege and not giving possibilities them to provide army with products from near villages. So Georgians who are indicated by foreign authors are inhabited population who were struggling against the enemy with other Georgians. Even after a century there were Georgian villages with its Georgian bishop from Erzurum. Here had also been living Georgians till immigration from Traileti and Qvemo Qartli in XIX century. Although they had already forgot their language and were counted as Turks at that time.

After the conquer of Meskheti and Lazeti orthodox inhabitants had to obey patriarchate of Constantinople who sent the new perish to Greek priests. Following the orders of Constantinople Greek priests owned indefinite right on their people. At that time a priest was not only a man of ecclesiastic but he also owned the right of national man, concretely, he was even a judge who could send a man to penitentiary. This fact is also known to European scientists. They write: ?Greek orthodox clergy has made a decision to have a despotic authority on orthodoxy in Ottoman Empire… A priest is like a judge, a foreman, a teacher and a head of all kind of work. He is not an ecclesiastical man but a master who takes care of everything… This kind of guardianship and despotic control of churches obeyed all kind of spheres in human life?. This kind of circumstance was not adapted by non-Greek orthodox followers as in every successful public movement they banished Greek ecclesiastic servants nominating servants of local inhabitant. A good example of it was in Vlakheti and Serbia. The same situation was in provinces of Ponto… ?I cannot hide that kind of horrible clashes between perish and Greek servants in Unie… we have to mention women who banished clergy out of churches and locked themselves in church… By the instant demand of Patriarchate Porta has sent pasha to punish them his own…? This was not a single case as local orthodox populations massively were becoming Mohammedans trying to secure themselves from Greek Patriarchate.

I think that existence of Georgian bishop in Erzurum in XVII century can be described by their opposing against Greek clergy but as it seems even toward them was accomplished the order which took them under the control of Greek clergy.

?Local inhabitants who were subordinated to Greek Church gradually were becoming Greeks. For example Christian lazs had Greek name and surname and had to study and listen pray in Greek?.

Georgian language with its Lazic dialects was even banished from families as a language of irreligious people. National language was maintained by Lazs who where under the patronage of Georgian church once upon a time. Territorial proximity and economical relationship supported to maintain national language.

There could be a question whether Urums living in Erzurum knew Greek or not? We should think that they had never known Greek. As in XVII-XVIII centuries it can easily be seen that their native language was Georgian with its dialects. Although Turks intervention in XV-XVI centuries made the things to change as Georgian language was banished and Turkish was inculcated upon the country. In XVII century there was Georgian bishop which indicates that at these periods Greek prays were not legitimated yet. Being exiled in Trialeti in XIX century they could not learn Greek in time although there could be excepting of course.

It has to be noticed that local Georgians had its own dependence toward Grecians. The point is that Greeks are also invaders and Byzantium is predatory country for Asia Minor Georgians. Although the invaders managed to make a part of Georgians become Greeks (we mean till Turks' invade). After collapse of Byzantium Empire a part of Greeks changed their language and religion on Turkish with surprise but the rest of them consolidated their Greek self-knowledge.

Tsate Batsashi analyzed Lazs' becoming Greek in Trabzon Empire (till Turks appearance) It is indisputable that there were living Georgian tribes at this territory from the ancient time. Uspensky writes: ?Armenians or Greeks were the minorities on this territory and were lost among masses of other tribes as they were not able to place them under the control of their culture and language at that time? and analyses that we cannot even say that there were a lot of Greeks on the territory of the Empire, consequently, local inhabitants and the king were counted as Lazs, definitely, having the sympathy of Georgia. Although existence under the control of Byzantium Empire had its influence on the country but inhabitants did not lose their native language.

After Turks' conquest a part of Lazs became Mohammedan and the others stayed on their religion-orthodoxy. Lazs who were under the control of Constantinople soon lost their language and self-knowledge as they became Greeks and learned Grecian although native language was preserved by Lazs who had become Mohammedans but estrangement was even in this case as they learned Turkish. Orthodox Lazs who became Greek spoke in Grecian with dialect of Ponto which itself preserves every typical affricates of Iberian-Caucasian words' basis.

Nowadays orthodox Lazs are counted as Greeks but instead of it Turkish historians know that till Turkmens' conquest there were a lot of Georgians and Lazs in North-East of Turkey in the beginning of XI century and the majority of the population were speaking in their language. Lazian language is similar to Georgian and presents tone of Megrelian.

One of researcher of Minor Asia in XIX century writes: ?So it has to be mentioned that inhabitants of this place so called Greeks are Lazs who became Christians during Byzantium Empire and had been keeping it by their own?.

There were Kromols except Greeks and Turks, consequently, it means that not only Georgians were inhabited on the strange territory with strange population. Kroloms officially followed the customs of Muslims although in secret they were Christians. They also were called as Cryptochristians. Khemshins who are degenerated are also Georgians with their origin. ?A part of Khemshins' population consists of Lazs and the remaining are the mixture of people. The main role in their ethno genesis played Armenian church because as it seems a part of Lazs joined them. The same thing happens in the north-east of Anatoly?. Their language is the mixture of Georgian, Armenian and Turkish… In Izmir they were called as ?Somekhve?. Children were given names of official Turkish origin and with this they were also given domestic names which are definitely Lazians with its sonority or content. For example: Tuta- Moon, Burba- Bat, Mutika- Dolphin, Tuni-bear, Mutskhi-Star, and so on. During the travel across Lazeti N.?Mari enumerates surnames of Khemshins which are also Georgian.

Georgians becoming Armenians is not astonishing as even this country like Greek gave a lot of privileges to Armenian patriarchate of Constantinople. Armenian priests like the Greek ones' owned the whole kind of rights?- ?all the spheres of government about Armenians in Turkey are in hands of patriarchate of Constantinople?.?

Different kind of methods were used by Georgians to prevent changing their religion, the rest of population or priests were becoming Gregorian, Catholics or were under the control of Constantinople, consequently, they were counted as Armenians, French or Greeks. That was the reason why Georgians called Muslim Georgians Tatars or Turks. Georgian with Gregorian religion was called as Armenian, Georgian catholic- French, Jew- Jewish.

Being under the control of Grecian church Orthodox Lazs became Greeks in Trabzon, Giumishkhane, Platana and in other places. The rest of them inhabited in Tsalka, Borjomi, Donetski and in Krasnodar.

Grecian-Urums exile on the modern territory of Georgia

Entering Transcaucasia Russian government tried to strengthen its positions settling orthodox people in borderlands; consequently, they had made a decision to exile Christian orthodox and Gregorian from Turkey.

Korelov writes: ?There was created a committee in Tbilisi taking control on migration from Turkey in 1810 year. So in 1813 this committee could expel 120 of household of Urums from Antalya to Tetritskaro-Tsintskaro which were conquered by Aga Mahmud Han but the main decision about the banishment was made during the war between Russia and Turkey in 1828-1829?.

There were a lot of advantages for exiled population, concretely; they were free from fiscal payment during 6 years. Urums' banishment on the modern territory of Georgia continued during the whole XIX century.

During the period of wars (1853-1856 The Crimea and 1877-1878 Russia vs. Turkey) migration continued. Their arrival on the modern territory of Georgia continued not only till XIX century but also till XX century. Modern history of Greece starts with ruins of Constantinople conquered by Ottoman Empire. Turks stopped the development of social, economic and political spheres in Greece. Although the wars between Russia and Turkey made Ottoman Empire weak in XVIII century. After, that Russian government tries to expel Greeks and Armenians from Turkey and settle them in Caucasia near the borderland of Turkey. They also wanted to have advanced detachment in this region. Greek expel was guided by the ?committee of Christians' banishment from Turkey to Caucasia? created in 1810 which used ecclesiastic persons to achieve their goals in Minor Asia… There were Greeks serving Russian army and it should be noticed that there was even a special detachment called ?Greek detachment?. By the force of peace treaty Russian army unloaded its army from Erzurum-Baiburt-Giumishkhane, consequently, Greeks were able to return to their native land-Greece, on the contrary, Turks required to free their people and migration into their native country. So according the agreement there had to be the exchange but it has to be mentioned that Greeks who were living in Turkey preferred to stay in Caucasia than to go to Greece.

It is not insignificant or casual fact that Urums have not gone to Greece and made their way toward Georgia. This fact should not be explained by Russian promises. As it was mentioned before they could remember that once Guimishkhane was a part of Georgia in XVII century, the same should be emphasized about the population of Erzurum consequently it can easily be seen that at that time they counted themselves as ?children of Georgia? in XIX century. Greece was strange side for them but Georgia was seen as native. By 1829 year 100 Greek families moved from Giumishkhane and mediana region toward Trialeti. They should go to Tsintskaro and move from there to devastated territories of Tsalka.

By 15 October of 1829 year Greeks had already arrived in Tsintskaro… By 1830 year they are already in Tsintskaro. It can be found in correspondence between Teodore Zemenpulo and governor Zeveleiski. “It is necessary for them to be given arable land, grassland and financial resources to build houses.”

A group of Greeks had chosen Georgian village Beshqashen (nowadays it is Beshtasheni, region of Tsalka) and dwelt there. Soon it caused the next wave of Greek colonizers and Russian generosity allowed 1025 Greek families to move toward Tsalka. The majority of them were husbandman or cattle-breeder. The migrants are coming with the paved way I mean Erzurum-Karsi-Gumbri-Tfilisi-Koda-Ekatherinefield-Shindlara-Tsalka. This group of Greeks made 18 Georgian villages to revive. Greeks called them the names of old Turkish villages were they had lived before. To the south from Tsalka near the village Gomareti (nowadays it is region of Dmanisi) they founded three villages…?In 1855 banished Greeks founded several villages in Adjara (near Batumi). There were also founded villages in South Georgia, Tetritskaro's region. The first world war caused the new migration of Greeks in Caucasus but the conference of Lizan made the special decision for Greek inhabitants about the exchange on Turks. But even in this case great part of Greeks preferred to stay not in their country but in the Soviet Union, concretely in Caucasia.

Here we should pay attention on the scientist's expression which was involuntary but right -??even this time Greeks preferred to return not in their native country but in Caucasia?. ?To return? is possible there where you had come from, so Urums has returned to their real country -Caucasia. They believed that their country was not Greece but Georgia. In this case should be noticed research of the famous expert in Turkish?- Otar Gigineishvili. He writes that Urums who expelled in Greece were called Georgians (concretely in Tesalonick) by the inhabitants and even villages were created by Urums there. Urums willing of being in Georgia can also be seen by their act which was against the conference of Lozana as they had to go to Greece but instead of this they arrived in Goergia. This was the time of 1917 rebel in Russia were was established severe atheistic regime which struggled much against church. This kind of fact can only be describes by the love toward the native country and land.

Some wonder that there are Lazs' roles in ethno genesis of Giumishkhan's and Pasen's as there are kept real Georgian traditions in their existence.

Georgians' Hellenization the modern territory of Georgia

Urums who were exiled from Turkey inhabited on the territories of landowners by Russian government. The lands of Garis and Trialeti were owned by: Baratashvili,Kaplanishvili, orbeliani, Abashishvili, Abulfatashvili, Afxazishvili, Takaishvili, Tumanishvili, Iotamishvili, Varazishvili, Gilaqishvili, Eliozashvili, Zazunashvili, Tarkhnishvili, Tulashvili, Magalashvili, Merabishvili, Saginashvili, Sachinoshvili, Sologashvili, Zurabishvili, Aslanishvili, Urufbegashvili, Korganashvili, Shalikashvili, Cicishvili, Sharashidze, Javakhishvili which is confirmed by ?migrations' committee? and was even annunciated to the Russian emperor. It was also presented in statistical description of Georgia in XVIII century.

Urums inhabited a lot of Georgian villages and even founded some villages on the territories of old Georgian villages where still lived Georgian households. For example S.Makalatia writes ?25 of household who had come from Trabzon were inhabited by the government of the king in Cikhisjvari by 1861although it should be mentioned that there had already been few Georgian households as: Kasitashvili, Bliadze and Miqeladze?.?

Greek population had been met by Georgians even in Tsintskaro and the same can be emphasized about other villages.

It should be mentioned that before the migration of Greeks Trialeti and Qvemo Kartli had just become empty. The reason of this were Lezghins and the fear which made the population to move to Kartl-Kakheti, although when these kind of families knew that the government took care of the inhabitants of Traileti a part of them went back to their native lands.

There were Urums with Georgian self knowledge between Turkish migrants who had changed their surnames like Grecians. Nearly every inhabitant who joined the population of Georgian Urums became Grecians which meant changes of their surnames although there still remained some Georgians who had not changed surnames and kept their old Georgian surnames but soon they had become Grecians by their self knowledge.?(Their surnames will be noticed at the end of the book) The created social, economical or political conditions were the main reason of Georgians' becoming Greek in province of Tbilisi. For example nearly ten hectare of lands were given to the migrants but not to the inhabitants except this migrants were given financial sources by Russian government. They were also free from taxes during the years and were given some more privileges for example who would like to get food had to become Grecian.

After Russian government helped Grecian migrants in Tsintskaro soon economically weak or decayed Georgians found themselves under the influence of the migrants and became Greeks. By 1812 year we meet surnames like: Azarashvili, Ioanidze, Besalashvili, Lazarashvili, Abramashvili, Elefterishvili, Iosebashvili, Amiranashvili, Nikolashvili, Vasilisshvili, Petriashvili, Mikheilisshvili, Tevdoreshvili, Estatesshvili, Tomsashvili, Pavlishvili, Svimonashvili, Giorgishvili, Martvelishvili, Stefanesshvili.

By 1822-1855 years we meet surnames like: Kaladze, Arishvili, Bosanashvili, Baratovi, Naniashvili, Feriashvili, Gogolashvili, Sepiashvili, Aslanishvili, Alamazashvili and others.

By 1873 Georgian surnames are changed and the owners of them are becoming Greeks for example since 1886 Tevdorashvili is Tevdorogli but nowadays they are Fedorov…?Kartvelishvili is Gurjievi… Having archives we are able to see how Georgian population lost their surnames and language on their own land.

There were only four of Georgian families by 1873 but they were counted as Grecians in the portray of 1886 year. There is peasant origin in the column of origin and tribe as they tried to lose their trace. There are Georgian Families who live with Georgian surnames although they count themselves as Grecians. These surnames are: Baratashvili (baratovi), Sakalidze, Kekelashvili, Tofuridze.

A part of Georgians met the migrants on their own territory but the most of them recognized themselves as Grecians. Above mentioned surnames know that their ancestors are Georgians. Ilia the son of George Damoev told us that they are Georgians as their first surname was Petriashvili although when it started the period of changing surnames they became Damoevs. Mate the son of Vlas Gurjiev says: “Nowadays there are living Damoevs in the village of Tsintskaro also they can be found in the region of Tsalka.” They are the same Georgians with the same origin. I remember ancestors, grandfathers and grandmothers who were becoming Georgians…?There are Georgians like: Maisuradze, Jamelashvili and Furceladze. A part of Furceladze are Georgians but the others have become Grecians and are Ergishev. Once upon a time Velispiri was named as Erkushaant village so the surname comes from it like Erkushevi, Ergushevi. There can even be such a condition that one brother might be Georgian and another Grecian. How could it be? The question is answered by our respondent. He says: ?Grecians who were exiled in Georgia were helped by the government of King giving some economical resources, sugar, flour, soap, match, salt and other kind of required subject?. In case to receive the help Furceladze and others changed their surnames and nationality. Beruashvili is Georgian surname although there are Berovs with Grecian Naitonality in Velispireti. Everything was clear after the talk with them as they told us that they had changed their surname and nationality at the beginning of XX century…There was also another Georgian surname like Tetradze who had come from the village Gomareti although after they had been mixed with Grecians they were called ?Gurjs? which means Georgian in Turkish. So the story of Gurjievs' surname starts from here but the second story is connected to the surname of Kartvelishvili…There is also a thought that surname Gurjiev comes from Berdzenishvili… How should it happen that Georgians on their own land became the member of the other ethnic group. The banishment was provided by Russian government with the special conditions…?The exiled population were given lands and made them free from taxes…?By Fedia Kilingarova's story his grandfather accidently killed a man…?Chedilashvils who are from Ofreti did not changed their surnames but are counted as Grecians…?There are 4 families of Zazashvili who are Zazavs and are counted as Greeks although they have still kept their native language. Kaladzes'(Kaliachovs) had the second surname like Garibadze. Kaliachevs are also counted as Greeks. There are a part of Georgians and a part of Greeks among Lazarishvils. There could also be found Lazarovs who had changed the surname but remained Georgian. The main reason of changing the surnames and becoming Grecian was the given food-stuffs.

There were Georgian priests for a long time in the church of Rekhels (which was reconstructed in 1877year). In the XX century Georgian priest Darchia was changed by the Grecian priest who himself started to multiply the perish. Grecian priest promised the perish that in case of changing the nationality or surname he would give them the best life providing them with rice, soap and other food-stuffs.

Georgians were counted as politically unreliable people by Russian government consequently they tried to have faithful people on the frontier border like Armenians or Grecians. This was also the reason of becoming Grecian or Gregorian but nevertheless the main reason of Georgians denationalization was the lack of national self-knowledge and self-consciousness in XIX century.

Changed Surnames

As it was mentioned before the main part of Georgians became Grecians in Ottoman Empire concretely they were orthodox population who had been under the control of Constantinople patriarchate by the rule of Ottoman Empire. Conquering Meskheti a lot of perish became under the control of Constantinople as Meskheti (with Guria) was a big country. Except this Georgians ethnical banishment border was up to Euphrates. The same can be mentioned about Lazistan which was also inhabited by Georgian tribes. The surnames which were changed on the territory of Ottoman Empire are unknown although Georgians who became Grecian on the territory of Province Tbilisi are known better. A part of the surnames are well studied concretely population of Tsintskaro, Rekha and others. In fact these materials are crude and unstudied but by way of an exception can be mentioned works of Akhuashvili: ?Ethnic of Kvemo Kartli in historian aspect?, ?Grecian settlements in Kvemo Kartli?. Using these works we extracted the surnames of Georgians who had become Grecians. (At first we wrote the old surnames and then the new ones.)

Aridashvili-Aridashvili-Ardaogli-Arudovi?Aslanishvili-Aslanovi?Aslamazashvili-Aslamazovi?Aivazashvili-Aivazovi?Anesishvili-Amosovi?Amanatashvili-Amanatovi-Trapuntovi?Baratashvili-Danachievi-Baratovi?Balabanishvili-Balabanovi?Berdzenishvili-Gurjievi?Bostanashvili-Bostanchogli-Bostanjievi?Beruashvili- Berovi?Bichiashvili-Bidjoevi?Gabashvili-Gabaogli?Giorgashvili-Giorgiogli?Gigolashvili-Gigolovi?Vakhtangishvili?(Has not changed the surname. Nationality-Grecian)?Zazashvili-Zazovi?Tevdorashvili-Tevdorogli-Fedorovi-Anozovi?Tofuridze?- (Has not changed the surname. Nationality-Grecian)?Tomashvili-Tomazovi?Tetradze-Gurjievi (II)?Tatarashvili-Tatarogli-Tatarovi?Iordanashvili-Chulfaevi?Isanamishvili-Simonovi?Isakidze-Fakhorovi?Kaladze-Kalaichogli-Kalaichevi?Kostanashvili-Kostanovi?Kekelishvili (Has not changed the surname. Nationality-Grecian)?Lazarishvili-Lazarogli-Lazaridi?Mazmanishvili-Mazminogli-Mazmudovi?Murmanishvili-Murmanovi?Muradashvili-Muradogli-Muradovi?Mirzashvili-Mirzaogli-Mirzoevi?Merabishvili-Marabogli-Marabovi?Nikolasshvili-Nikolaogli?Nikoladze-Nikodmovi?Petriashvili-Petreogli-Dimoevi?Sakalidze (Has not changed the surname. Nationality- Grecian)?Sefiashvili-Sefianovi?Sabadze (Has not changed the surname)?Uflisashvili-Uflaogli-Plizologli?Farajanashvili-Faraogli-Farajanovi?Feriashvili-Feriogli-Karaqlevi?Furceladze-Ergishevi?Falavandishvili-Falavandogli-Paflenovi?Kartvelishvili-Gurjievi (III)?Gviniashvili-Khristoforov?Karajashvili-Karajaogli-Karjievi?Chedilashvili (Has not changed the surname)?Kechinashvili-Khechinovi?Khamajagashvili-Khamajagovi-Chilfievi?Jaliashvili-Kilinkarovi?Javarashvili-Javaraogli

The list is incomplete.

As it was mentioned before Urums who were living in Erzurum and Gumishkhane and who were exiled in Georgia had never known Greek as they were not ethnically Grecians. Their native language had always been Georgian although during Ottoman Empire control they gradually lost it and got accustomed to Turkish. It should be mentioned that they tried to teach them Grecian giving them some lessons in Greek language by the initiative of Tbilisi University in 1980 years.

We should say much more about Georgian Orthodox perish as it is interesting why they were called as Greeks by Mohammedans and not only by them even Europeans called them in this way. Mohammedans frequently differed people not by the ethnic way but by the religion.

All the Christians I mean perish of “Grecian” religion were counted as Greeks by them, consequently, till the creation of Ottoman Empire Georgian Kings were officially called as “Descendent of Grecians” by Egyptian sultans. This kind of title can also be translated as “son of Grecians and sword of Greeks”

After the ecclesiastical split Georgians supported Greeks and were solid protectors of Grecian orthodox traditions, consequently, Europeans called them “Greeks” and the members of the Grecian church. The same can be emphasized about Ottoman Empire as all the orthodox perish, Georgian and even not Georgian was called as Grecians there.

1990, Borjomi