A second Georgian tribal union emerged in the 13 th century BC on the Black Sea coast under the Kingdom of Colchis in western Georgia. The ancient Greeks knew of Colchis, and it featured in the Greek legend of Jason and the Argonauts, who travelled there in search of the Golden Fleece. Starting around 2000 BC, northwestern Colchis was inhabited by the Svan and Zan peoples of the Kartvelian tribes. Another important ethnic element of ancient Colchis were Greeks who between 1000 and 550 BC established many trading colonies in the coastal area, among them Naessus, Pitiys, Dioscurias, Guenos, Phasis (modern Poti), Apsaros, and Rhizos (modern Rize in Turkey). In the eastern part of Georgia there was a struggle for the leadership among the various Georgian confederations during the 6th – 4th centuries BC which was finally won by the Kartlian tribes from the region of Mtskheta. According to the Georgian tradition, the Kingdom of Kartli (known as Iberia in the Greek-Roman literature) was founded around 300 BC by Parnavaz I, the first ruler of the Parnavazid dynasty.

 

 

Between 653 and 333 BC, both Colchis and Iberia survived successive invasions by the Median Empire, and later the Persian Empire. At the end of the 3d century B.C southern Iberia witnessed the invading armies of Alexander the Great, who established a vast Greco-Macedonian empire to the south of the Caucasus. Neither Iberia nor Colchis were incorporated into the empire of Alexander or any of the successor Hellenistic states of the Middle East. However, the culture of ancient Greece still had a considerable influence on the region, and Greek was widely spoken in the cities of Colchis. In Iberia Greek influence was less noticeable and Aramaic was widely spoken.

 

                  Colchian coins, 4th c BC

Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia 600-150 BC, Andrew Andersen    

 

Between the early 2nd century BC and the late 2nd century A.D. both Colchis and Iberia, together with the neighboring countries, become an arena of long and devastating conflicts between major and local powers such as Rome, Armenia and the short-lived Kingdom of Pontus. In 189 BC the rapidly growing Kingdom of Armenia took over more than half of Iberia, conquering the southern and southeastern provinces of Gogharena, Taokhia and Genyokhiaas, as well as some other territories. Between 120 and 63 BC, Armenia’s ally Mithridate VI Eupator of Pontus, conquered all of Colchis and incorporated it into his kingdom, embracing almost all of Asia Minor as well as the eastern and northern Black Sea coastal areas.

 

Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest history, stretching back to the prehistoric times. The rise of the early Georgian states of Colchis and Iberia in c.2000 BC formed the unique Georgian civilization which achieved its renaissance and golden age in 12-13th century. The history of Georgia was marked by invasions and subjugation by foreign empires. However, throughout the long history of turmoil, the Georgian statehood and the Georgian nation has endured and preserved its national identity.

The region was settled sometime between 6000 and 5000 B.C. by a neolithic culture. Numerous excavations in tell settlements of the "Sulaveri-Somutepe-Group" have been conducted since the 1960s. In the 1970s, archaeological excavations revealed a number of ancient settlements that included houses with galleries, carbon-dated to the 5th millennium BC in the Imiris-gora region of Eastern Georgia. These dwellings were circular or oval in plan, a characteristic feature being the central pier and chimney. These features were used and further developed in building Georgian dwellings and houses of the 'Darbazi' type. In the chalcolithic era of the fourth and third millennia B.C., Georgia and Asia Minor were home to the Kura-Araxes culture, giving way in the second millennium BC. to the Trialeti culture. Archaeological excavations have brought to light the remains of settlements at Beshtasheni and Ozni (4th - 3rd millennium BC), and barrow burials (carbon dated to the 2nd millennium BC) in the province of Trialeti, at Tsalka (Eastern Georgia). Together, they testify to an advanced and well-developed culture of building and architecture.

Between 2100 and 750 B.C., the area survived the invasions by the Hittites, Urartians, Medes, Proto-Persians and Cimmerians. At the same period, the ethnic unity of Proto-Kartvelians broke up into several branches, among them Svans, Zans/Chans and East-Kartvelians. That finally led to the formation of modern Kartvelian languages: Georgian (originating from East Kartvelian vernaculars), Svan, Megrelian and Laz (the latter two originating from Zan dialects). By that time Svans were dominant in modern Svanetia and Abkhazia, Zans inhabited modern Georgian province of Samegrelo, while East-Kartvelians formed the majority in modern eastern Georgia. As a result of cultural and geographic delimitation, two core areas of future Georgian culture and statehood formed in western and eastern Georgia by the end of the 8th century B.C. The first two Georgian states emerged in the west known as the Kingdom of Colchis and in the east as Kingdom of Iberia.

Beginning in the early 1990s, a few hominid remains were found, but the most informative specimens are three well-preserved crania, the most recently discovered (in 2001) being almost complete (see photos). These remains (all dated to approximately 1.8 m.y.a.) are important because they are the best preserved hominids of this antiquity found anywhere outside of Africa. Moreover, they show a mixed pattern of characteristics, some quite unexpected.

In some respects the Dmanisi crania are similar to H. erectus (for example, the long, low vault, wide base, and thickening along the sagittal midline). In other characteristics, however, the Dmanisi individuals are different from other hominid finds outside of Africa. In particular, the most complete specimen (No. 2700) has a less robust and thinner browridge, a projecting lower face, and a large upper canine. Thus, at least from the front, this skull is highly reminiscent of the smaller early Homo specimens from East Africa more so than of Homo erectus. Moreover, cranial capacity if this individual is very small (estimated at only 600 cm3 , well within the range of early Homo). In fact, all three Dmanisi crania show small cranial capacities (the other two estimated at 650 and 780 cm3).

 

Homo erectus from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia
Photos courtesy of Professor David Lordkipanidze, Deputy Director, Georgian State Museum

 

A number of stone tools have also been recovered at Dmanisi. The tools are similar to early African implements and are quite different from the ostensibly more advanced technology of the Acheulian (the latter broadly associated with H. erectus in much of the Old World).

From these recent, somewhat startling revelations from Dmanisi several questions can be raised:

    1) Was Homo erectus the first hominid to leave Africa -- or was it an earlier form of Homo?

    2) Did hominids require a large brain and sophisticated stone-tool culture to disperse out of Africa?

    3) Was the large, robust body build of H. erectus a necessary adaptation to disperse initially into Eurasia.

    4) Did, in fact, H. erectus evolve primarily in Eurasia and then migrate back to Africa?

Of course, the Dmanisi discoveries are very new, so any conclusions we draw must be seen as highly tentative. Nevertheless, the recent evidence raises important and exciting possibilities. In regards to Question 1, it now seems likely the first trans-continental hominid migrants were a form of early Homo (similar to the smaller East African species, Homo habilis). At best, and as exemplified at Dmanisi, the first hominids to leave Africa were a very early form of H. erectus, one much more primitive than any of the other specimens from Africa, Asia, or Europe discussed above.

As for question 2, certainly the smaller individuals from Dmanisi did not have a large brain (by H. erectus standards), nor did they have an advanced stone tool culture (possessing tools very similar to the earliest ones from East and South Africa).

Question 3 concerns body size and proportions, but is more speculative than the two above queries. Very little postcranial material has been found thus far at Dmanisi, so we do not know as yet the body structure of the earliest hominids to leave Africa. It is possible, however, that the overall body proportions (as with the face of the smallest Dmanisi cranium) resemble Homo habilis more than they do H. erectus. Thus, these first pioneers to leave Africa may have been, in the words of Phillip Rightmire (of the University of Binghamton and a co-author of the first article announcing the 2001 Dmanisi discovery), ‘little people.” That is, they may have been very different from the big-bodied, long-legged, full-blown H. erectus body plan.

And, lastly, where did the full-blown H. erectus morphology first evolve? For decades it has been widely assumed H. erectus evolved first in Africa and then emigrated to elsewhere in the Old World. Hence, now the teasing possibility exists that H. erectus evolved primarily in Eurasia and (only after attaining its fully characteristic morphology) did it migrate back into Africa (as perhaps the Bouri cranium, dated to 1 m.y.a. suggests?).


by Robert Jurmain, San Jose State University