Georgians are believed to derive from indigenous inhabitants of the Caucasus. Historical and archeological evidence indicates that humans inhabited this region since primordial times. The oldest traces of human habitation, dating back 1.77 million years, were found near Dmanisi, in eastern Georgia, and provided tantalizing insights into the development of homo erectus. In the later periods, humans settled in the Trancaucasian region more frequently and ancient stations were found throughout the country, notably at Yashtkhva, Rukhi, Katskhi and Lashebalta. During the Mousterian period (100,000 to 35,000 years ago), the human population grew on the Black Sea coast and in the Rioni-Kvirila basin, where archeologists found traces of human habitation in the Jruchi, Sagvarjile and Chakhati caves. Late Paleolithic period stations were unearthed at Devis Khvreli and Sakazhia, and the discoveries from the Neolithic era were made at Anaseuli, Gurianta, Khutsubani, Odishi, Kistriki, Zemo Alvani, etc.


Rise of Societies And States

Between ca. 11000 and 9000 BCE, hunters and gatherers established permanent settlements in Southern Caucasia. In the Chalcolithic period (ca. 6400–3800 BCE), Shulaveri-Shomu culture flourished using obsidian for tools, raising animals and growing crops, including grapes. The fourth and third millennia BCE saw gradual development of agriculture and cattle breeding. From ca. 4000 to 2200 BCE, the Kura-Araxes (Early Transcaucasian) culture pervaded Southern Caucasia and the Armenian Plateau, producing distinctive handmade pottery with burnished black exteriors and red interiors, portable andirons of clay and new kinds of bronze tools and weapons. It gradually broke up but survived in some places until as late as ca. 1500 BCE. In the Bronze Age, several highly developed cultures developed on the territory of Georgia that are represented in the large barrows in Trialeti (ca.2200-1500) which produced four-wheeled wooden carriages, precious goblets and silverware.

At the end of the third millennium, the Hittites established their state in eastern Anatolia and had considerable influence on the neighboring proto-Georgian tribes. Two major cultures existed on the territory of Georgia, the Western Georgian, also known as Colchian (Kolkhuri) and the Eastern Georgian or Iberian. There was also a number of proto-Georgian tribes in Asia Minor which had close interaction with major powers of the ancient Near East, especially with the Hittites and Assyria. Assyrian inscriptions from the 11th century BCE describe proto-Georgian tribes of Kashkai, Mushki and Tubal that lived in eastern Anatolia. Georgian tribes of the early Bronze Age were well known for their sophisticated metallurgy. The Bible makes mention of Thubals/Tubalcain as one of the pioneers in metalworking.

The increasing sophistication of these early Georgian cultures led to the emergence of the tribal confederations of Diauchi (Diauehi, Daiaeni, Tao) and Colchis (Kolkha) at the end of the second millennium BCE in southwestern and western Georgia respectively. Diaochi was engaged in a war with the powerful kingdoms of Assyria and Urartu and the inscriptions of the Urartu kings Menua (ruled 810-786 BCE) and Argishti (786-764) reveal the wealth and power of this early confederation. In his Odyssey, Homer mentions King Aietes and his mighty kingdom of Colchis while Apollonius of Rhodes, in his Argonautica of the third century BCE, left a detailed account of the legendary expedition of Argonauts to seize the famed Golden Fleece.

In the mid-eighth century BCE, the Diaochi confederation was destroyed and part of its territory was annexed by the neighboring Colchis, which now found itself facing the hostile Urartu. The Urartian King Sardur II (764-735) led several campaigns against Colchis around 750-741 BCE, significantly weakening and exposing it to the attacks of northern tribes. By 720 BCE, the Cimmerian incursions from the north destroyed Colchis and significantly affected local society and culture. Some Georgian tribes were scattered into remote regions of south Caucasia and others found themselves subjected by the Medes and Persians. In the subsequent century, new tribal confederations were established, the most important of them being Speri (Sasperi) in the upper reaches of the Chorokhi River and the new kingdom of Colchis, known as Egrisi, in Western Georgia. Egrisi enjoyed close relations with the newly established Greek colonies - Phasis (in the vicinity of present-day Poti), Gyenos (Ochamchire), Dioscurias (Sukhumi), Anakopia (Akhali Atoni) and Pitius (Bichvinta) - on the Black Sea coast and the Greek sources provide fascinating insights into ancient Western Georgian society. Excavations at Vani, Dablagomi and Sairkhe in western Georgia revealed a sophisticated and urbanized society which struck its own silver coins known as the Colchian white (kolkhuri tetri) that were widely circulated in the Transcaucasia.

By the seventh century BCE, the Georgian principalities were affected by the rise of powerful Median and later Persian kingdoms. Herodotus informs us that the proto-Georgian tribes of Tibarenes, Mossinikoi, Macrones, Moschi, and others made up the 18th and 19th satrapies of the Achaemenid Persia. While most Persian subjects paid taxes, Colchians were exempt from them but delivered a tribute of 200 girls and boys every five years. The Greek and Persian presence in the Transcaucasia exposed Georgian societies to thriving commerce, economic and commercial ties with other regions and considerably affected the socio-economic development of the region. The period saw the consolidation of Eastern Georgia (Iberia) and the migration of some Georgian tribes, the most important of them being Moschi/Meskhi from the Asia Minor, which settled in the central Kartli and founded the future Iberian capital of Mtskheta (city of Meskhi). By the time the famous Greek general Xenophon marched with his 10,000 soldiers through Asia Minor in 401-400 BCE, the Colchians and other proto-Georgian tribes had freed themselves from the Persians. Xenophon’s Anabasis described in detail the tribes of Chalybes, Taochi, Phasians, Mossynoeci and others the Greeks encountered. These proto-Georgians lived in communal societies and often warred with one another.


Historical Dictionary of Georgia
by Alexander Mikaberidze (Author)
Series: Historical Dictionaries of Europe (Book 50)
Hardcover: 784 pages
Publisher: Scarecrow Press (March 16, 2007)
Language: English
ISBN-13: 978-0810855809
ISBN-10: 0810855801

BASIC LAW (CONSTITUTION) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia (The Constitution was adopted and enacted by the Third Session of the Third Convocation of the CEC of the Abkhaz SSR on 27 October 1926;  the text was approved, without changes at the Forth Congress of Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR on 7 march 1927)
Chapter one
General Provisions
(...)
2.  The Republic of Abkhazia is a socialist state of Workers and peasants united on the basis of Union Treaty with the Georgian SSR, enters Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic though the Georgian SSR and as a member of latter, the USSR.
3. The Supreme power of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia belongs to the Congress of Soviets of Workers’, Peasants’ and Red Army Deputies of Abkhazia, and, in periods between the convocation of the congress, to the Soviet Central Executive Committee of Abkhazia.
4. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia exercises independent state authority on its territory outside of spheres specified for in the Union Treaty with the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgian and listed in the Constitutions of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and of the Georgian SSR.
5. The territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia may not be altered without its consent.
6. The citizens of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, retaining the citizenship of the Republic, at the same time are the citizens of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic.  All rights and responsibilities established for the citizens of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia by this Constitution and the laws of the  Republic, shall apply to the citizens of other Union Soviet Republics being on the territory of the Soviet Republic of Abkhazia.
Proceeding from the solidarity of workers of all countries and nations, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia secures the rights of foreigners belonging to the working class, residing on its territory for working purposes, as well as of farmers not using the others’ labour.
7. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia recognizes the equal rights of citizens irrespective of race or nationality, any direct or indirect limitation of the rights of citizens or establishment of any privileges on grounds of race or nationality, or any discrimination of national minorities or restriction their equality shall be deemed as violation of the laws of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
8. The languages of state institutions on the territory of Abkhaz SSR  are: Abkhaz, Georgian and Russian.
Note 1. All the nationalities of the USSR shall be secured the right to develop and use freely their native language in national-cultural, as well as in state organizations.
Note 2. The language for administrative- territorial entities (Districts, counties, rural settlements) shall be determined by the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
Chapter II
The relations between the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia on the basis of Union Treaty
17. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, enters the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia on the basis of Union Treaty and through the Georgian SSR it  enters the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
18. The representatives of Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall take part in the All-Georgian Congress of Soviets on the basis of following norm: one deputy for 10 000 inhabitants from the places where the Soviets are elected on the basis of number of population, and one deputy for 2000 voters from the places where the Soviets are elected on the basis of number of constituency.
19.  All-Georgian Congress of Soviets shall elect the representatives of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia to the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia; number of representatives shall be determined by the All-Georgian Congress of Soviets.
20. The Congress of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the Central Executive Committee and its presidium, as well as the organs of local authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be organized in conformity to the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
21. The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall appoint the Council of People’s Commissars of Abkhazia consisting of the Chairman, the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Public Economy and People’s Commissars leading the following commissariats: Internal Affairs, justice, Education, health-care, Agriculture, and Social Protection.  Upon the decision of the Central Executive Committee of Abkhazia, the Council of People’s Commissars also shall include the plenipotentiary representatives (with deliberative or casting vote) of People’s Commissariats of Finance, Labour and Worker’s and Peasants’ Inspectorate of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
The people’s Commissariats of Internal Affairs, justice, Education, health-Care, Agriculture and Social Security shall be independent in their activity from the relevant People’s Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and inform each other about their activity.
The Supreme Council of Public Economy is subordinate to the Central Executive Committee and the Council of people’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and executes the directives of the Supreme Council of public Economy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
The plenipotentiary representatives of the People’s Commissariats of Finance, labour and Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate are under direct subordination of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and the shall submit the reports on their activity to the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
22. The organs of state authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall have the right to issue the legal acts biding on the territory of the Republic on the matters outside of joint state management (Internal Affairs, Justice, Education, health-care, Agriculture and Social Security).
The Codes, Decrees and Decisions adopted by the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia applied to the entire territory of the Georgian SSR, shall be binding on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia; for the purpose of developing the said acts, the supreme organs of state authority of the Abkhaz SSR may issue the legal acts that are binding on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
23. In the matters of common (Finance, Labour and Workers’ and peasants’ Inspectorate) and joint (Public Economy) management, all decrees and ordinances issued by the Central Executive Committee, its Presidium and the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall have the binding force on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia; within the sphere of joint state management the supreme organs of state authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall have the right to issue the legal acts aimed at developing the legal acts of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia; those acts shall be binding on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
24. All-Georgian Congress of Soviets and the Central Executive committee of All-Georgia shall have the right to revoke the Resolutions of the Congress of Soviets, Central Executive Committee and of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia that contravene to the provisions specified for in Chapter II of this Constitution.
25. The Budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, approved by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is a constituent part of the All-state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia subject to approval of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia.
All local revenues and expenditures on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be consolidated into the local budget on the basis of All-Union and Trans-Caucasus SFSR legislation.
Chapter III.
Jurisdiction of the Congress of Soviets and the Central
Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
26. The following matters under the sole jurisdiction of the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia:
a) determination, addition and amendment of the basic principles to the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, final approval of partial changes to the Constitution adopted by the Central Executive Committee in the period between the Congress of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
b) Deciding the issues on changing the boundaries of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
27. The issues of common character are under the jurisdiction of the Congress of Soviets and the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, except those that are under the jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and the Georgian SSR in conformity to the Union and TCSFSR Constitutions and Chapter Two of this Constitution.
The jurisdiction of the Congress of Soviets and the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall cover:
a) General management of internal policy and public economy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
b) Administrative division of the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
c) Establishment of the bases for the public economy and certain branches on the territory of the Soviet socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
d) Determination of taxes and duties established by the fiscal legislation;
e) The right of amnesty of the territory of Abkhaz SSR, as well as the right of pardon and rehabilitation of citizens convicted by courts and administrative agencies of the Republic;
f) The right to suspend the decisions of the District Congress of Soviets and their executive committees that violate this constitution and the legislation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia currently in force;
g) All the matter the Congress of Soviets and the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia deem necessary to be considered.
29. Besides the matters listed above the Congress of Soviets and the central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia are authorized to deal with other issues in conformity to the Constitutions and legislation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
29. The Decisions adopted by the highest organs of state authority of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic and the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the limit of their jurisdiction, as well as the legal acts of supreme organs of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall be binding on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia in conformity to Chapter II of this Constitution.  No other organs, except the Congress of Soviets and the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, and in certain cases the presidium of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars, have the right to issue the legal acts of all-state significance on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
Chapter IV
Organization of Soviet Power The Congress of
Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
30. Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is composed of representatives of the District Congresses of Soviets on the basis of following norm: one deputy for 1000 inhabitants from the places where the Soviets are elected on the basis of number of population, and one deputy for 2000 voters from the places where the Soviets are elected on the basis of number of constituency.
31. The Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia elects the Central Executive Committee; the number of members to the Central Executive Committee of Abkhazia shall be determined by the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
32. The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia convens the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia once a year.
Note: in the vent of special circumstances impeding the convocation of the Congress, the Central Executive Committee has the right to postpone the convocation of the Congress.
33. The Special Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be convoked by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia upon its own initiative or at a request of the local Soviets and Congresses of Soviets having not less than one-third of the entire population of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
b) The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
34. The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is the supreme legislative, executive and controlling organ of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
35. The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, within the limits of its competence specified for in Chapter II of this Constitution, has the right to issue Cods, Decrees and Decisions upon its own initiative, consider and approve the draft-laws submitted by the Council of People’s Commissars.
36. All of Decrees and Decisions specifying the common norms of political and economic life of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, the state budget of Abkhazia and the acts introducing the substantial changes to the established practice of the organs of state authority shall be considered and approved by the Central Executive Committee.
37. The Central Executive Committee shall direct in a general way the activity of the Workers’ and Peasants’ government and of all organs of the soviet authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, and it shall coordinate and regulate the operation of the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the Resolutions of the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as of the decisions of the supreme organs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and of the Georgian SSR specified for under Chapter Two of this Constitution.
40. The Central Executive Committee elects the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee and determines the sphere of its activity.
42. In period between the convocation of the sessions of the Central Executive Committee, the Presidium it the supreme legislative, executive and controlling organ of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
43. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee issues the decrees, decisions and ordinances on behalf of the Central executive Committee, approves the draft-laws submitted by the Council of People’s Commissars for consideration.
44. The Presidium of Central Executive Committee shall observe the implementation of the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and all of the Resolutions of the Congresses of Soviets and of the Central Executive Committee by all organs of state authority; it represents the highest organ in the centre and at the local levels.
45. In the period between the convocation of sessions, the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee has the right to appoint the individual People’s Commissars upon recommendation of the Council of People’s Commissars subject to consequent approval by the Central Executive Committee, as well as of other officials of supreme organs appointment of which is a competence of the Central Executive Committee.
46. The presidium of the Central Executive Committee has the right to consider the petition on pardon and rehabilitation in political rights.
47. The presidium of the Central Executive Committee has the right to suspend and revoke the decisions and ordinances issued by the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as of the People’s Commissars, Central  and District organs of state authority and district executive committees, and the decisions adopted by the District Congresses of Soviets.
48. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee resolves the disputes between the central and local organs of state authority.
c) The Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
50. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is the executive and administrative organ of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia; The Council of People’s Commissars is entrusted with the general management of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
52. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, within the limits of its rights determined by the Central Executive Committee and operating on the basis of Regulations on the Council of People’s Commissars, has the right to issue decrees and decisions that are binding on the entire territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
53. The Republican Economic Forum shall be established at the Council of People’s Commissars, which operates on the basis of special Regulations for directing the economic policy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and represents the organ under direct subordination to the Supreme Economic Council of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR.
54.  The Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is responsible to the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and its Presidium.
d) The People’s Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
55. For the purpose of direct administration of certain branches of the state management within the competence of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the following People’s Commissariats shall be formed: Internal Affairs, Justice, Education, health-Care, Agriculture, Social Security and the Supreme Council of Public Economy operating on the basis of special Regulations established for them.
56. The People’s Commissariats are led by the People’s Commissars, who are the members of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
59. The People’s Commissars and the Board (panel) at the People’s Commissariats are entirely responsible to the Council of People’s Commissars, the Central Executive Committee and its Presidium.
60. The relation of the Supreme Council of Public Economy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and the plenipotentiary representatives of the People’s Commissariats of Finance, Labour, and the Workers’ and peasants Inspectorate of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia with the corresponding Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and the Supreme organs of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is determined under Article 21 of this Constitution.
61. The Orders of the People’s Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia may be revoked by the Central Executive Committee, its Presidium and the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.  The Ordinances of the Supreme Council of Public Economy and of the Plenipotentiary Representatives of the People’s Commissariats of Finance, Labour and Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate may be revoked: with regard of the Supreme Council of Public Economy by the Supreme Council of Public Economy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia if they are not based on the instruction of the Central Executive Committee, its presidium or the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia; with regard of Plenipotentiary representatives of the People’s Commissariats of Finance, labour and Workers’ and peasants’ Inspectorate they may be revoked by the relevant peoples’ Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia if those ordinances contravene to the directives or legislation on common and joint management.
d) Local organs of state authority: District Congress of Soviets, District Executive Committees and the Soviets of Deputies and their executive organs
62. The District Congress of Soviets is the Supreme Organ of state authority on the territory of District; in the period between convocation of Congress the District Executive Committee is the supreme organ of state authority.
69. For the purpose of direct management of certain branches on the territory of District, the District Executive Committees form the Department; the structure and competence of those departments shall be determined by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
70.  The Departments of the District Executive Committee are under direct subordination of the District Executive Committee and its Presidium; they are obliged to execute all of the instructions and orders of the district executive committee and its Presidium, as well as of the relevant People’s Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and of the Plenipotentiary Representatives of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and of the Plenipotentiary Representatives of the People’s Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
f) The Courts and Procurator
79. For the purpose of legal protection of the Workers’ and peasants’ State and for strengthening the revolutionary justice and protection of the public order, as well as for securing the economic interests of the state and working masses, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia forms the unified system of the People’s Court and the Procurator’s Office operating on the basis of procedural rules basic principles of which are determined by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
80. The judicial organs and the Procurator shall be guided by the civil and criminal legislation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, and in relevant cases in accordance to this Constitution and the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia based on the principles established by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, and in conformity to the laws operating on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia; in the event of lack of such legislation, in conformity to the common spirit of the Soviet legislation and the interests of the Workers’ and Peasants’ state.
Chapter VI
Budgetary Rights of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
90. The state revenue and expenditure of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia are combined in the state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
91. The state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, after consideration by the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, shall be approved by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia or its presidium.
92.  The state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is a part of the budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and it shall be approved by the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia as a constituent part of the All-state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
93. The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, within the limits established by the All-Union and Trans-Caucasus fiscal legislation and legal acts having the binding force on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia on the basis of this Constitution, shall establish the rules for drafting, examination, approval and execution of the state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
94. The revenue sources of the state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as the expenditure of this budget shall be determined in pursuance to the legislation of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR within the limits established by the All-Union legislation.
95. All taxes and duties on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be introduced in conformity to the All-Union legislation.
98. All local revenues and expenditures are combined in the local budgets in conformity to the All-Union and Trans-Caucasus SFSR legislation and to the legal acts issued by the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia for development of the aforementioned legislation.  The rules for drafting, examination, approval and execution of the local budget shall be established on the basis of same order.
100. The reports on implementation of the budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be approved by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
Chapter VII.
The Coat of Arms, Flag and Capital City of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
101. The coat of arms of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia consists of the background with the landscape of Abkhazia on which a golden scythe and hammer are places.  On the top there is a five-pointed star in sun-rays. The coat of arms is surrounded by corn, tobacco and grape wreath inscribes in three languages, Abkhaz, Georgian and Russian: „Abkhaz SSR“ and „Workers pf all the Countries, Unite!“
102. The state flag of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia consists of red cloth or purple linen, in the left top corner of which are placed scythe and hammer and above them the five-pointed star surrounded with a golden swath, inscribed four letters: ASSR. The size 1:2.
103. The capital of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is city of Sukhum.
27 October 1926
(The Congresses of Soviets of the USSR, Union and Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics, v. 6., p. 711-729)


INSTRUCTION on elections of the Workers, Peasants and Red Army deputies and on con-
vocation of the Congresses of the Soviets
10. The following electoral commissions will be set up for the Soviet Elections:
a) Central Electoral Commission;
b) Electoral Commissions of the Union Republic of Abkhazia, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
(…)
11. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee shall act in a capacity of the Central Electoral Commission in order to lead the elections in the whole of the Republic.  This Commission consists of 17 members.  It shall include: Chairman and the representatives of the Central Executive Committee; representatives from the Trade Union Council; representative of the Young Leninian’s Communist Union (Komsomol), representative of the Women’s Department of the Communist Party of Georgia, representative of the Red Army, representative of the national minorities, workers – engaged in the enterprises, peasants – engaged in agriculture activity.
(…)
12.  The Presidiums of the Central Executive Committees of the Union Republic of Abkhazia, Autonomous Republic of Adjara and Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia represent the electoral commissions.  These commission shall consist of 11 members: Chairman – approved by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia; two representatives from the respective executive committee; one from trade union, one from Komsomol, one from Women’s Local Department; one from respective City Council; one from minorities, one from Red Army and two from Peasants’ Society.  The aforementioned Commission shall operate on the basis of this Instruction.
17.  In Sukhumi, Batumi and Tskhinvali the elections will be organized respectively by the Electoral Commissions of the Union Republic of Abkhazia, Autonomous Republic of Adjara and Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia. The Presidiums of the Executive Committees of the aforementioned entities may set up Electoral Commissions in the mentioned cities for organizing the elections.
19. In the Electoral Precincts of the city Tbilisi the Presidium of Executive committee of Tbilisi shall set up the precinct commissions composed of five members.  The Chairmen of these precincts will be appointed by the Executive Committee of Tbilisi City.  In addition, the Garrison Electoral Commission will be set up upon the same rule for organizing the lections at the military units dislocated there.
Note: The Electoral Commissions may be set up on the basis of the rules specified for in this Article in Sukhumi, Batumi, Poti and in the central towns of the districts by the presidiums of the central executive committees of the Union Republic of Abkhazia,  Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Poti City Executive Committee and the Presidiums of the District Executive Committees respectively.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia S. Todria
22 December 1926
(Collection of Laws and Decrees adopted by the Workers and Peasants Government of the Georgian SSR, N7, 1926, p. 414)

 
1927
EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES N1 OF THE SITTING OF THE SMALL PRESIDIUM IF
THE CEC OF THE TRANS-CAUCASUS
13 January 1927
Heard: on the Supreme Governing Organs of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia (Minutes of the Presidium of the Trans-Caucasus CEC, N 5; 1926); file N 0012/1/18
Decided:
Considering timely the reorganization of the supreme governing organs of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia, comrade Shaverdov shall submit the report on this issue to the relevant governing organ.
Secretary of the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus A. Shaverdov
Authentic with original: Technical assistance of the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR
Khoroshilova (signed)
(CSHANFG, f. 284, desc. I, file 961, p. 1)


DECREE on the City Soviets of the Georgian SSR issued by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR
In accordance with Article 67 of the Constitution of the Georgian SSR the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee Decrees:
2. The City Soviets in Tbilisi, Batumi, Sukhumi, Kutaisi, Chiatura and Gori shall elect the chairman and the Presidium composed of no more than 25 people in Tbilisi and 11 in other cities.
10. The City Soviets shall be elected upon the following rule: in Tbilisi - 1 deputy for 200 electors, in Kutaisi – for 150, in Batumi – for 100, in Sukhumi, Chiatura, Gori, Poti, Khashuri, Borjomi and Samtredia – for 50.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia S. Todria
25 January 1927
(Messenger of the CEC and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia, N 3-4, 1927, p. 5-7)


MINUTES OF THE SEVENTH CONGRESS OF THE WORKERS, PEASANTS AND RED
ARMY DEPUTIES OF SOUTH OSSETIA
12-16 March 1927
Heard:
On unification of North and South Ossetia.
Decided:
8. Expressing the will of the Working Masses of South Ossetia, the Seventh Congress of the Councils of South Ossetia reaffirms the Resolutions of the previous Congresses on unification of the North and South Ossetia.  For better cultural and economic development of the both parts of Ossetia the Congress deems necessary to unite them.  The Congress welcomes the steps made in this direction and not foreseeing the impediments in positive resolution of this issue, entrusts the CEC with the task of working more vigorously for unification of the North and South Ossetia.
Chairman A. Jatiev
Secretary S. Kozaev
(CSHANFG, f. 284, desc.1, file 363, p. 23-30)   


MINUTES N 14 OF THE SITTING OF THE PRESIDIUM OF CEC OF THE TRANS-CAU­CA­-
SUS of 1 June 1927
Heard: 12. On reorganizations of supreme governing organs of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia (Minutes N 21 of the CEC Presidium of the Trans-Caucasus; 18-27) file N 0012/14/13
Decided: to ask the Central Executive Committees of Azerbaijan and Georgia about the reasons of failure in reorganizing the supreme governing organs of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia pursuant to Decree issued by the Presidium of the Trans-Caucasus CEC of 30 March 1926.
Secretary of the Trans-Caucasus CEC (signed)
(CSHANFG, f. 284, desc.I, file 363, p. 23-30)   


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES N 21 OF THE SITTING OF SMALL PRESIDIUM OF THE TRANSCAUCASUS CEC of 15 September 1927
Heard: on reorganization of the supreme governing organs of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia. File N 0012
Decided: To ask the Central Executive Committee of the USSR to retain the existing governing organs in Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia until the next Elections of Soviets due to the complexity of reorganization of the supreme governing organs of the aforementioned Oblasts.
The issue shall be submitted to the governing organ.
Secretary of the Trans-Caucasus CEC
Authentic with original  
(CSHANFG, f. 607, desc. 1, file 754, p. 64)


1928
RESOLUTION on approval of the Regulations of the City Soviets of Workers, Peasants and Red Army Deputies (adopted at the Third Session of the Fourth Convocation of the CEC of Georgia)
The Central Executive committee of Georgia Decrees:
1. To approve and introduce on the whole territory of Georgia the Regulations (attached) of the City Soviets of Workers, Peasants and Red Army Deputies.
5. To propose to the Central Executive Committees of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and the Soviet Socialist Autonomous Republic of Adjara introduce the changes to their legislation that proceed from the Regulations specified for in Article 1 of this Resolution.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the central Executive Committee of All-Georgia Sh. Matikashvili
Batumi, 29 January 1928
(Collection of laws and decrees adopted by the government of the Georgian SSR; N 3, 1928, p. 38)


REGULATIONS of the City Soviets of Workers, Peasants and Red Army Deputies

Chapter 1
General Provisions
1. The Soviets of Workers, Peasants and Red Army Deputies shall be arranged in the cities: Tbilisi, Batumi, Sukhumi, Kutaisi, Gori, Poti, Chiatura, Khashuri, Borjomi and Samtredia on the basis of the following Articles.
38. For the purposes of management, the City Soviets shall elect the chairman and the presidium consisting of not more than 25 members for Tbilisi and not more than 15 members for the other cities; the candidates (Substitutes) to the membership shall be elected in amount of 1/3 of the composition of the Presidium.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia Sh. Matikashvili
29 January 1928
(Collection of laws and decrees adopted by the government of the Georgian SSR, N 3, 1928, p. 38-58)


MINUTES N 3 OF THE SESSION OF THE TRANS-CAUCASUS CEC of 6 February 1928
Chaired by comrade M. Tskhakaia
Attended: Chairman of the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus comrade S. Kasiani; members of the Presidium – comrades A. Shaverdov, M. D. Bagirov, A. Gegechkori, V. Sturua, A Nazaretyan, M. D. Husseinov, and D. Buniat-Zade.
Candidates to the membership of the Presidium: comrades – A. Javakhishvili, E. Torikashvili, A. Ter-Vartanov, V. Mzareulashvili, S. Evoyan.
Secretary of the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus: comrade I. Tagiev
The Secretary of the Trans-Caucasus CEC of the CP (B): comrade M. Orakhelashvili
Secretary of the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus of the CP(B): comrade M. Orakhelashvili
From the organizational committee of the CEC of the CP(B): S. Shaverdov.
Head of Organizational Department of the Trans-Caucasus CEC: comrade Ph. Melnikov
Heard: 2. on reorganization of supreme governing organs of the autonomous oblasts of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia (Protocol N 21 of the Trans-Caucasus CEC Presidium; 1927)
Decided: to propose to the central executive committees of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia to prepare the issue on reorganizations of supreme governing organs of the autonomous oblasts of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia submit it to the next Congress of Soviets.
(CSHANFG, f. 607, desc. 1, file 1900, p. 7)
 

MINUTES N 3 OF THE SITTING OF THE CEC PRESIDIUM OF THE GEORGIAN SOVIET
SOCIALIST REPUBLIC of 6 February 1928
Heard: on reorganization of the supreme governing organs of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia. (Minutes N 21 of the Presidium of the Trans-Caucasus CEC, p.3; 1927)
Decided: Confirming the failure in implementing the Resolutions on reorganization of the supreme governing organs of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia adopted by Trans-Caucasus CEC on 30 March 1926 and 1 June 1927, Central Executive Committees of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall be proposed to implement these Resolution in Autumn of this year in time of elections of the Councils.  They shall elaborate within three months the relevant drafts of the Regulations on the Executive Committees of the aforementioned oblasts of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia and submit them to the Presidium of the Presidium of the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus for preliminary approval.
Secretary of the CEC: (signed)
10 February 1928
Tbilisi, the Palace
(CSHANFG, f. 284, desc. 1, file 961, p. 2)


INSTRUCTION for the activity of the Council of Public Commissars and the Economic Council of the Georgian SSR
(Approved by the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR on 10 April 1928)
(…)
II. Composition of the council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR and of the Economic Council and the officials authorized to participate at the sittings.
(…)
7. The following persons, in addition to the aforementioned ones, are authorized to attend the sittings with the deliberative vote:  
d) The Chairmen of the Central Executive Committees of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia;
e) Chairman of the councils of public commissars of the Abkhaz SSR and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara.
(…)
9.  The persons identified in Articles 4 (6) and of this Instruction are authorized to participate in the sittings of the Economic council of the Georgian SSR with the deliberative vote.
(…)
14. The following organs and persons are authorized to submit the issues for consideration to the Council of Public Commissars and to the Economic Council:
o) The Central Executive Committees and Presidiums, also the councils of public commissars and chairman of the Abkhaz ASSR, Adjarian ASSR and of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
(…)
16. For the purpose of agreement and submission the conclusions and grounded assessments on the drafts, the following terms shall be introduced from the day of submission:
b) two-weeks term from the District Executive Committees and from the Governments of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia if the draft needs agreement of these organs.
(…)
59. The copy of the Sittings of the Council of People’s commissars and of the Economic Council, authorized by a Secretary, shall be sent to the following organs and officials:
d) the Councils of People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz SSR and the Adjarian ASSR, the Central Executive Committee of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and the Executive Committees of Districts of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
(Instruction for the activity of the Council of Public Commissars and the Economic Council of the Georgian SSR. Tbilisi, 1928, p. 3-19)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE SITTING OF THE SMALL PRESIDIUM OF THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE Committee of All-Georgia
Subject to be discussed:
On reorganization of the highest organs of State authority of South Ossetia…
Resolution
To set up commission for elaboration and consideration of this issue consisting of the following members:
1. Comrade Vardzieli (Chairman)
2. Sh. Matikashvili
3. Jatiev
The Commission shall submit the conclusions to the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee not later than within two weeks.
For the Chairman of the CEC – Sturua
Secretary of the CEC – Vardzieli
(…)
25 July 1928
(CSHANFG, f. 284, desc. 1, file 961, p. 8)


REGULATIONS of the Central Statistical Department of the Soviet Socialist Republic of
Georgia
I. General provisions
1. The Central Statistical Department of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall organize the statistic works on the territory of the Georgian SSR, direct, coordinate and control the statistic works provided for the  General Plan of the All-Union and the Trans-Caucasus SFSR, and execute the statistic operations in conformity to this Regulation.
2. The Central Statistical Department of the Georgian SSR shall enjoy all the right prescribed by the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and the Regulations of the People’s Commissariats to the latter.
3. In executing the directive of the Central Statistical Departments of the USSR and the Trans-Caucasus SFSR, the Central Statistical Department of the Georgian SSR shall be directly subordinate to the Central Executive Committee of Georgia and its Presidium and to the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
4. The Central Statistical Department of the Georgian SSR shall carry out the All-Union, Trans-Caucasus and Republican statistics works under the general guidance of the Central Statistical Department of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and in accordance to the Program elaborated by the latter.
5.  The Central Statistical Department shall exercise its function directly or through the District statistical divisions and the Central Statistical Departments of the Union Republic of Abkhaz SSR, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara and the Statistic Bureau of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
Note: participation of the Central Statistical Departments of the Union Republic of the Abkhaz SSR, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara and of the Statistical Bureau of the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia in the works relating to the census, as well as in execution of special tasks shall be decided by the Central Statistical Department of the Georgian SSR.
II.  The matters under the jurisdiction of the
Central Statistical Department of the Georgian SSR.
1. The Central Statistical Department of the Georgian SSR shall:
b) carry out general guidance to the district statistical divisions and the central statistical departments of the autonomous republics, and to the statistical bureau of the autonomous oblast;
j) approve the programs and action plan of the statistic works of the district executive committees, union and autonomous republics and autonomous oblast.
i) summarize and deliberate the statistic materials collected by the statistical departments of the union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblast, People’s Commissariats and other state organs, as well as the enterprises and organizations subordinate to the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia;
j) develop the effective methodology for statistics works and distribute them as an obligatory guidance to the statistics agencies and statistics departments of the Union and Autonomous Republics, the statistic bureau of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast, institutions and enterprises of Republican significance; carry out the measures for rationalization of statistic works;
k) deliver the statistical data to the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia, the State Planning Committee and other state organs of the Union and Autonomous Republics included in Georgia on the questions raised by the said bodies, and if collection of such data doesn’t require additional statistic works;
IV. The competence of the structural entities
of the Central Statistical Department of the Georgian SSR
12. The Central Statistical Department of the Georgian SSR, in line of the statistic planning commission, shall:
d) approve the programs and action plans of the statistics works of the executive committees of the Union and Autonomous Republics and autonomous oblast;
f) exercise monitoring over realization of statistics works of the People’s Commissariats, organizations and agencies, as well as over the implementation of approved plans on statistics works of the Union and Autonomous Republics and Autonomous oblast.
g) review the reports of the Central Statistical Departments of the Union and Autonomous Republics, as well as of the Statistics Bureau of the Autonomous Oblast on implementation of Federative and Republican plans, and provide the relevant information to the corresponding governmental organs or to the Central Statistical Department of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR.
Note 1.  The representatives of relevant organizations, enterprises and institutions, as well as of respective district executive committees, Union and Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Oblast shall be invited to the discussion of issues specified for under sub-sections b), c), d), and g).
31 October 1928
(Collection of laws and Decrees of the Workers and Peasants Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, N 16, 1928, p. 319-324)   


1929
REGULATIONS on the Local Statistics Agencies
Chapter 1
1. General provisions
1. The following agencies shall be considered as the local statistics agencies of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia:
a) The Statistics Department of the Abkhaz SSE, the statistics department of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, the Office of the Representative of the Central Statistics Department of Georgia at the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
b) The statistics departments of districts and cities.
c) The statisticians of the regions.
2. The agencies listed in Article 1 of this Regulation represent the local agencies of the Central Statistics Department of the Georgian SSR and lead the statistic activity of the local importance.
3. The Statistics Department of the Abkhaz SSE, the statistics department of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, the Office of the Representative of the Central Statistics Department of Georgia at the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, statistics departments of the districts and cities shall submit the plans and programmes of statistic works to the Central Statistics Department of the Georgian SSR for consideration and approval.
Chapter II
The structure of the local statistics agencies of the Georgian SSR
1. The Statistics Departments of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia
6. The Statistics Department of the Abkhaz SSR, the statistics department of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, the Office of the Representative of the Central Statistics Department of Georgia at the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall carry out their activity on the basis of the authority of the Joint Commissariat of Autonomous Republic.
7. The statistics departments are led by: the Head of Department – in the Abkhaz SSR and Autonomous SSR of Adjara; Representative of the Central Statistics Department of Georgia to the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast.  They shall be appointed under the General Regulations of the Public Commissariats of the autonomous republics and oblast of Georgia.
8. The Statistics Departments of the Abkhaz SSR and Autonomous SSR of Adjara, as well as the Office of the Representative of the central Statistics Department of Georgia to South Ossetian Autonomous oblast shall consist of:
a) Head of Statistics Department and the Representative (respectively)
b) Division of Social Statistics;
c) Division of Agriculture Statistics;
d) Division of Industry and Labour Statistics;
e) Division of Trade Statistics;
f) General Division (Chancellery).
Chapter III.
The Competence of the local agencies of the
Central Statistics Department of the Georgian SSR
a) The Statistics Departments of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
13. The competence of the Statistics Department of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall be as follows:
a) to arrange and lead the local statistics agencies;
b) to draw-up the annual and prospective plans of the statistic activities and submit them to the Central Statistics Department of the Georgian SSR.
c) to consider the plans of statistics activities of the Public Commissariats and other organizations; to determine the volume of statistic work and the rules of proceedings with further submission them to the Central Statistics Department of the Georgian SSR;
d)  to make conclusions on the statistics activity carried out by the Public Commissariats and other central agencies outside of the approved annual plans and their justification with the general statistic plans;
e) to elaborate the programmes and organizational plans for certain research and study works;
f) to implement the tasks entrusted by the Central Statistics Department of the Georgia SSR;
g) to carry out the census at the local level;
h) to sum-up and analysis the statistic material collected by the statistics department of the Abkhaz SSR, Statistics Department of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara and the Office of the Representative of the Central Statistics Department of Georgia to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast as it is considered at the relevant working plans;
i) to carry out the statistical tasks entrusted by the governments of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia;
j) to carry out the measures for gaining the knowledge and training of the staff working at the statistic agencies;
k) to provide the statistic information upon the request of the state agencies;
m) to organize the statistic works and draw-up the methodology for statistic activities;
Chapter IV.
The rights and responsibilities of the local statistic agencies of the Georgian SSR
a) Statistics Departments of the Autonomous Republics and Oblast.
24. The Statistics Department of the Abkhaz SSR, the statistics department of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, the Office of the Representative of the Central Statistics Department of Georgia at the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, for fulfillment of the tasks, shall be authorized:
a) to request the statistic information from any state, commercial, industrial or private agencies that shall be ready at the fixed time;
b) to issue the instructions, circular notes and guidelines according the laws currently in force;
c) to supervise the accuracy of the statistics activity carried out by the agencies, organizations and persons operating on the territory of the autonomous republic and oblast, as well as the fulfillment of decrees and resolutions relating to the statistics activity that are binding to them.
d) to draw-up the conclusions on the financial and personnel arrangements of the statistic works submitted by the public Commissariats of the autonomous republic or oblast.
25. Every state, economic or public organization and enterprise, as well as the private entities and persons shall submit within a month two copies of published materials issues by them to the Statistics Department of the Abkhaz SSR, the statistics department of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara and to the Office of the Representative of the Central Statistics Department of Georgia at the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
30 January 1929
(Collection of Laws and Decrees Issued by the Workers and peasants Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, N 8, 1928, p. 174-184)


REGULATIONS on the Extraordinary Measures for Maintaining the Revolutionary Order in the Georgian SSR
I. General Provisions
1. In case of breach of the normal public order, the extraordinary measures can be introduced in a form of special situation or the state of emergency.
2. The special situation can be introduced:
a) In case of counter-revolutionary encroachment upon the workers and peasants government or its certain representatives, or if there is a threat of such actions.
b) In case of frequent infringement of the individuals and the citizens’ property
c) In case of breach of normal life due to the calamities;
d) As a provisional measure for restoration of public order on the territories, this has been under the state of emergency;
3. The State of Emergency can be introduced:
a) In cases provided for in Article 2 if the measures taken on the basis of special situation fail to protect and restore the revolutionary order;
b) If certain territory becomes the place of military operations or has special importance for military purposes;
4.  The introduction of special measures for protecting the revolutionary order shall be considered valid from the moment of announcing the Decree issued by the relevant organ through publishing in the local newspaper or posting the official announcement in many places.  The exact term of introduction of the special measures shall be pointed out in the announcement.
5. After removing the extraordinary measures introduced in the course of special situation or the state of emergency, validity of all of the decrees or instructions issued by the competent organ shall be terminated without adopting of any special resolution.
II. Extraordinary Situation
6. Extraordinary Situation shall be introduced on the basis of the Decree issued by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia upon submission of the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR or the central executive committees of the Union SSR of Abkhazia, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia.
7. The central executive committees of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, as well as the District and Regional executive committees and their presidiums are entitled to introduce the special situation in the following cases: a) if there is no possibility to communicate to the central power, or b) if the immediate measures are necessary and calls for the introduction of special situation is inevitable.
The central executive committees of the aforementioned republics and autonomous oblast shall inform promptly the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR or the Central Executive Committee of Georgia about introducing the special measures.
8. The Decree shall state the exact place (republic, autonomous oblast, district, city) subject to the Extraordinary Situation.
9. The Extraordinary Situation shall be introduced no more then three-month term.  Extension of the term shall be carried out in accordance of rules specified for in Article 6.  Pre-term termination of the extraordinary situation shall be carried out on the basis of Decree issued by the Presidium of the central Executive Committee of Georgia.
10. In time of extraordinary situation the whole power under the competence of the District executive committee (in the places where such is not established – of the regional executive committees and in the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia – of the Central Executive committee) shall be taken by their Presidiums.
The respective presidiums shall decide the issue on convening the Executive Committees.
11. If the Extraordinary Situation is introduced on the whole territory of the District, the respective Presidium of the Central Executive Committee may appoint, upon submission of the Council of Public Commissars, the plenipotentiary representative to chair the Presidium of the District Executive Committee.
12. The Presidium of the district executive committee shall inform promptly the relevant Public Commissariat of Internal Affairs about the measures taken in the course of Extraordinary Situation.
III. Martial Law
15. The martial law on the territory that is not the theatre of war shall be introduced on the basis of Decree issued by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR.
The martial law may be introduced upon the Decree of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia on the very exceptional basis; such decision shall be promptly delivered to the presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Trans-Caucasus of the USSR.
16. When: 1) there is no possibility to communicate to the central organs of the USSR, either to the central organs of Georgian SSR, or 2) the situation needs immediate interference – the central executive committees of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, as well as the District executive committees are authorized to introduce the martial law and deliver this decision for approval to the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR through the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia and the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Trans-Caucasus.
17. The supreme power on the territory, which is the subject of introduction of the martial law, shall be given the military-revolutionary committees operating on the basis of Regulations approved by the Central Executive Committee of Georgia.
(...)
27 October 1929
(CSHANFG, f. 284, desc 1, file 1119, p. 415-420)


1930
DECREE on Changes and amendments to the Regulations of the Procurator’s Office (Procu-  
racy) of the Georgian SSR adopted by the CEC and the Council of Public Commissars (CPC)
The Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR decrees:
1. To add section (a) to Articles 10 and 11 to the Regulations of the Procurator’s Office of Georgia approved be the CEC and CPC of the Georgian SSR on 21 February 1930 (collection of the Laws of the Georgian SSR; 1930; N9; Art.72) with following wording:
10. The Prosecutor of the Georgian SSR shall:
a) supervise the observance of the Constitutions and legislations of the Georgian SSR, the USSR and the Trans-Caucasus SFSR, as well as the lawfulness of the decrees and resolutions adopted by the central executive committees and presidiums of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia; the information about violation shall be delivered to the Presidium of the CEC of Georgia.
Article 11. The Procurator of the Georgian SSR is authorized:
a) to ask through the procurators of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia for the copies of the information and notifications, as well as of decisions, rulings, verdicts and conclusions on the certain cases being under the proceedings at the judiciary institutions of the aforementioned republics and oblast necessary for exercising the duties specified for in Article 9 and also,  when the Prosecutor deems necessary, the original case file, judgments and decisions on the cases that went into the legal force.
b) to propose to the prosecutors of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia filing the protest to the superior organs, including the Presidiums of the relevant central executive committees against the decisions and instructions of the central and local organs of the mentioned republics and oblast if they contradict the constitution  of the Georgian SSR, legislation of the USSR, Trans-Caucasus SSR and the legislation that is in force on the whole territory of the Georgian SSR;
c) to suspend, through the Procurators of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia the implementation of decisions, verdicts, judgments and conclusions made by the judicial institutions of these republics and the oblast.
2. To change Article 12 of this Regulation as follows:
“The Procurator of the Georgian SSR shall annually submit to the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee the report on his activity, as well as of the subordinate procurators, including the procurators of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia”.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia M. Tskhakaia
Deputy Chairman of the Council
of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR G. Mgaloblishvili
Acting Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia T. Zhgenti
22 August 1930
(Collection of the laws and Decrees of the Workers and Peasants Government of the Georgian SSR, N 16, 1930, p. 531-532)


INSTRUCTION on the Elections of the Councils of the Workers, Peasants and Red Army Men Deputies and of the Congresses of Soviets
Chapter III
Electoral Commissions
12. For the Soviet elections the following electoral commissions shall be set up:
a) Central Electoral Commission;
b) The electoral commissions of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia;
c) District electoral commissions;
d) City electoral commissions;
e) Village electoral commissions.
13. The Central Electoral Commission shall consist of 23 members of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia, which will organize and hold the elections in the whole of the Republic.
14. The electoral commissions of the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall consist of members the presidiums of the central executive committees accordingly.  These commissions shall include: chairman, two representatives of relevant central executive committees, one representative from the trade unions, one representative from the Union of Young Leninians (Komsomol), one representative form the working women’s local committee, one representative from the local city council, one representative of the national minority, one representative from the Red Army and Navy, one worker from the industrial enterprise, one peasant, one from the Peasants’ Mutual Aid Association and from other public organizations (economic entities, “Defence -Aviachemistry” etc.).
The members of the aforementioned electoral commissions shall be approved by the presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the relevant republics or oblast, and the chairmen shall be appointed by the Presidium of the central executive committee of Georgia upon nomination of the Central electoral commission.  
16. The city electoral commissions, upon the decree of the relevant council, shall be set up in Poti, Gori, Stalinisi, Borjomi, Chiatura and Samtredia.
19. The members of Batumi and Sukhumi city electoral commissions shall be approved by the relevant district or city executive committee; the chairmen, upon nomination of the electoral commission of the republic shall be appointed by the presidiums of the Presidiums of the central executive committees of the Abkhaz SSR and the Autonomous SSR of Adjara accordingly.
20. The members of the city electoral commissions of Gori, Stalinisi, Borjomi, Chiatura and Samtredia shall be approved by the respective city councils and the chairmen shall be appointed by the relevant district executive committee.
21. Upon decision of the city councils, the auxiliary electoral commissions may be set up at the big factories, plants and other enterprises of the cities of Tbilisi, Batumi, Sukhumi and Kutaisi.
89. The delegates to the Soviet Congress of Georgia shall be the representatives of the Soviet Congress of Abkhaz SSR, the Autonomous SSR of Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the districts – one delegate from each 10 000 of residents from the local councils where the delegates are elected on the basis of number of population, and one delegate from each 2000 of residents where the delegates are elected on the basis of number of voters…
90. The Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR, the Autonomous SSR of Adjara, the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia… simultaneously to the elections of delegates to the Soviet Congress of the Georgian SSR, shall elect the delegates to the Soviet Congress of the Trans-Caucasus: from the Abkhaz SSR, Autonomous SSR of Adjara, the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia… one delegate from each 15 000 of from the local councils where the delegates are elected on the basis of number of population, and one delegate from each 3000 of residents where the delegates are elected on the basis of number of voters…
(…)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia M. Tskhakaia
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia S. Todria
9 November 1930
(Collection of the laws and Decrees of the Workers and Peasants Government of the Georgian SSR, N 22, 1930, p. 661-682)
    
    
1931
RESOLUTION VI CONGRESS OF THE SOVIETS OF ABKHAZIA about the changes in the
Constitution
11 February 1931
Chairman . . . (Bagapsh - author).  On the issue of the approved agenda the floor is given to comrade Lagvilava.
Lagvilava: between the V and VI congresses of the Soviets of Abkhazia the certain constitutional changes have been introduced.  The Congress shall approve these changes.
First of all the title of the Constitution of the Abkhaz SSR shall be as follows:
“The Basic Law of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia”.
In Article 2 and 7, wherever it’s said: “On the Basis of Special Treaty”, shall be changed now and instead write down “the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia”.
The second change that took place between V and VI Congresses. You know that we had the Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars.  Now we have reorganized them and merged the Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars into one organ – the Central Executive Committee and the relevant Public Commissariats attached to it.  The Council of Public Commissariats doesn’t exist any more.
These are the principal changes we wanted to report you about.  
Chairman: those who support the approval of these changes please raise your hands.
(adopted).
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia; Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 503-504)


RESOLUTION OF VI CONGRESS OF COUNCILS OF WORKERS, PEASANTS AND RED
ARMY  DEPUTIES OF THE GEORGIAN SSR “on joining of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia as the autonomous republic”
19 February 1931
VI Congress of Councils of Workers, Peasants and Red Army  Deputies of the Georgian SSR:
a) considering necessary, and for successful implementation of the tasks of socialist developments on the basis of general plan of the public economy brought up before the working masses of the USSR  and for fraternal cooperation of the workers and peasants of these republics;
b) pursuant to the will of workers of Abkhazia, who adopted the Resolution at VI Congress of Councils of Workers, Peasants and Red Army Deputies of the Georgian SSR on joining of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia as the autonomous republic, decrees:
1.  On the basis of Article 9 of the Basic Law (Constitution) of the Georgian SSR, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be included within the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia as the autonomous republic applying to it the authority specified for in the aforementioned Basic Law.
2. The Treaty, concluded between Georgian SSR and the Abkhaz SSR on 16 December of 1921 shall be considered null and void.
Chairman Ph. Makharadze
Secretary S. Todria
(Congresses of the Soviets of the USSR, union and autonomous republics; vol. 6, p. 557, Abkhaz Soviets (1921-1937), p. 248-249)


(RESOLUTION ADOPTED AT THE VI CONGRESS OF THE COUNCILS OF THE WORK
ERS, PEASANTS AND READ ARMY DEPUTIES OF GEORGIA) on changes to the Basic Law (Constitution) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
The Sixth Congress of the Councils of the Workers, Peasants and Read Army Deputies of Georgia, on the basis of Article 19, section “a” of the Basic Law (Constitution) of the Georgian SSR decrees:    
To introduce to the Basic law (Constitution) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia the following changes:
To give to Articles 9, 20(i), 23, 25, 40, 44, 48, 49, 54, 55, 57, 64, 78, 80 the following wording:
“Art. 9, (section 3) The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, on the basis of the aforementioned grounds, includes the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia”
“Art. 20 (the jurisdiction of the All-Georgian Congress of Soviets and of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia covers :)”
i) Revoke and suspend the Resolutions of the Congress of Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics an of the Autonomous oblast and their Central Executive Committees, as well as of the congresses of the District Soviets and district executive committees if they violate the Basic Law (Constitution) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and the decrees issued by the legislative organs.
“Art. 23. All-Georgian Congress of Soviets consists of representatives of the Soviets of Autonomous Republics and Oblast, congresses of district and City Soviets and the representatives of rural settlements not included in the districts on the basis of following representation: one deputy for 10000 inhabitants from the residential areas where the Soviets are elected on the basis of number of population, and one deputy for 2000 electors where the Soviets are elected on the basis of number of voters”
“Article 40.  The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee has the right to suspend and revoke the decrees and orders issued by the People’s Commissars and his central state organs, Central Executive Committees of the Autonomous Republics, autonomous Oblast and district executive committees, as well as the Resolutions adopted at the Congress of Soviets of Autonomous Republics, Oblasts and Districts”
“Article 78.  For direct management of autonomous branches of state administration (education, healthcare, social protection, administrative supervision, militia and courts) Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Republics and Oblasts shall form the relevant republican and oblast organs, as well as the bodies for administration of branches of on the territory of Autonomous republics and oblasts (agriculture and industry).  The representatives of the People’s Commissariats of Finance, Labour, Supply and Worker’s and Peasant’s Inspectorate of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall function at the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Republics and Oblast.
The organs of agriculture and industry management, subordinate to the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Republics and Oblast shall execute the orders and tasks of the People’s Commissariat of Agriculture and of the Supreme Council of the Public Economy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia; these organs shall be accountable to the executive committees of the Autonomous Republics and Oblast”.
“Art. 80. The Central Executive Committees of the Autonomous Republics and Oblast shall have the right to reduce the number of organs specified for in Article 78 of this Basic Law (Constitution), merging certain aforementioned functions into one organ”.
“Art. 100. All state incomes and expenditures of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall be incorporated into the all-state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia”.
(…)
Chairman of the VI Congress of All-Georgian Soviets Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the VI Congress of All-Georgian Soviets S. Todria
19 February 1931    
(Resolutions adopted at the VI Congress of the Soviets of Workers, Peasants and Red Army Deputies. Tbilisi, 1931, p. 45-52/in Russian)

@
RESOLUTION of the Sixth Congress of Soviets of the USSR
(…)
The sixth Congress of the USSR . . . decrees:
To introduce the following changes to the Constitution of the USSR:
5) To formulate Article 10 of the Constitution of the USSR as follows:
“The delegates to the Congress of Soviets of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall be elected:
a) directly at the congresses of the Soviets of Union Republics not having the Regional and Oblast division of the territory; b) at the Regional and oblast Congresses of Soviets of the Union Republics having the Regional and Oblast division of the territory; c) at the Congresses of the Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republics of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia and at the congresses of the autonomous republics and oblasts included, or not included within the Regional and Oblast unions”
(…)
17 march 1931
(Constitution and the Constitutional acts of the USSR (1922-1936). Collection of Documents. Moscow, 1940, p. 132-135/in Russia)


REGULATIONS on the Fiscal Authority of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic andOblasts of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR
I. On the territories of each of the autonomous socialist republics of Abkhazia, Adjara and Nakhichevan, and of the autonomous oblasts of South Ossetia and Nagorny Karabakh the budget of the republic or oblast is formed and applied, as well as the budgets of the administrative-territorial entities included within these republics and oblasts.
II. The volume of the budget of the autonomous soviet socialist republics and oblasts shall be in accord with the rules of this Regulation, and the budgets of the administrative- territorial entities that are included within these republics and oblasts shall be in accord with the Regulations on Local Fiscal Affairs and other relevant legal acts issued by the USSR, Trans-Caucasus SFSR and the republics included within the Trans-Caucasus SFSR.
III. The part of revenue of the budgets of the autonomous republics of Abkhazia, Adjara and Nakhichevan, as well as of autonomous oblasts of South Ossetia and Nagorny Karabakh shall include:
a) the payments given below from the socialized enterprises and properties located on their territories and having the republican or oblast importance:
1. 100% deduction from the profit, planed by the UCPE (Union Council of Public Economy), of industrial entities.
2. 100% deduction from the profit of industrial entities subordinate to other institutions.
3.  100% deduction from the profit of agriculture enterprises.
4. 100% deduction from the rental payments for usage of the state land property.
5. 50% deduction from the rental payment for usage of fishing and hunting spaces.
6. 100% deduction from the profit of trade organizations.
7. 100% deduction from the profit of shipping companies.
8. 100% dividend accumulated on the shares of budgetary organizations and agencies.
9. 100% of income from selling of the useless and futile property, organizations and agencies subject to state financing.
10. 100% of income from fines and penalties imposed by the budgetary organs of the republics and oblasts.
11. 100% of income on estimates of the organizations and agencies of the autonomous republics and oblasts.
12. The receipts tax determined under the regulations.
b) the payments given below from the non-socialized enterprises and properties located on their territories:
1. 100% accrual from the rent for usage of lands owned by republics and oblasts.
2. 100% accrual from leasing concession of the republics and oblasts.
3. 100% accrual from confiscated and escheat property, as well as from the property in abeyance.
4. 100% of income from fines and penalties imposed by the budgetary organs of the republics and oblasts.
c) In addition to the payments from socialized and non-socialized properties, the budgets of the republics and oblasts shall include:
1. Income from the credits provided by the autonomous republics or oblasts.
2. Incomes from the loan recovery included in the budgets of the republics and oblasts.
3. Special subsidy from the state assets.
4. Accrual to the republican and oblast funds of regulation.
5. The following shall be included in the expenditure part of the republican and oblast budgets:
VI. Expenditures of the budgets of the republics and oblasts:
1. Expenditure for elections of the congresses of the autonomous republics and oblasts, as well as for maintaining the relevant central executive committee or oblast executive committee and the organs and agencies dealing with:
a) administrative affairs (except of OGPU)
b) agriculture affairs
c) health-care
d) social protection
e) Institutions of judiciary, investigation, Public prosecution  and education, pursuant to the current legislation, except the institutions specified in this Article as the budgetary institutions of the administrative-territorial entities of the autonomous republics and oblasts operating on the basis of the Local Fiscal Regulations.
2. Expenditure for financing of public economy having the republican of oblast importance, namely for financing of industry, agriculture, trade, construction, housing and communal services,  roads, resorts, as well as the other expenditures for financing the economic enterprises and measures aimed at developing the republics and oblasts.
3. Expenditure for clearing off the loan interest.
4. Aid to the administrative-territorial entities assigned from the funds of regulation of the republics and oblasts.
V. The Central Executive Committee of the respective autonomous republic or oblast shall regulate the budget of the administrative-territorial entity through its republican or oblast budget including the part of expenditure in the form of funds of regulation.
VI. The Funds of Regulation, included in the budgets of the republics or oblasts shall be distributed between the administrative-territorial entities, central executive committees and the oblast committees of the autonomous republics and oblasts in accordance of Regulations on Local Finances.
VII. The budgets of the autonomous soviet socialist republics and the autonomous soviet socialist oblasts, as well as the budgets of the administrative-territorial entities included within these republics and oblasts, shall be approved before the new fiscal year upon the Act issued by the Central Executive committee of the Soviet Socialist Republics an oblasts in compliance with the rules established by the legislation of the republics included within the Trans-Caucasus SFSR.
VIII. The procedures for drafting and implementing the budgets of the autonomous soviet socialist republics and oblasts, as well as for reporting and accountancy shall be determined by the legislation of the republics included within the Trans-Caucasus SFSR on the basis of the Regulations on Local Finances”
Acting Secretary of the Trans-Caucasus CEC (signed)
12 September 1931
(CSHANFG, F. 607, desc. 1, file 2860, p. 30-31; Collection of legal acts and Orders of the workers and peasants Government of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR, N 17, 1931, p. 459-461)


1932
RESOLUTION on changing of Articles: 4,5,9,12,16,21,23,24,26 and 35, voiding of Article 17 and adding article 431 to the Regulations of the Central Executive Committee adopted by the CEC (Second Session of the Sixth Convocation)
The central Executive Committee of Georgia decrees:
To introduce the following changes to the Regulations of the Central Executive Committee approved by the Central Executive Committee on 12 January 1925 (Messenger of the CEC and CPC of the Georgian SSR; N 1-2-; 1925):
Article 4,5,9,12,16,23,24,25 and 35 shall be worded as follows:
5. The Central Executive Committee shall convene the extraordinary session upon the decision of the CEC and Council of public Commissars of Georgia, as well as at the request not less than one third of the members or one of the autonomous republics.
9.  The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee, the central executive committees of the autonomous republics and oblast, as well as the members of the Central Executive Committee shall be entitled to submit the CEC the issues for consideration.
16. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee shall issue the Decrees, Decisions and Instructions, consider and approve the draft-decrees and decisions submitted by the CEC and Presidiums of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast, as well as of other bodies.
21. The central executive committees of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast shall be authorized to lodge the protest to the session of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia against the Resolutions issued by the Presidium of the CEC of Georgia.
23. The issues submitted by the central executive committees or the Presidiums of the Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Oblast shall be discussed by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia or transferred to the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia for preliminary discussion or to the interested institutions for the preliminary conclusions.
26. The members of the Central Executive Committees of the USSR and Trans-Caucasus SFSR, the members of the Presidiums of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast, as well as the other persons authorized by the legislation or special decision of the Presidium of the Central Executive committee shall be entitled to attend the sessions of the CEC Presidium with the deliberative vote.
35. A members of the Central Executive committee of Georgia shall be authorized to attend any sessions of the Autonomous Republics or Autonomous Oblast, as well as of the sittings of central and local soviet bodies with the deliberative vote.
(...)
Chairman of the CEC of Georgia Ph. Makharadze
17 June 1932
(Collection of Laws and Decrees issued by the Workers and Peasants Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, N 19, 1932, p. 398-399)


REGULATIONS of the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR
4. The following authorities shall be entitled to attend the sessions of the Council of public Commissars of the Georgian SSR with the deliberative vote:
b) A Chairman, a secretary and members of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia, and chairmen of the central executive committees of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast;
c) The heads of the governing bodies of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast and their deputies while the issues submitted by the respective central executive committees of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast are discussed;
5. In addition to the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee, the following bodies shall be authorized to submit the issues to the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR for discussion:
(…)
c) Central Executive Committees and the Presidiums of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast;
(…)
17 June 1932
(Collection of Laws and Decrees issued by the Workers and Peasants Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, N 19, 1932, p. 400-403)


GENERAL REGULATIONS of the Public Commissariats of the Georgian SSR
Chapter I
The Public Commissariats of the Georgian SSR
(…)
3. The Public Commissariats shall be entrusted with the following tasks:
7. The Central Executive Committees and Presidiums of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast are authorized to suspend the Decree issued by the Public Commissariat of the Georgian SSR if this decree contradicts the current legislation.
The Central Executive Committee or its presidium of the autonomous republics or autonomous oblast shall promptly inform the Council of Public Commissars and the relevant Public Commissariat of the Georgian SSR about suspending the validity of the decree.
9. The Commissariats of Supply and Purchasing, Municipal Economy; Finances, Labour and the Workers and Peasant Inspectorate are authorized to exercise their functions on the whole of territory of the Georgian SSR.
The abovementioned Public Commissariats shall have the representatives in the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast, who are under the direct subordination to the respective commissariat.
10. The representative of the Public Commissariat of the Georgian SSR (Article 9, section 2) shall be nominated by the Public Commissariat or the CEC of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast and approved by the Council of public Commissars of the Georgian SSR.  The relevant CEC of the autonomous republics or autonomous oblast shall express the view regarding the nominated candidate; it also shall be authorized to reject the designated candidate.
Note: the appointment of the deputies to the Representatives shall be carried out in accordance of the same rule as for Representatives.
11. The Representatives of the Public Commissariats (Article 9, section 2) shall attend the sessions of the CEC Presidiums of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast with the deliberative vote.  The Representatives of the public Commissariats shall deliver the information regarding the activity of the public Commissariats to the CEC and Presidiums of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast and report the relevant Public Commissariat, as well as the CEC of respective autonomous republic and autonomous oblast.
12. The Commissariats of Light Industry and the Agriculture shall exercise the management of their respective fields in the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast through the through the republican and oblast bodies arranged by the CEC of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast in the filed of Light Industry and Agriculture.
13. Public Commissariats of the Light Industry and of the Agriculture of the Georgian SSR in relations with the republican and oblast bodies of the light industry and agriculture of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast shall be authorized:
a) to give them instructions and tasks and carry out the control over the implementation of the given instructions and tasks;
b) to suspend, change and countermand the decrees, which contradict the legislation or directives of the USSR, Trans-Caucasus SFSR and Georgian SSR at the same time informing the CEC of the respective  autonomous republic or oblast; to file the protest to the Council of Public Commissars if such decree is issued by the CEC of the autonomous republics or oblast,
c) to establish the order and form of reporting;
d) to coordinate the arrangement of the mentioned organs, as well as of the local agencies in accordance with the established rules;
d) to elaborate the action plans;
e) to manage the funds of the mentioned branches in accordance with the established rules;
14. The Public Commissariats of Education, Health-Care and Social Protection of the Georgian SSR lead the relevant fields on the territory of the Georgian SSR that is not a part of the autonomous entities and exercise their functions on the whole territory of Georgia only in the sphere of general planning of the mentioned branches and in the sphere of issues that are regulated under the special decrees issued by the Soviet Central Executive Committee of Georgia or Council of the Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR.
Chapter II
The Public Commissars of Georgia
1. The Public Commissar shall be authorized to make a sole decision on the issues under the competence of the Public Commissariat and inform about this decision the Board, if such is established within the Public Commissariat.
The Public commissar shall have the exclusive authority:
d) to file the protest to the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR - in case of necessity with further submission to the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee - against the decrees issued by the CEC of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast, district executive committees and city councils.
17 June 1932  
(Collection of Laws and Decrees issued by the Workers and Peasants Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, N 19, 1932, p. 404-409)


1933
REGULATIONS on the Procurator’s Office of the USSR
General Privsions
1. Strengthening of the socialist justice and protection of the public property from the anti-socity elements on the whole territory of the USSR is the principal task of the Procurator’s Office of the USSR.
2. The Procurator of the USSR, appointed by the Central Executive Committee of the USSR shall lead the Procurator’s Office of the Union of SSR.
II.  The function of the Procurator’s Office of the USSR and the rules for its implementation.
4. The Procurator’s Office of the USSR shall:
d) exercise the general guiding of the Procurator’s Offices of Union Republics.
5. If the decisions and instructions issued by certain bodies of the USSR and Union Republics contradict the Constitution of the USSR and the decrees and orders of the government of the USSR, the Procurator’s Office of the USSR shall file the protest against such acts to the relevant superior organs.
The Procurator of the USSR file the protest against unlawful acts to the authorities of the union republics or local agencies, as a rule through the Procurators of the Union Republics.
6. In order to exercise the supervision over the strict and uniform observance of laws by all judicial organs (Article 4, section “b”), the Procurator of the USSR is authorized: to request the case being at any stage of the proceedings or investigation for reviewing, as well as the completed cases; to file the protest to the superior judicial bodies against the verdicts and terminated the execution of judgement; to ask for the reviewing the verdicts and decisions; to issue the necessary instructions to the investigative agencies.
The Procurator of the USSR, as a rule, shall exercise the functions with regard of judicial and investigative organs of the Union Republics through the Procurators of the Union Republics.
7.  The Procurator’s Office of the USSR shall launch the criminal prosecution and support the indictment:
b) on the cases being under the proceedings at the judicial institutions of the Union Republics personally, as well as through the Procurators of Union Republics.
10.  The Procurator of the USSR, for the purposes of good governance, is authorized: to issue the instructions to the Procurators of Union Republics relating to their activities; to carry out inquiry  and examination of the activity of the organs of Procurator’s offices of Union Republics; to receive the reports on the activity of the Procurator’s offices of Union Republics.  
With the procurators of autonomous republics, regions, oblasts and districts the Procurator of the USSR, as a rule, shall communicate through the Procurators of Union Republics, and in urgent cases – personally with further notification of Procurator of the relevant republic.
The instructions and orders by the Procurator of the USSR are compulsory for all of the offices of procurators.
11. The procurators of Union Republics shall be appointed an recalled by the Procurator of the USSR upon the consent of the central executive committee of the Union Republic.
12. The procurators of the Regions, autonomous republics, districts and oblasts, as well as the procurators on the supervision of operative sectors of the OGPU shall be appointed by the Procurator of the USSR.
17 December 1933
(The Constitution and Constitutional Acts of the USSR (1922-1936), 1940, p. 145-146/in Russia)


1935
BASIC LAW (THE CONSTITUTION) of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
Chapter I
General Provisions
2. Republic of Abkhazia is a socialist state of workers and peasants included within the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia as the Autonomous Republic and through the latter, within the Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of the Trans-Caucasus.
3. The Congress of Soviets of Workers, Peasants and Red Army Deputies is the bearer of the supreme power of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, and between the Congresses – the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
4. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia exercises the state authority on its territory independently as this authority is not restricted by the Constitution of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, either by the Constitutions of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic or the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics.
5. Changes of the territory under the jurisdiction of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, without consent of the latter shall be prohibited.
6. Every citizen of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, retaining the citizenship of the Republic, at the same time is a citizen of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia,  the Socialist Federative Soviet Republic of the Trans-Caucasus and the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic.  The rights and responsibilities established by this Constitution and the legislation of the Republic for the citizens of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall apply to every citizen of the Union Soviet Republics being on the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.  
Based on the principle of solidarity of the working people of all countries and nations, the foreign citizens representing the working class and carrying out the business-activity on the territory of the Republic, as well as the farmers not using the others’ labour, are guaranteed every political rights granted by the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
7. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia recognizes the equality of rights of citizens irrespective of their nationality or race; any direct or indirect restriction of the rights of, or, conversely, any establishment of privileges for, citizens on account of their nationality, as well as any advocacy of discrimination of national minorities or restriction of their rights contradict the basic laws of the Republic.
8. Abkhaz, Georgian and Russian languages shall be used at the state agencies of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
Note: 1. Every ethnic group residing on the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall have the right to free development and application of its mother-tongue in national-cultural, as well as in public institutions.
2. The language for administrative-territorial entities (districts, rural communities) shall be determined by the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
15. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia grants the right to asylum on its territory to foreigners being persecuted for political activity in favour of Revolution.
(…)
Chapter II
The sphere of jurisdiction of the Supreme Power
of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
17. The following shall be under the sole jurisdiction of the Congress of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia:
a) establishment of and introduction of changes and amendments to the basic principles of the Constitution of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as endorsement of partial changes of the Constitution adopted by the Central Executive Committee in time between the Congresses of the Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia with further submission of the Decrees on this issue to the  All-Georgian Central Executive Committee and All-Georgian Congress of Soviets;
b) the issues related to the changes of the border of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia in conformity to the rules specified for in the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
18. The issues of the common character on the management of the autonomous state shall be under the jurisdiction of the Congress of Soviets and of the Central Executive Committee of Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, in particular:
a) General management of internal policy and public economy of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
b) Administrative division of the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
c) Establishment of the bases for the public economy and certain branches on the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia in compliance with the legislation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of Trans-Caucasus and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
d) Consideration of the budget of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and control over its implementation;
e) Internal state legislation on the issues of autonomous state management, as well as of development of the legislation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia valid on the whole territory of the latter;
f) the right of pardon on the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well the right of rehabilitation of political rights of citizens convicted  by courts and administrative agencies of the Republic;
g) annulment and termination of the decrees of District Soviets and District Executive committees, which are not in conformity to this Constitution and the legislation of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
h) the issues within the frame of the management of the Autonomous Republic the Congress of Soviets or the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia deems necessary to be considered by them.
19. The decrees issued by the supreme bodies of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Trans-Caucasus SFSR, as well as the decrees, resolutions and Codes valid on the whole territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia are binding on the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
No other bodies, except of the Congress of Soviets or the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, and in certain cases it Presidium, shall be authorized to issue the legal act of state significance on the territory of Abkhazia.
Chapter III.
Organization of the State Authority
The Congress of Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
20. The Congress of Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall consist of the representatives of the District and City Soviets one the basis of one deputy for every 1500 of the population where the Soviets are elected on the basis of a number of population, and one deputy for each 300 voters – where the Soviets are elected on the basis of a number of electors.
21. The Congress of Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall elect the Central Executive Committee of Soviets; the number of the members to the Committee shall be determined by the Congress of Soviets.
22. The Congress of Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be convened by the Central Executive committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia once in two years.
Note: If the circumstances impede the Central Executive Committee to convene the regular Congress, it can be postponed under the decision of the CEC.
23. The Special Congress of the Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be convened by the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia at its discretion or upon the request of local Soviets and Congresses where the population is not less than one third of the whole population of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
b. Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and its Presidium
24. The Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is the highest legislative, administrative and supervising body of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
25. The Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia issues the decrees on the matters relating to the management of the autonomous republic, as well as on the development of legislation valid on the whole territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
26. The Central Executive Committee directs in a general way the activity of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Government and of all organs of the soviet authority of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, and it unites and coordinates the operation of the legislation and management observing the fulfillment of the Constitution of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, Decrees adopted by the Congress of Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and the legislation adopted by and valid on the whole territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
27. The Central Executive Committee is accountable to the Congress of Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia to whom it shall submit the reports on its activity and on general policy and certain questions having the all-state significance.
28. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee shall convene the regular session of the Central Executive Committee not less than three times a year.  The Special Sessions of the Central Executive Committee may be convened:
a) upon the initiative of the presidium of the Central Executive committee;
b) at the request of not less than one third of the members of the Central Executive Committee.
29. The Central Executive Committee shall elect the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee and define the sphere of its activity.
30. The Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall form People’s Commissariats for the purpose of general management of the certain branches and appoint the People’s Commissars from the members of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee.
31. The Economic Forum shall be established at the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, which will operate on the basis of special regulations.
32. In the periods between the convocation of the sessions of the Central Executive Committee, the Presidium is the supreme legislative, administrative and controlling authority of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
33. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee shall issue decrees, resolutions and instructions on behalf of the Central Executive Committee.
34. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee shall observe the implementation of the Constitution of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as the Resolutions of the Congress of Soviets and the Central Executive Committee by every organ of the state authority; it shall be the supreme governing organ in the center and at the local level.
35. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee is authorized to appoint the People’s Commissars and other high officials in the period between the sessions of the Central Executive Committee, with further submission for approval to the Central Executive Committee in accordance of the law.
36. The presidium of the Central Executive Committee shall consider the motions on pardon and rehabilitation in political rights.
37. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee is entitled to suspend and annul the decrees and instructions issued by the People’s Commissars, central state agencies, district executive committees and City Councils, independent administrative entities and of the District Congress of Soviets.
38. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee resolves the disputes between the central and local authorities.
39. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee is responsible to the Central Executive Committee.
B. The People’s Commissariats of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
40. For the purpose of general management of the fields under the jurisdiction of the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and its Presidium, the following People’s Commissariats shall be formed: Education; Agriculture; Health-care; Justice; Local Industry; Internal Trade and Finances. The Office of the Representative of the Trans-Caucasus NKVD (People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs), Representative of the People’s Commissariat of Communication and the Representative of the People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade shall operate at the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
41. The People’s Commissariats of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia are led by the People’s Commissars; the members of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia stand at the head of the various People’s Commissariats.
42. The People’s Commissariats of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be subordinate to the Central executive Committee and the Presidium of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and implement the directives and tasks of the relevant People’s Commissariats of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
43. A people’s Commissar has the individual right to decide on all questions under the jurisdiction of the relevant commissariat.
44. The people’s Commissars are responsible to the Central Executive Committee the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
45. The orders and resolutions issued by the People’s Commissariat the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia can be revoked by the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
If these orders or resolutions contradict to the instructions of the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia or its Presidium, they also can be revoked by the relevant People’s Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia if they also contradict to the legislation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Trans-Caucasus Soviet federative Socialist Republic and of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
c) The local organs of the Soviets – District Congress of Soviets, District executive committees, Council of Deputies and its executive bodies.
46. The Congress of Soviets, within its jurisdiction, is the supreme power on the territory of the district; in the periods between the convocation of the Congress the District Executive Committee is the supreme organ.
Note: Under the Decree of the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and subject to further endorsement by the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee, the certain cities, having the industrial or cultural-political significance, may form together with the adjusted rural territories or without them a separate administrative-economic entity that is not included within the District.  The city councils shall subordinate directly to the supreme authorities of the Republic.
47. The all Soviets on the territory of the District shall participate in the District Congress of Soviets.
48. The District Congress is composed of representatives from all local soviets on the territory of the District according the following quota: one deputy for 300 inhabitants from the Soviets of the territories where the Soviet is elected on the basis of the number of population, and one deputy for 60 voters from the Soviets of the territory where the Soviet is elected on the basis of constituency.
49. The regular District congresses of the Soviets shall be convened once a year.  The Special Congress may be convened by the relevant executive committee: a) upon its own initiative; b) at the request of the Congress of Soviets or Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia; c) at the request of the local Soviets representing  not less than one third of the population of the given District.
50. Every District Congress of Soviets elects its executive organs – a District Executive Committee;  the number of members to the District Executive Committee the membership of which shall be determined by the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
51. The District Executive Committees are responsible to the Congress of Soviets, which elected them and subordinate to the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and its Presidium.
52. For exercising the management of the district and implementation of directives and resolutions of the central power, the District Executive Committees shall elect the Presidium, which is authorized to carry out the function of the executive committee on the periods between the sessions of the Executive Committee and is responsible the latter.  Membership of the Presidium of each District Executive Committee shall be determined by Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
53. For the purpose of management of the certain branches on the territory of the District within the frame of district competence, the District Executive Committees may set up the departments, the organizations, structure and competence of which shall be defined by the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
54. The Departments of the District Executive committee shall be entirely subordinate to the District Executive Committee and its Presidium; all instructions and tasks by the District Executive Committee and its Presidium, as well as of the People’s Commissars of Abkhazia and the Representatives of the People’s Commissariats are binding to the District Executive Committee.
55. The Soviets of Workers, peasants and Red Army Deputies shall be formed:
a) in rural area and towns where the majority of population is engaged in agriculture activity – one deputy for 100 inhabitants;
b) in cities and urban settlements where the majority of population is engaged in industrial enterprises, as well as in sovkhoz and construction at the rural settlements – one deputy for from 40 to 75 voters.
Note: In the territories where the population elects the deputies in accordance to the total number of population, the Military Units of the Red Army and Navy elect their deputies to the Soviets – one deputy for 50 voters; and in the territories where the population elects the deputies in accordance to the total number of voters they elect their deputies upon the same rule as for the rest of population.
56.  Re-election of the Soviets of deputies shall be held once a year.
57. The executive organs of urban and rural soviets, their structure and jurisdiction shall be defined by the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
58. The Soviet of Deputies shall be convened by its respective executive organ upon its own initiative or at the request of not less than one third of the members of Soviets.
59. The local authorities (District Congress of Soviets, Soviet of Deputies and their executive organs) shall have under their jurisdiction:
a) take measures for raising the cultural and economic standard of the given territory;
b) draw-up and implement the local budget;
c) Carry out all orders of respective higher organs of the soviet power;    
d) Decide all questions of local importance within their respective territory;
e) Coordinate all soviet activity in their respective territories;
f) Secure the revolutionary justice on their respective territories;
g)  Secure the state order and public security on their respective territories;
h) Discuss the issues of nationwide importance upon their own initiative, as well as upon the proposal by the higher organs of the soviet power.
60. The District Congress of Soviets and the District Executive Committees shall have the right to control the activity of the local soviets and their executive organs.
61. The District Executive committees shall have the right to suspend the implementation, at their own responsibility, of the orders by the People’s Commissariats of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia on the exceptional basis and in conformity to the rules defined by the Central Executive committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
d) Courts and Directorate of Public Prosecution
62. For the legal protection of the Workers’ and Peasants’ state, and for strengthening of revolutionary justice and protection of the public order, the unified Public Court shall operate on the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, which also includes the Directorate of Public Prosecution formed on the basis defined by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and functioning under the procedural rules, basics of which are determined by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
63. The judicial organs and the Directorate of Public Prosecution shall observe the civil and criminal legislation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia elaborated on the bases established by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as well as the laws valid on the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia; in case of lack or deficiencies of such laws, they shall be guided by the common spirit and interest of the Soviet legislation.
b) The checking and cancellation of elections and recall of the Deputies
70. If an election was irregularly carried on in its entirety, it may be declared void by a higher soviet authority.  The highest authority in relation of election of soviets is the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
Chapter V
The budget rights of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
73. The local budget of the Republic is in force on the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as the local budgets of the administrative-territorial (cities, districts and rural settlements) entities included within the Abkhaz ASSR.
74. The volume of budget of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is subordinate to the rules provided for in the Regulations on Budgetary Rights of the autonomous soviet socialist republics and oblasts of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR, and the budgets of administrative-territorial entities (cities, districts and rural settlements) of the Abkhaz SSR – to the Regulations on Local Fiscal Regulations and other relevant legal acts of the USSR, Trans-Caucasus SFSR and of the Georgian SSR.  
75. The income resources, as well as the expenditure of the budget of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be determined by the Regulations on Budgetary Rights of the autonomous soviet socialist republics and oblasts of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR.
76. The income resources, as well as the expenditure of the budgets of the administrative-territorial entities (cities, districts and rural settlements) included within the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be determined by the Regulations on Local Finances, as well as of other legal acts of the USSR, Trans-Caucasus SFSR and the Georgian SSR.
77. The Central Executive Committee of the  Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall regulate the budget of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as the budgets of the administrative-territorial entities (cities and districts) included within the Republic on the basis of Regulations on Local Finances and through determination of incomes entirely transferred to the budget of the administrative territorial entities, as well as of allocations in relevant quantity from the central revenues.
78. All taxes and dues on the territory of Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be determined upon the all-union legislation.
79. The Budget of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as the budgets of the administrative- territorial entities included within the Republic, shall be approved before the fiscal year under the unified Act by the Central Executive Committee of Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia in accordance to the rules established by the legislation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
80. The procedure for drafting and implementation of the Budget of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as of the administrative-territorial entities, reporting and accounting on them shall be determined by the legislation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
81. Expenditure of the budget resources of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and of the budgets of administrative-territorial entities (cities, districts and rural settlements) shall be formed within the scope approved in compliance with the budgetary allocations and only for the direct purposes.
82. The report on budget implementation by the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and the administrative territorial entities shall be reviewed and approved by the Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
Chapter VI
The Coat of Arms, Flag and Capital City
of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
83. The coat of arms of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia consists of the background with the landscape of Abkhazia on which a golden scythe and hammer are placed.  On the top there is a five-pointed star in sun-rays.  The coat of arms is surrounded by corn, tobacco and grape wreath, inscribed in three languages: Abkhaz, Georgian and Russian – “Abkhaz ASSR” and “Workers of the World, Unite!”
84. The flag of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia consists of red cloth or purple linen, in the left top corner of which are placed scythe and hammer and above them the five-pointed star surrounded with a golden wreath, inscribed: AASSR.  The size 1:2.
85. Sukhum is the capital of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
7 January, 1935
(The Congresses of the Soviets of the USSR, Union and Autonomous Republics, vol. 6, p. 766-781)


(RESOLUTION of the Congress) on changes of Articles:44,48,49,52,53,54,64 and 78 and revoking Article 51 of the Basic law (Constitution) of the Georgian SSR
The Seventh All-Georgian Congress of the Soviets of Workers, peasants and Read Army Deputies, on the basis of section “a” of Article 19 of the Basic Law (Constitution) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, decrees:
    To introduce the following changes to the Basic Law (Constitution) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia:
9. Article 78 (SU 1931, N9, Article 92) shall be formulated as follows:
“78. Central Executive committees of the Autonomous Republics or Oblasts shall form the relevant republic or oblast organs for the purpose of management of the autonomous branches of the state management (education, Health-care, Social Protection, Courts), as well as for management of joint branches (Local Industry, Agriculture, Internal Trade, Public Utilities, Labour). Representative of the People’s Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall operate at the Central Executive committees of the Autonomous Republics entitled to direct the management of state branches on the whole territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
The agencies of joint branches of the state management located on the territories of autonomous republics or oblasts and subordinate to the central executive committees of the autonomous republics or oblasts, shall carry out the directives and tasks of the relevant People’s Commissariats and the Trade Unions   of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia; the latter are authorized to revoke the directives if they contradict to the directive of the central executive committees of the respective autonomous republics and oblasts, as well as to legislations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Republic and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.  The representatives of the People’s Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, being the organs of these commissariats in the autonomous republics and oblasts, shall submit the report on their activity to the central executive committees of the autonomous republics and oblasts.
Chairman of the Seventh All-Georgian Congress
of the Soviets of Workers, Peasants and Read Army Deputies – Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the Seventh All-Georgian Congress
of the Soviets of Workers, Peasants and Read Army Deputies – T. Zhgenti
13 January 1935
(The Congresses of People’s Deputies of the Georgian SSR. 1921-1937; Collection of documents. Tb., 1980, p. 329-331/in Georgia)


1936
CONSTITUTION (BASIC LAW) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Chapter I.  Public Arrangement
Article 1. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of the workers and peasants.
Chapter II. State Arrangement
Article 13. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is the Union State established on the basis of voluntary association of the equal Soviet Socialist Republics…
Article 14. The jurisdiction of the Union Soviet Socialist Republics, as represented by its highest bodies of state authority and administration, shall cover:
f) the admission of new republics to the USSR; endorsement of the formation of new autonomous republics and autonomous regions within Union Republics;
Article 25.
The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic includes: the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara and the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Chapter III.  Supreme organs of state power
Article 30. The highest body of state authority of the USSR shall be the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
Article 33. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR shall consist of two chambers: the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities.
Article 34. The Soviet of Union shall be elected by the citizens of the USSR at the electoral districts on the basis of the following representation: one deputy from each 300 000 inhabitants.
Article 35. The Soviet of Nationalities shall be elected by the citizens of the USSR in the Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and National Districts on the basis of the following representation: 25 deputies from each Union Republic, 11 deputies from each Autonomous Republic, five deputies from each Autonomous Oblast and one deputy from each National District.
Chapter VI. The Organs of the State management of the Union Republics
Article 79.  The Council of Public Commissars of a Union Republic shall be the supreme executive and administrative body of the state authority in the Republic.
80. The Council of Public Commissars of a Union Republic shall be responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet of that republic or, between sessions of the Supreme Soviet, to its Presidium.
Chapter VII. Higher Bodies of Autonomous Republics
Article 89. The highest body of state authority of an Autonomous Republic shall be the Supreme Soviet of that Republic.
Article 90.  The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic shall be elected by the citizens of that republic in a term of four years on the basis of representation specified for in the Constitution of an Autonomous Republic.
Article 91. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic shall be a sole legislative authority of that republic.
92. Each Autonomous Republic shall have its Constitution with respect of characteristic traits of the Autonomous Republic and in full compliance to the Constitution of the Union Republic.
93. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic shall elect a Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic and shall form a Council of Public Commissars of an Autonomous Republic in accordance of its Constitution.
Chapter VIII. Local Bodies of state authority
Article 94.  Local Soviets in Regions, Oblasts, Autonomous Oblasts, Districts, Cities, Settlements, and Rural communities shall be elected in a term of two years by the citizens accordingly.
Article 96.The norms of representation to the Local Soviets shall be determined by the Constitution of a Union Republic.
Article 98. Local Soviets of People’s Deputies shall decide matters within the competence accorded them by the legislation of the USSR and Union Republic.
Article 99.  The Executive and administrative bodies of local Soviets shall be the Executive Committees elected by them from among their deputies; the executive committee shall consist of: chairman, his deputies, secretary and members.
Chapter IX. Courts and Procurator
Article 102.  In the USSR justice is administered by the Supreme Court of the USSR, Supreme courts of Union Republics, courts of Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Oblasts, an the special courts established under the decree of the Supreme Soviet.
(…)
Article 104.  The Supreme Court if the USSR is the highest judicial body in the USSR and supervises the administration of justice by the courts of the USSR and Union Republics.
Article 105.  The Supreme Court of the USSR and the Special Courts shall be elected by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR with a term of five years.
Article 106.  the Supreme Courts of Union Republics shall be elected by the Supreme Soviets of Union Republics.
107. The Supreme Courts of the Autonomous Republics shall be elected by the Supreme Soviets of the Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Republics with the term of five years.
Article 108. The Courts of regions and districts, as well as of autonomous oblasts shall be elected by the Councils of People’s Deputies of the relevant entities with the term of five years.
Article 109.  The Public Courts shall be elected by the inhabitants of the region on the basis of direct and equal suffrage by secrete ballots with the term of three years.
Article 110.  Judicial proceeding shall be conducted in the language of the Union Republic, Autonomous Republic or Autonomous Oblast. Persons participated in the court proceedings, who do not know the language of proceedings shall be ensured the right to become fully acquainted with the materials in the case through interpreter, as well as the right to address the court in their own language.
(…)
Article 115. The Procurators of Union Republics, Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Oblasts are appointed by the Procurator of the USSR with the term of five years.
Article 116. Regional, district and city procurators shall be appointed by the Procurators of Union Republics subject to confirmation by the Procurator of the USSR; the term of office shall be five years.
Article 117. The agencies of the Procurator’s Office exercise their powers independently of any local bodies whatsoever, and are subordinate solely to the Procurator of the USSR.
5 December 1936
(Constitution and Constitutional Acts of the USSR, 1940, p. 5-22)

1937
CONSTITUTION (BASIC LAW) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
Chapter I
The organization of the society
Article 1.  The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is a socialist state of workers and peasants.
Chapter II
The organization of the state
Article 13. For the purpose of mutual assistance in economic, political and defence sphere, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia voluntary associated with the equal Soviet Socialist Republics... – in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia guarantees the rights specified for in Article 14 of the Constitution of the USSR.
Outside of the scope of Article 14 the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall exercise its jurisdiction independently and fully maintain its sovereign rights.
Article 14.  The jurisdiction of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, as represented by its highest organs of state authority and organs of government, covers:
a) adoption the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, introduction the changes and amendments to it, control the observance of the Constitution;
b) Confirmation of the Constitutions of the Abkhaz and Adjarian Autonomous SSR;
c) Determination of boundaries of the Abkhaz and Adjarian SSR and of the South-Ossetian Autonomous oblast;
d) Submission of proposals for confirmation to the Supreme Soviets of the USSR on forming the new autonomous Republics and autonomous oblasts within the Georgian SSR;
e) Determination of boundaries and district division of the Georgian SSR;
f) Adoption of the laws, legal Codes and the Acts of the Georgian SSR;
g) Safeguarding the public order and civil rights;
h) Approval of the public-economic plans of the Georgian SSR;
i) Approval of the state budget of the Georgian SSR;
j) Management of implementation of the budgets of the Abkhaz Autonomous SSR, Adjarian Autonomous SSR and of the South-Ossetian Autonomous oblast, as well as of city’s and local budgets;
k) Introduction of state and local taxes, dues and non-tax income in accordance of the law of the USSR;
l) Administration of the Banks of state subordination, industrial and agricultural establishments and enterprises and  local trading enterprises and industry;
m) Control over the situation and management of the enterprises and institutions of all-Union importance;
n) Establishment of the rules for the use of land, its bowels, water and forest;
o) Administration of municipal improvements, housing and public utilities;
p) Administration of road-construction, local transport and communications;
q) Administration of labour legislation;
r) Administration of the public health;
s) Administration of insurance and savings’
t) Administration of primary, secondary and high educational establishments;
u) Administration of cultural-educational and scientific institutions and organizations of the Georgian SSR and management of cultural and scientific organizations of the all-state importance;
u) Arrangement of the judicial organs;
v) Granting the citizenship of the Georgian SSR;
x) Issuing the act of amnesty and pardon for the citizens convicted by the judiciary organs of the Georgian SSR.
Article 15.  The Georgian SSR reserves the right to secede freely from the USSR.
Article 16. Alteration of the territory of Georgia is inadmissible without its consent.
Article 17.  The laws of the USSR are valid on the territory of the Georgian SSR.
Article 18.  The citizen of the Georgian SSR is the citizen of the USSR.
Any citizen of other union republic shall enjoy the equal rights on the territory of the Georgian SSR as for citizen of the Georgian SSR;
Article 19. The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic includes: the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South-Ossetia; ... – districts and cities: Tbilisi and Poti, which are not included in the districts.
Article 20. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia includes: Gagra, Gali, Gudauta, Sukhumi, Ochamchire districts and city Sukhumi, which is not included in the district.
Article 21. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara includes: Batumi, keda, Kobuleti and Khulo districts, and city Batumi, which is not included in the district.
Article 22. The South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast includes: Znauri, Leningori, Staliniri and Java districts and city Tskhinvali, which is not included in the district.
Article 23. The laws of the Georgian SSR have the same force within the territory of the whole Georgian SSR.
In the event of discrepancy between a law of the Abkhaz and Adjarian autonomous SSR and the Georgian SSR, the Law of the Georgian SSR prevails.
24. The Autonomous SSR of Abkhazia and the Autonomous SSR of Adjara shall have their own Constitutions which take account of the specific features of these autonomous republics and are drawn up in full conformity with the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and of the Constitution of the USSR.
The South-Ossetian Autonomous oblast has the Regulations of the autonomous oblast, which shall be approved by the Supreme Soviets of the Georgian SSR.
Chapter III
The highest organs of the state authority ofthe Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
Article 26.  Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall exercise all the rights under the jurisdiction of the Georgian SSR in conformity to the Article 13 and Article 14 of the Constitution of the Georgian SSR as they are, on the basis of this Constitution, outside of the competence of the organs that are accountable to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, Council of People’s Commissars of the Georgian SSR and of the People’s Commissariats of the Georgian SSR.
Article 27. The supreme soviet of the Georgian SSR is the sole legislative organ of the Georgian SSR.
Article 28. The Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall be elected by the citizens of the republic according the electoral district upon the following norm: one deputy for 15 000 inhabitants.
Article 29. The Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall be elected for a term of four years.
Article 34. The Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall elect the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, consisting of: chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, two Vice-Chairmen according the number of autonomous republics, a secretary of the Presidium and 13 members.
Article 36.  The presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR:
d) revokes the resolutions and decrees issued by the Council of People’s Commissars of the Georgian SSR and of the Councils of People’s Commissars of the autonomous republics, as well as the Decisions adopted by the Council of Workers’ Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast if they do not comply to the legislation;
(...)
Chapter V
The organs of Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
Article 44. The highest executive and administrative organ of the state authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is the Council of People’s Commissars of the Georgian SSR.
Article 47.  Decision and Orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Georgian SSR are binding throughout the territory of the Georgian SSR.
Article 48. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Georgian SSR:
d) Coordinates and takes control over the activity of the councils of the people’s commissars of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblast; exercises guidance and takes control over the executive committees of the district and city soviets of worker’s deputies.
(...) 49. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Georgian SSR has the right to suspend the decisions and orders of the executive committee of the autonomous oblast and the resolutions and decrees of the councils of the People’s Commissars of the autonomous republics, and the decisions and orders of the Soviets of Worker’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast.
Chapter V
The highest organs of state authority of the Autonomous
Republic of Abkhazia and of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara
Article 59.  The highest organs of state authority of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara are the Supreme Soviets of the respective autonomous republic.
Article 60. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic is elected by the citizens of the Republic for a term of four years on the basis of representation established by the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic.
Article 61. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic is the sole legislative organ of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
Article 62.  The Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic:
a) Adopts the constitution of the Autonomous Republic and submits it to the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR for approval pursuant to Article 24 of the Constitution of the Georgian SSR;
b) Submits proposals to the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR on forming the new districts an cities for approval, and determines their boundaries;
c) Approves the public-economic plan and budget of the autonomous republic.
d) Grants the award and honorary titles to the citizens of the autonomous Republic.
Article 63. The Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic elects the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic consisting of: chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic, Vice-chairmen, a secretary of the members of the Presidium.
Article 64.  The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic is accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic.
Article 65.  The jurisdiction of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic shall be determined by the Constitution of the Autonomous SSR.
Article 66. Elects the chairman and the vice-chairmen for the session of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic.
Article 67.  The Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic forms the Government of the Autonomous Republic – Council of People’s Commissars of the Autonomous Republic.
Chapter VI
The organs of government of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
 of Abkhazia and of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara
Article 68.  The highest executive and administrative organ of the autonomous SSR of Abkhazia and Adjara is the Council of People’s Commissars of the respective autonomous republic.
Article 69. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Autonomous Republic is responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the respective autonomous Republic; and in the intervals between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic it is responsible and accountable to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic.
Article 70. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Autonomous Republic adopts decisions and orders on the basis and in pursuant of the laws in operation of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and the Autonomous Republic, and orders and decrees of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Georgian SSR, and supervises their execution.
Article 71. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Autonomous SSR has the right to revoke the orders and instructions of the People’s Commissars of the Autonomous SSR, and the decisions and orders of the District and City executive committees on the territory of it the autonomous republic, as well as to suspend the decisions and orders of the District Soviets of Worker’s Deputies.
Article 72.  The Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic shall form the Council of people’s Commissars of the Autonomous Republic consisting of:
Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars;
Vice-Chairmen of the Council of People’s Commissars;
Chairman of the State Planning Commission;
Peoples Commissars of
Agriculture;
Finance;
Internal Trade;
Internal Affairs;
Justice;
Public Health;
Education;
Local Industry;
Municipal Economy;
Social Maintenance;
Head of Road Department;
Representative of Food-processing Committee;
Head of Art Affairs’ Department
In addition to the aforementioned, with respect of specifics of the economy and upon the approval of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, the following People’s Commissars can be nominated:
Food Industry;
Light Industry;
Forest Industry.
Article 73. The People’s Commissars of the Autonomous Republics direct the branches of state administration under their competence in accordance with the Constitutions of the Georgian SSR and the Autonomous SSR.
74. The people’s Commissars of the Autonomous Republics, within the scope of their competence, issue the orders and instruction in accordance with the laws of the USSR, the Georgian SSR, the Autonomous Republic, as well as with the decrees and orders issued by the Councils of people’s Commissars of the USSR, Georgian SSR and the Autonomous Republic.
75.  The People’s Commissariats of the Autonomous Republic shall direct the branches of state administration entrusted to them and are subordinate to the Council of people’s Commissariats of the Autonomous Republic, as well as of the respective People’s Commissariat of the Georgian SSR.
Chapter VII
The organs of state authority of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia
Article 76.  The organ of state authority in the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia is the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies.
Article 77.  The Soviet of Working People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia directs the work of the organs of administration subordinate to them, ensures the maintenance of public order, the observance of the laws and protection of the rights of citizens, directs local economic and cultural development, approves the budget and public-economic plan of the oblast.
Article 79. The Soviet of Working People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia adopts decisions and issues orders within the limits of the power vested in it by the laws of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR.
Article 80.  The executive and administrative organ of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia is the executive committee of the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia elected by the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast, consisting of a chairman, two vice-chairmen, secretary and seven members.
Article 81.  For the purpose of general management of the fields under the jurisdiction of the oblast, the executive committee of the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia forms the following Departments:
Agriculture;
Finance;
Internal Trade;
Health-care;
Public Education;
Local Industry;
Municipal Economy;
Forestry;
Social protection;
Roads;
Chancellery;
Art Affairs;
Planning Commission;
Personnel division at the Chairman of the executive committee;
In addition to the aforementioned, the executive committee of the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia forms:
Office of the Commissariat of the Internal Affairs;
Representative of the Food processing agency.
Article 82. The Departments and entities of the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia are subordinate to the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, as well as to the respective People’s Commissariats of the Georgian SSR.
Article 83.  The district organs of state authority of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of South Ossetia shall be formed in accordance of Chapter VIII of this Constitution.
Chapter VIII
The local organs of state authority
Article 84. The organs of state authority in the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and of the districts, cities, villages and rural settlements of the Georgian SSR are the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies.
Article 85. The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of districts, cities, villages and rural settlements are elected by the workers of the respective territorial entities for a term of two years.
Article 86. The District Soviets of Working People’s Deputies shall be elected according the norm – one deputy for 300 inhabitants.
Article 87. The City Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies shall be elected according the following norms: the Poti City Soviet – one deputy for 200 inhabitants; the Kutaisi City Soviet – one deputy for 400 inhabitants; the Tbilisi City Soviet – 1 Deputy for 700 inhabitants; for the other cities: a) one deputy for 100 inhabitants where the population is under 10 000; b) one deputy for 150 inhabitants where the population is over 10 000;
Article 88.  The village and community Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies shall be elected according to the number of inhabitants: one deputy for not less than 50 and not more than 150 inhabitants.
The representation for the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of rural settlements and communities shall be defined within the limits established by this Article.
Article 89.   The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies (District, city, village) direct cultural-political and economic development on their respective territories, introduce the local budget, direct the management of subordinate organs, safeguard the public order, encourage the strengthening of defence capacity and observe the laws and protection of the rights of citizens.
Article 90. The Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies adopt decisions and issue orders within the limits of the powers vested in them by the laws of the USSR, Georgian SSR and of the Autonomous Republic.
Article 93.  The executive and administrative organs of the Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies of districts, cities and villages shall be the executive committees elected by the respective Soviets consisting of Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, a secretary and members.
Article 94. The executive and administrative organs of the Soviets of villages and communities with the inhabitants not more than 500 people are a chairman, a vice-chairman and a secretary elected by the respective Soviets.  
Article 95. Executive Committees of the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies (District, city, village) shall coordinate the cultural-political and economic development in their area in accordance with the decisions made by the respective soviets of the working people’s deputies and of the higher state organs.
Article 96.  The District and City Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies shall elect a chairman and a secretary for holding the session.
Article 97.  The Chairman of the Village Soviet shall convene and lead the session of the village soviet.
Article 98.  The executive organs of the Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies are accountable to the respective Soviets they are elected by, as well as to the executive organs of the higher Soviets.
Article 99. The higher executive committees of the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies are authorized to revoke and suspend the decisions and orders issued by the lower executive committees.
Article 101.  For the purpose of management of certain branches, the district and city Soviets are authorized to form the executive Departments.
Article 102.  The District Soviets shall form the following Departments:
Agriculture;
Public Education;
Finance;
Internal Trade;
Health-care;
Social Protection;
Chancellery;
Road;
Planning commission;
Personnel management sector at the Chairman of the Committee.
In addition to the aforementioned and proceeding from the specifics of the district’s economy and subject to approval of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR. Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic and of the Soviet of the Working People’s Deputies of the autonomous Oblast, the District Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies is authorized to form the Divisions: municipal economy and local industry.
Article 103. According to the district specifics, the Commissariat of the Internal Affairs shall form the offices at the District Soviets of the Working people’s Deputies in accordance of the laws of the USSR and the Georgian SSR subject to approval of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous SSR and of the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies of the Autonomous oblast.
Article 105.  The Departments of the District Soviets of the Working Peoples Deputies are subordinate to the District Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies and their executive committees, as well as to the relevant People’s Commissariats of the Georgian SSR, and in the Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Oblasts – to the relevant People’s Commissariats of the Autonomous Republic or the Autonomous oblast respectively.
Article 106. The Departments of the City Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies are subordinate to the City Soviet, as well as to the respective executive committee and the relevant People’s Commissariat of the Georgian SSR; and in the Autonomous Republics and Autonomous oblasts they are subordinate to the relevant people’s Commissariat of the Autonomous Republic or of the relevant Division of the Executive Committee of the Autonomous Oblast.
Article 108. The Departments of the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies of Sukhumi are subordinate to the City Soviet and its executive committee, as well as to the relevant People’s Commissariat of the Autonomous SSR of Abkhazia.
The Departments of the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies of Staliniri are subordinate to the City Soviet and its executive committee, as well as to the relevant Division of the Executive Committee of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
(…)
Chapter IX
The Budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
Article 112.  The Council of people’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall draw-up the state budget of the Georgian SSR and submit it to the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR for approval.
(…)
Article 116. The income from the local economy, as well as the revenues from local taxes and dues of the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, as well as of districts, cities, villages and rural settlements shall be allotted to the budget of respective territorial entity according to the quantity determined by the legislation of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR.
Chapter X
Courts and Procurator’s Office
Article 117.  In the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia justice is administered by the Supreme Court of Georgia, Supreme Courts of the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjara, the Court of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, the Special Courts of the USSR established under the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, and the people’s courts.
Article 119.  The Supreme Court of the Georgian SSR is the highest judicial body in the Georgian SSR.  It is entitled to supervise the administration of justice at the courts of the Georgian SSR, Abkhaz and Adjarian Autonomous SSR and of the South-Ossetian Autonomous oblast.
Article 120. The Supreme Court of the Georgian SSR shall be elected by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR for a term of five years.
Article 121. The Supreme Courts of the Autonomous Republics shall be elected by the respective Supreme Soviets for a term of five years.
Article 124. Judicial proceedings on the territory of the Georgia SSR shall be conducted in Georgian or in the language of Autonomous Republic, or Autonomous oblast.  Persons participating in the court proceedings, who do not know the language in which they are being conducted, shall be ensured the right to become fully acquainted with the materials in the case through the interpreter, and the rights to address the court in their own language.
127. Supreme power of supervision over the strict and uniform observance of laws by all people’s Commissariats and subordinate agencies, officials and citizens is vested in the Procurator of the USSR, as well as in the Procurator of the Georgian SSR.
Article 128. The Procurators of the Georgian SSR, as well as the procurators of the Abkhaz and Adjarian Autonomous SSR are appointed by the Procurator of the USSR for a term of five years.
Article 129.  The District and City procurators are appointed by the Procurator of the Georgian SSR for a term of five years subject to approval of the Procurator of the USSR.
Article 130. The agencies of the Procurator’s Office exercise their powers independently of any local bodies whatsoever, and are subordinate solely to the Procurator of the USSR.
Chapter XIII
Language, Flag and Capital-City
Article 156. Georgian is the state language of the Georgian SSR.
The national minorities residing on the territory of the Georgian SSR shall have the right to the free development and application of their mother tongues in cultural, as well as in state institutions.
Article 157.  The laws, as well as the Decrees and Resolutions of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, the Decisions and orders of the Council of people’s Commissariats of the Georgian SSR shall be published in Georgian language, and for the Autonomous Republics and Autonomous oblasts – in Georgian and in the language of autonomous Republic or oblast.
Article 158. The laws, as well as decrees and ordinances of the Presidiums of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republics, orders and decisions of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Autonomous Republics, decisions of the executive committees of the autonomous oblast shall be published in the language of respective autonomous republic or autonomous oblast and in Georgian.
(…)
13 February 1937
(Collection of the Constitutional Acts of the Georgian SSR, p. 133-160)


CONSTITUTION (BASIC LAW) of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
Chapter I
The organization of the society
Article 1.  The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is a socialist state of workers and peasants.
Chapter II
The organization of the state
Article 13.     The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is included in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia with the rights of Autonomous Republic.
The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia exercises its jurisdiction outside of competence specified for in Article 14 of the Constitution of the USSR and Article 14 of the Constitution of Georgia.
Article 14. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia includes: Gagra, Gali, Gudauta, Sukhumi, Ochamchire Regions and the City Sukhumi, which is under direct subordination to the highest organs of state authority of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 15.  The territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall not be altered without its consent.
Article 16. The laws of the USSR and the Georgian SSR shall be binding on the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia. In the event of discrepancy between a law of the Abkhaz ASSR and the USSR or the Georgian SSR, the law of the USSR or Georgian SSR prevails.
Article 17. The citizen of the Abkhaz SSR is the citizen of the Georgian SSR and of the USSR.
Any citizen of the Georgian SSR, as well as of other Union Republics shall enjoy the equal rights on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR as for citizen of the Abkhaz SSR.
Article 18. The jurisdiction of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as represented by its highest organs of state authority and organs of government, covers:
a) adoption of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, its submission to the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, controls the observance of the Constitution;
b) determination of boundaries of the districts and cities subject to further submission to the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR for approval;
c) legislation of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
d) safeguarding the public order and civil rights;
e) Approval of the public-economic plans of the Abkhaz ASSR;
f) Approval of the state budget of the Abkhaz ASSR;
g) Introduction of state and local taxes, dues and non-tax income in accordance of the legislation of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR;
h)  management of implementation of budgets of district, city and village soviets;
i) administration of insurance and savings;
j) administration of industrial, agricultural and trade initiatives and management of the organizations of the republican importance, as well as the management of the local industry;
i) control and monitoring over the situation and management of the organs subordinate to the USSR and of the Georgian SSR;
j) control and management of the rules for the use of land, its bowels, water and forest in accordance with the laws of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR;
k) administration of municipal improvements, housing and public utilities in the cities and other settlements;
l) road construction, management of local transport and of local communications;
m) control over the implementation of the Labour Law of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR;
n) management of the public health affairs;
o) management of the social security affairs;
p) administration of primary, secondary and high educational institutions;
q) administration of cultural-education and scientific institutions of the Abkhaz ASSR;
r) management and organization of the physical culture and sport affairs;
s) arrangement of the judicial organs of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Chapter III
The highest organs of the state authority of the
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
Article 19. Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is the highest organ of the state authority of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
Article 20. Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall exercise all the rights under the jurisdiction of the Abkhaz ASSR in conformity to Article 13 and Article 18 of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR as they are, on the basis of this Constitution, outside of the of the competence of the organs that are accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR: presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR, Council of People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR and the People’s Commissariats of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 21. The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR is the sole legislative organ of the Abkhaz ASSR;
Article 22. The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be elected by the citizens of the Abkhaz ASSR for a term of four years according to the electoral district upon the following norm: one deputy for 3000 inhabitants.
Article 23.  A law is considered adopted if passed by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR by a simple majority of votes.
24. The laws adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be published in Abkhaz and Georgian languages over the signatures of the Chairman and Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 25. The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR elects the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR and two Vice-Chairmen.
Article 26. The Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR presides the sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR and directs the internal procedures of the organ.
Article 27.  The sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR    are convened by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR twice a year.
Special sessions are convened by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR at its discretion or at the request of the one third of deputies of the Supreme Soviet.
Article 28.  Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR elects the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz SSR consisting of a Chairman of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR, Vice-Chairman, a secretary and 8 members of the presidium.
Article 29.  The presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR is accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 30. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR:
a) Convenes the sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR;
b) Interprets laws of the Abkhaz ASSR, issues decrees;
c) Conducts referendum;
d) Annuls decisions and orders of the Council of people’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR and decisions and orders of the district and city soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR in case they do not conform to law;
e) In the periods between the convocation of the sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR relieves of their posts and appoints certain People’s Commissars upon nomination of the Chairman of the Council of people’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR, subject to subsequent confirmation by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR;
f) Confers titles of honour of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 37. Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR forms the Government of the Abkhaz ASSR – the Council of People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Chapter IV
The organs of government of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
 Article 38.  The highest executive and administrative organ of the state authority of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is the Council of People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR.
(...)
Article 39. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR; and in the intervals between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz SSR it is responsible and accountable to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 40. The Council of the People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR issues decisions and orders on the basis and in pursuance of the laws of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and Abkhaz ASSR, and on the basis of decisions and orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, and supervises their execution.
41. Decisions and Orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR are binding throughout the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 42. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR:
a) Coordinates and directs the work of the Commissariats of the Abkhaz ASSR and of other institutions, cultural and economic, under its subordination.  coordinates and controls the activity of the representatives of the all0Union and Union-Republican People’s Commissariats.
b) Adopts the measures to carry out the public-economic plan;
c) Adopts measures to carry out the state and local budgets of the Abkhaz ASSR;
d)  Adopts the measures for securing the public order, for protection of state interests, and for safeguarding the rights of citizens;
e) Directs and controls the activity of the District and City executive committees of the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies
Article 43. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR has the right to annul decisions and orders of the District and City executive committees of the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies and to suspend decisions and orders of the District and City Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies.
The Council of people’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR has the right to revoke the Orders and Instructions of the People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 44. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR and consists of:
The Chairman of the Council of people’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR;
Two Vice-Chairmen of the Council of people’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR;
The Chairman of the state Planning Commission of the Abkhaz ASSR;
The following People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR:
Agriculture,
Finance;
Internal Trade;
Internal Affairs;
health-care;
Education;
Local Industry;
Municipal Economy;
Social Protection;
Head of Road Department;
Representative of the Food Processing Committee of the USSR;
Head of Department on Arts.
Article 46. The people’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR direct the branches of state administration which come within the jurisdiction of the Abkhaz ASSR in conformity to the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 47. The people’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR issue, within the limits of their jurisdiction, orders and instruction on the basis and in pursuance of the laws of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and the Abkhaz ASSR, and also of decisions and orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Georgian SSR and the Abkhaz ASSR and supervise their execution.
Article 48.  The people’s Commissariats of the Abkhaz ASSR direct the branches of state administration entrusted to them and they are subordinate to the Council of People’s Commissars, as well as to the relevant People’s Commissariat of the Georgian SSR.
Chapter V
Local organs of State Authorities
Article 49. The Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies are the organs of state authority in districts, cities, villages and rural settlements.
Article 50. The district, city, village and rural settlement Soviets of Working People’s Deputies shall be elected by the workers of respective territorial entity for a term of two years.
Article 51. The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies (district, city, village, rural settlement) direct the cultural-political and economic development of their respective territories, draw-up the local budget and direct the work of the organs of administration subordinate to them, ensure the maintenance of public order, the observance of the laws and the protection of the rights of citizens.
Article 52. The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies adopt decisions and issue orders within the limits of the powers vested in them by the laws of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 53. The executive and administrative organs of Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of districts, cities, village and rural localities are the executive Committees elected by them, consisting of a Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, a Secretary and members.
Article 54. The executive and administrative organ of rural Soviets of Working people’s Deputies in small localities is the Chairman, the Vice-Chairman, and the Secretary elected by them.
Article 55. The executive committees of the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies (district, city, village and rural settlement) direct the cultural-political and economic development of their respective territories in pursuance of the decisions of the relevant Soviet of the Working People’s Deputies and of the higher organs of the state authority.
Article 56. The executive committee of the district Soviet of the Working People’s Deputies shall convene the session not less than 6 times a year.
Article 57. The executive committees of the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of the city, village and rural localities shall convene the session of their respective executive organs not less that once a month.
Chapter VI.
The Budget of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
Article 72. The income from the local economy, as well as the revenues from local taxes and dues of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, as well as the local payment and assets shall be allotted to the budget of the Abkhaz ASSR according to the quantity determined by the legislation of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR.
Chapter VII
Courts and Procurator’s Office
Article 73. In the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia justice is administered by the People’s Courts, the Supreme of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Special Courts of the USSR established under the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
Article 75. The Supreme Court of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is the highest judicial body in the Abkhaz ASSR. It is entitled to supervise the administration of justice at the courts of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 76. The Supreme Court of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be elected by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 77. The People’s Courts shall be elected by the citizens of the District through on the basis of universal, direct and equal suffrage by secret ballot for a term of three years.
Article 78. Judicial proceedings in the rural localities where the majority of population is of Abkhaz origin, shall be conducted in Abkhaz language and where the majority is Georgian population – in Georgian language; Persons participating in the court proceedings, who do not know these languages, shall be ensured the right to become fully acquainted with the materials in the case through the interpreter, and the right to address the court in their native language.
Article 81. Supreme power of supervision over the strict and uniform observance of laws by all People’s Commissariats and subordinate agencies, officials and citizens on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR is vested in the Procurator of the USSR, as well as in the Procurators of the Georgian SSR and of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 82. The Procurator of the Abkhaz ASSR is appointed by the procurator of the USSR for a term of five years.
Article 83. The District and City Procurators of the Abkhaz ASSR are appointed by the Procurator of the Georgian SSR for a term of five years subject to approval of the Procurator of the USSR.
Article 84. The agencies of the procurator’s office exercise their function independently on any local bodies whatsoever, and are subordinate solely to the Procurator of the USSR and to the Procurator of the Georgian SSR.
Article IX
The Electoral System
Article 108. Elections of the Soviets of the Working People’s Deputies in Abkhazia shall be carried out in accordance of the Electoral Districts upon the following norms:
District Soviets – one deputy for 300 inhabitants; City Soviets – according to the size of the city – 1 Deputy for not less than 100 and not more than 200 inhabitants;
Village Soviets – according to the size of area – one Deputy for not less than 50 and not more than 150 inhabitants;  
The norms for election of district, city, village and rural settlements shall be established by the Regulations on the Election of Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR on the basis of the norms specified for in this Article.
Chapter X
Coat of Arms, Flag, Capital
Article 111.  The arms of the Georgian SSR is the State Arms of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, . . . surrounded with the inscription: „Workers of All Countries, Unite!“ in Georgian, Abkhaz and Russian languages.
Article 112. The Flag of the Georgian SSR is the Flag of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, which is a rectangle of red cloth, in the left corner above, within the square the inscription „Abkhaz ASSR“ in Georgian, Abkhaz and Russian languages with depicted in gold.
Article 113. The Capital of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is the city of Sukhumi.
Chapter XI
Procedure for Amending the Constitution
Article 114. The Constitution of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia may be amended only by the decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR adopted by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the votes cast of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR subject to approval by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
Presidium of the Eighth Special Congress of the All-Abkhaz Soviets.
Sukhumi, 2 August 1937.
(Constitution (Basic Law) of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia. Sokhumi, 1937, p. 7-33/in Georgia)


1961
LAW on budgetary rights of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, Autonomous Repub-
lics and of the local Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Georgian SSR
Part I
General Provisions
Article 1. The budget of the Georgian SSR is the major financial plan for establishing and using of the state fund of financial resources.  The state budget of the Georgian SSR accumulates part of national revenue used for development of industry, agriculture, transport, trade and other branches of public economy of the Georgian SSR, also for development of the welfare and cultural level of the workers and maintenance of the bodies of the state management.
Article 2. …
The budget of the Georgian SSR, as a state voluntarily associated with other equal union republics into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, is consolidation with the budgets of other Union Republics into the Budget of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The budget of the Georgian SSR, which includes the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara, the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia, the cities and districts of republican subordination – combines the budgets of the Georgian SSR, Abkhaz and Adjarian ASSR, South Ossetian Autonomous oblast and the budgets of cities and districts under republican subordination.
Article 4. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara shall have the budget of the autonomous republic approved by the Supreme Soviet of the respective autonomous republic.
The state budgets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics combine the state budget of the autonomous republic and the local budgets of districts and cities (under subordination of the autonomous republic).
Article 5. The Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall have the local budget of the autonomous oblast approved by the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast.
The local budget of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast combines the oblast budget and the budgets of districts and cities (under the oblast subordination) included within the autonomous oblast.
Part II
The State Budget of the Georgian SSR
Article 9. The following incomes shall be included in the state budget of the Georgian SSR:
a) deductions from profits and other takings from enterprises and economic organizations subordinate to the Council of Public Economy of the Georgian SSR, the ministries and agencies of the Georgian SSR, Councils of Ministers, Ministries and agencies of the autonomous republics and executive committees of the Soviets of people’s deputies except the deductions from the profits of enterprises and economic organizations of the Council of Public Economy of the Georgian SSR transferring to the All-Union budget;
b) profits from forestry, income-tax from the collective farms, income-tax from enterprises and organizations of republican and local importance under subordination of the consumers’ associations, as well as under management of public organizations;
c) Agricultural taxes;
d) deductions from the income-tax from the population in amount of 50%;
e) state duties, local taxes, dues and fees determined by the legislation of the USSR.
Article 10. The State Budget of the Georgian SSR, outside of the incomes specified for in Article 9 of this Law, shall include:
a) the funds for the state social insurance for pension payment;
b) deductions from the turnover tax and from other All-Union incomes.
Article 11. The following expenditures shall be included in the budget of the Georgian SSR:
a) for financing of enterprises and economic organizations under the jurisdiction of the Council of Public Economy of the Georgian SSR, Ministries and Agencies of the Georgian SSR, Councils of Ministers, Ministries and agencies of the autonomous republics and executive committees of the local Soviets of the Peoples’ Deputies;
b) for financing of arrangements carried out by the institutions and organizations of the Georgian SSR in the field of sciences, culture, health-care, sport, for payment of pensions, allowances to the mothers having many children and for other events on social security;
c) for maintaining the state power and the organs of state management, judicial organs and notary offices of the Georgian SSR;
d) for other arrangements financed from the state budget of the Republic in accordance to the legislation of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR.
Article 12.  The surplus funds of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, Councils of Ministers of the autonomous republics, as well as the fund for incidental expenses for the executive committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast shall be created in the state budget of the Georgian SSR for the purpose of covering the urgent needs of the public economy, social and cultural events and of other arrangements that couldn’t have been foreseen at the time the budget of the Georgian SSR had been approved.
Article 13. Differentiation of incomes and expenditures of the state budget of the Georgian SSR between the republican budget of the Georgian SSR, state budget of the Abkhaz ASSR and of the Adjarian ASSR, and of the local budgets of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, districts and cities under the republican subordination shall be determined at the approval of the state budget by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR upon submission of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR.
Article 14. In addition to the foreseen expenditures, the reverse cash balance shall be provided in the state budget of the Georgian SSR at the expense of residual funds.  The amount of reverse cash balance shall be determined upon approval of the state budget of the Georgian SSR.
The reverse cash balance may be utilized within a year for covering the cash break-off and it shall be restored within the same year.
Article 22. The law on the State Budget of the Georgian SSR shall be published for nationwide awareness.
Article 23. In case of adoption of laws of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR, or the decrees of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR after adoption of the state budget of the Georgina SSR, upon which the expenditure of the budgets of autonomous republics, cities and districts under republican jurisdiction included within the Georgian SSR shall increase, or the income shall decrease, these funds shall be responded from the state budget of the Georgian SSR.
Part III
The Republican Budget of the Georgian SSR
Article 31. The republican budget of the Georgian SSR shall provide the necessary funds for financing of measures of all-republican significance in the filed of economic and cultural development.  For the purpose of comprehensive economic development and securing the increase of welfare and cultural level of the workers of the Georgian SSR redistribution of financial resources between the autonomous republics, autonomous oblast, cities (within republican jurisdiction) and districts shall be exercised through the republican budget of the Georgian SSR.
Article 32. The following incomes shall be consolidated into the republican budget of the Georgian SSR:
a) deductions from profits and other takings from the enterprises and economic organizations under subordination of the Council of Republic Economy of the Georgian SSR, Ministries and agencies of the Georgian SSR except the part of deductions from the profits of enterprises and economic organizations of the Council of Public Economy, subject to transfer to the All-Union budget;
b) profit from forestry, income tax from collective farms, income tax from enterprises and organizations of consumers’ cooperatives and enterprises of public organizations;
c) Agricultural tax;
d) deductions from the income tax from the population in amount of 50%;
e) other incomes directed to the republican budget in pursuance to the legislation of the USSR.
In addition to the aforementioned incomes, the budget of the Georgian SSR shall incorporate:
a) funds of a state social insurance for payment of pensions;
b) deductions from turnover tax and from other All-Union state revenues and taxes.
Article 11. The following expenditures shall be included in the republican budget of the Georgian SSR:
a) for financing the enterprises and economic organizations subordinate to the Council of Public Economy, ministries and agencies of the Georgian SSR.
b) for financing the arrangements carried out by the enterprises and organizations in the field of culture, sciences, health-care, sport,  as well as for payment of pensions, allowances to the families having many children and to unwed mothers and for other arrangements aimed at social protection;
c) for maintaining the organs of state authority and state administration of the Georgian SSR, judicial institutions and notary’s offices;
d) for other arrangements financed from the republican budget of the Georgian SSR in accordance with the legislation of the Georgian SSR.
The funds for transferring to the republican budgets of the Abkhaz ASSR, Adjarian ASSR and local budgets of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, districts and cities under the republican subordination, shall be included in the expenditure part of the republican budget of the Georgian SSR upon deductions from the All-Union taxes and incomes.
Article 34. In accordance with Article 12 of this law the reserve fund of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR shall be formed within the republican budget of the Georgian SSR.
Article 35. In addition to the foreseen expenditures the reverse cash balance shall be formed in the republican budget of the Georgian SSR at the expense of the surplus funds in the republican budget of the Georgian SSR in the beginning of planned fiscal year.
The amount of reverse cash balance shall be determined at approval of the republican budget of the Georgian SSR.
 The surplus funds of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, Councils of Ministers of the autonomous republics, as well as the fund for incidental expenses for the executive committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast shall be formed in the state budget of the Georgian SSR for the purpose of covering the urgent needs of the public economy, social and cultural events and of other arrangements that couldn’t have been foreseen at the time the budget of the Georgian SSR had been approved.
The reverse cash balance may be appropriated within a year for covering the cash gap and it shall be restored in the same year.
Article 36. The additional incomes, received in the course of implementation of the republican budget of the Georgian SSR shall be directed in financing the measures aimed at developing the public economy and social-cultural events, including the investments in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the USSR and the legislation of the Georgian SSR.
Article 37. The surpass sum of incomes above expenditure in the republican budget of the Georgian SSR accumulated at the end of fiscal year through   over-fulfilled revenues or saved expenditures, except of investments to the enterprises and organizations under subordination of the Council of Public Economy of the Georgian SSR that shall remain at the disposal of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR and appropriated upon its discretion.
Article 38.  The republican budget of the Georgian SSR shall be implemented upon the inventory of incomes and expenditures drafted by the Ministry of Finance of the Georgian SSR in accordance with the budget approved by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
Part IV
The State Budgets of the Autonomous Republics
Article 40. The budgetary arrangement of the autonomous republics is determined on the basis of their state arrangement and shall be set up by the Supreme Soviets of the autonomous republics in accordance with this Law.
The Autonomous Republics, included within the Georgian SSR shall have the right to draw-up, discuss, approve and execute the state budgets of the autonomous republics.
Article 41. The following incomes shall be incorporated in the state budget of the autonomous republics:
a) deductions from the profits and other takings from the state enterprises and economic organizations subordinate to the ministries and agencies of the autonomous republics and to the executive committees of the local Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Republic;
b) income tax from enterprises and organizations of consumers’ cooperation and enterprises of the public organizations;
c) income from the forestry;
d) agricultural tax;
e) local taxes and dues;
f) state duties and other incomes directed for developing the state budget of the autonomous republic in accordance with the legislation of the Georgian SSR.
Article 42. In addition to the incomes specified for in Article 41, the state budget of the autonomous republic shall incorporate deductions from turnover tax, income tax from collective farms, income tax from the population and other state revenues and taxes in amount specified for in the republican budget of the Georgian SSR.
Article 43. The following expenditures shall be incorporated in the state budget of the autonomous republic:
a) for financing of enterprises and economic organizations subordinate to the ministries and agencies and executive committees of the local Soviets of people’s Deputies of the Autonomous Republic;
b) for financing the measures aimed at developing the culture, sciences, health-care, sport and  social protection carried out by the institutions and organizations of the autonomous republic;
c) for maintaining the organs of state authority and the organs of state administration of the autonomous republic;
d) for other events financed from the budget of the autonomous republic in accordance with the laws of the Georgian SSR.
Article 44. Differentiation of incomes and expenditures of the state budget of the autonomous republic between the republican budget and budgets of cities and districts shall be decided by the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic upon submission of the Council of Ministers of the autonomous republic.
Article 45. In accordance with Article 12 of this Law the reserve fund of the Council of Ministers of the autonomous republic shall be formed in the republican budget of the autonomous republic.
Article 46. In addition to the foreseen expenditures, the reverse cash balance shall be formed in the state budget of the autonomous republic at the expense of the surplus funds of the state budget of the autonomous republic in the beginning of planned fiscal year. The amount of reverse cash balance shall be determined at approval of the state budget of the autonomous republic and it may be increased against the sum fixed for the autonomous republic in the state budget of the Georgian SSR.
The reverse cash balance may be utilized within a year for covering the cash break-off and it shall be restored within the same year.
Article 47. The Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic shall be authorized to increase the total revenues and change the total expenditures of the state budget of the autonomous republic in the budget of the Georgian SSR established in accordance with Article 21 of this Law; these changes shall be carried out without alteration of scope of deductions from the state taxes and incomes provided in the state budget of the Georgian SSR for the budgets of the autonomous republics.
Article 48. In case of adoption of laws of the autonomous republic, or the decrees of the Council of Ministers of the autonomous republic after adoption of the state budget of the autonomous republic, upon which the expenditure of the budgets of cities and districts under republican (autonomous republic) jurisdiction included within the autonomous republic shall increase, or the income shall decrease, these funds shall be responded to the republican budget of the autonomous republic.
Article 49. The additional incomes received in the course of execution of the budget of the autonomous republic shall be appropriated for financing of public economy and social-cultural arrangements, including the investments in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR.
Article 50. The surpass amount of incomes above expenditures in the republican budget of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara accumulated at the end of fiscal year through over fulfilled revenues or saved expenditures shall remain at disposal of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Council of Ministers of the Adjarian ASSR and may be appropriated for financing the public economy and social-cultural arrangements.
The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, in certain cases, may redistribute this amount.
Article 51. The Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republics shall determine the budgetary rights of the autonomous republics and the budgets of the local Soviets of People’s Deputies of the autonomous republics.
Part V
Local budget of the autonomous oblast
Article 52. Local budget of the autonomous oblast shall provide the monetary resources for financing the economic and cultural development carried out by the Soviet of people’s deputies of the autonomous oblast.
Article 53. The budget of the autonomous oblast shall include:
a) deduction from profits and other takings from enterprises and economic organizations subordinate to the executive committees of the Soviets of people’s deputies of the autonomous oblast.
b) Income tax from enterprises and organizations of consumers’ cooperation and enterprises of public organizations;
c) Local taxes and dues;
d) State duties and other incomes directed for forming the local budget of the autonomous oblast on accordance with the legislation of the Georgian SSR.
Article 54. In addition to the incomes specified for in Article 53, the state budget of the autonomous oblast shall incorporate deductions from turnover tax, income tax from collective farms, income tax from the population and other state revenues and taxes in amount specified for in the republican budget of the Georgian SSR.
Article 55. The budget of the autonomous oblast shall include the following expenditures:
a) for financing enterprises and economic organizations subordinate to the executive committees of the local Soviets of people’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast;
b) for financing of arrangements in the field of education, sciences, culture, health-care, sport and social protection carried out by the enterprises and organizations subordinate of the executive committees of Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast;
c) for maintaining the organs of state authority and the organs of state administration of the autonomous oblast;
d) for other arrangements financed from the budget of the autonomous oblast in accordance with the legislation of the Georgian SSR.
Article 56. In addition to the foreseen expenditures, the reverse cash balance shall be formed in the budget of the autonomous oblast at the expense of the surplus funds of the said budget in the beginning of planned fiscal year.
The amount of reverse cash balance shall be determined at approval of the budget of the Autonomous Oblast in the State budget of the Georgian SSR.
The reverse cash balance may be appropriated within a year for covering the temporary cash gaps and it shall be restored within the same year.
Article 57. Differentiation of incomes and taxes of the budget of the autonomous oblast between the oblast budget and the budgets of cities and districts shall be decided by the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast upon submission of the executive committee.
Article 58.  In accordance with Article 53 of this law, the fund of unexpected expenditures of the executive committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast shall be formed in the oblast budget of the Autonomous Oblast.
Article 66. In case of adoption of Resolution by the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the autonomous oblast after approval of the budget of the autonomous Oblast, upon which the expenditure of the budgets of cities and districts under oblast jurisdiction shall increase, or the income shall decrease, these funds shall be responded to the budget of the autonomous oblast.
Article 67. The additional incomes received in the course of execution of the budget of the autonomous Oblast shall be appropriated for financing of public economy and social-cultural arrangements, including the investments in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR.
Article 68. The surpass amount of incomes above expenditures in the budget of the Autonomous Oblast of South accumulated at the end of fiscal year through over fulfilled revenues or saved expenditures shall remain at disposal of the Executive Committee of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and may be appropriated for financing the public economy and social-cultural arrangements
The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, in certain cases, may redistribute this amount.
Chairman of the Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR G. Dzotsenidze
Secretary of the Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR Z. Geldiashvili
Tbilisi, 27 December 1961
(Messengers of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, N 3, 1962, p. 159-193/in Georgia)


1971
LAW OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on District Soviets of People‘s Deputies of the Georgian SSR adopted on 9 December 1971
(…)
Article 1. In conformity to the Constitution of the USSR and the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, the District Soviets of People‘s Deputies, as the organ of the state authority in the District, shall deal with all matters of local significance in accordance with the interest of the whole state and of the citizens residing in the area under their jurisdiction, implement the decisions made by the higher organs of state authority; lead the activity of lower People‘s Councils, take part in the discussion of matters of the Republican and All-Union significance, and submit their proposals concerning them.  
Article 2. The District Soviets of People‘s Deputies shall be elected by the citizens residing on the territory of the district through universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballots for a term of 36 months.
The procedures for conducting the elections of the District Soviets shall be determined by the laws of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR, and in the Autonomous SSR of Abkhazia and Autonomous SSR of Adjara – also by the laws of these republics.
Article 6. The District Soviets of the People‘s Deputies shall be guided by the Constitution of the USSR and Georgian SSR, this law. the laws of the USSR and Georgian SSR, decrees and other acts issued by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the Supreme Soviet of Georgian SSR observes the Constitution of the USSR, decision and orders of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, decisions of higher Soviets of the People‘s Deputies and their executive committees.
The Soviet of People‘s Deputies in the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR shall also pursue the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Constitution of the Adjarian ASSR, the legislation of the Abkhaz and Adjarian ASSR on the Local Soviets and the other legal acts issued by the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR.
Article 7. The District Soviet of People‘s Deputies shall make the decisions within the limits established by the legislations of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, and in the Abkhaz and Adjarian ASSR, also in pursuance of the legislation of the Abkhaz and Adjarian ASSR; the District Soviets shall secure the executions of the decisions within the limits of its competence.
The decisions of the District Soviets shall be binding on all enterprises, organizations, and institutions located in district area and on officials and citizens.
In the event of failure of fulfilling the decision of the District soviet and its executive committee by the heads of subordinate enterprises, institutions and organizations, the relevant superior organs have the right to submit the proposals on imposition of disciplinary sanctions even up to removal from the office.  The District Soviet or executive committee shall be informed about results of consideration of the proposals not later than within a month.
Article 8. The District Soviet of People‘s Deputies, directing the work of the city (District subordination), village and settlement Soviets of People‘s Deputies is entitled to revoke the acts of these Soviets if they contradict the relevant legislation.
Article 10.  In accordance with the Regulation on the State Flag of the Georgian SSR, the state flag shall be hoisted on the building while the sessions of District Soviet is held, and on the building of the Executive Committee of the District Soviet the flag shall be hoisted permanently.  In the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR the flag shall be hosted according to the rule established by the regulations on the Flag of Abkhaz ASSR and on the Flag of Adjarian ASSR respectively.
(…)
Article 11. The District Soviet of People‘s Deputies has a status of a Legal Person.
The executive committee of district soviet of People‘s Deputies has the seal with a Coat of Arms approved by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, and in Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR they have the seal approved by the respective Presidium.
(…)
Article 36. The District Soviet of People‘s Deputies is entitled to discuss and decide at the sessions the matters within the limits of its jurisdiction provided for by the legislations of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, and in Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR, also by the legislation of the respective autonomous republic.
(…)
Article 39. In case of discrepancies of decisions of the District Soviet of People‘s Deputies to the law, they may be revoked by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, and in Abkhaz ASSR, Adjarian ASSR and South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast such decisions may be revoked respectively by the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Adjarian ASSR and the Soviet of People‘s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
(…)
Article 40.  The executive and administrative organ of the District Soviet of People‘s Deputies is the executive committee elected by the Soviet from among its deputies with the following composition: chairman of the Executive Committee, Vice-Chairmen, a Secretary and members from 4 up to 9.
The membership to the executive committee shall be decided by the District Soviet.
Article 41. The executive committee of the District Soviet shall report on its work at least once a year to the Soviet that elected it and to meetings of citizens at their places of work or residence.
Article  42. The executive committee of the District Soviet of people‘s Deputies of republican subordination (Georgian SSR) shall be accountable both to the Soviet that elected it and to the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR.
The executive committee of the District Soviet of people‘s Deputies of republican subordination (Abkhaz ASSR, Adjarian ASSR) shall be accountable both to the Soviet that elected it and the Council of Ministers of the respective Autonomous Republic.
The District Soviet of the People‘s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be accountable to the Soviet that elected it and to the Soviet of people‘s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Article 43. The executive committee of District Soviet of People‘s Deputies directs the state, economic and social-cultural development on the territory of the respective Soviet on the basis of decisions of the Soviet of People‘s Deputies and the higher organs of state and administrative authority.
(…)
Article 51. The executive committee of the District Soviet of the People‘s Deputies shall carry out the measures necessary for preparation and holding the elections of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR, Supreme Soviet of the Adjarian ASSR, the local Soviets of People‘s Deputies, as well as of District People‘s Courts in accordance with the legislation.
Article 53. The decisions of the Executive Committee of the District Soviet of People’s Deputies may be revoked by the respective Soviet of People’s Deputies and by the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR within the limits of its competence.
The decisions and ordinances of the District Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR may be revoked by the Council of Ministers of the respective autonomous republic within the limits of their competence, and the decisions and ordinances of the District Soviets of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast may be revoked by the District Soviet of the People’s Deputies and the Executive Committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Article 56. The District Soviet of People’s Deputies forms the departments and offices.
The list of departments and offices, as well as the procedure of forming shall be defined by the legislation of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and in the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR also by the legislation of the respective autonomous republic.
(…)
The Competence of the Departments and Offices of the District executive Committees shall be determined by the regulations subject to approval of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, and in Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR they shall be approved by the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic accordingly.
(…)
Article 61. The District Soviet of People’s Deputies elects the standing commissions from the deputies for the purpose to carry out preliminary consideration of the issues under the competence of the District Soviet, to facilitate execution of decisions and control the activity of the state organs, enterprises and organizations.
Article 62. The major tasks of the standing commissions of the District Soviets of the People’s Deputies are as follows:
Control the implementation of the decisions of District Soviets, its executive committee and higher state organs by the Departments and offices, enterprises, organizations and agencies; safeguard the observance of the legislation of the USSR, the Georgian SSR, and in the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR the observance of the legislation of the respective Autonomous Republics.
(. . .)
Article 86. (…)
A deputy of the District Soviet may not be prosecuted, or arrested, or incur a court-imposed penalty without consent of the respective District Soviet or, between its sessions, of the respective executive committee.
The decision of the District Soviet or its executive committee on the issue specified for in section 4 of this Article may be annulled: in Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the respective autonomous Republic, and in South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast it may be annulled by the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast at this sending the issue back to the district soviet for reconsideration.  If the District Soviet reaffirms its previous decision, the issue may be decided by the Presidium of the Georgian SSR, and in the Abkhaz ASR and the Adjarian ASSR – by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic accordingly, and in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast – by the Soviet of People’s Deputies on the basis of submission of the Procurator of the Georgian SSR, Procurator of the Abkhaz ASSR, Procurator of the Adjarian ASSR and the Procurator of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
The deputy shall be ensured other conditions for the unhampered and effective exercise of his rights and duties that are established by the legislation of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and in the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR by the legislation of the respective Autonomous Republic.  
(The Book of Georgian Laws, Vol. I. Tbilisi, 1985, p. 313-353/in Georgia)


LAW OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on City and the City-District Soviets of Peoples Deputies of
the Georgian SSR adopted on 9 December of 1971
(…)
Article 1. In accordance with the Constitutions of the USSR and the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, the Soviets of Cities and City Districts, as the organs of the state authority shall decide the matters of the local significance in the cities and city districts in pursuance to the state interests, as well as to the interests of the citizens of the USSR, execute the decisions of higher state organs, direct the  activity of the inferior Soviets of People’s Deputies, participate in discussion of the issues of district, oblast, republican and All-Union significance, submit proposals on the issues.
Article 2. The City and the City-District Soviets shall be elected by the citizens of respective territories on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a term of two and a half years.
The rules for elections in District Soviets shall be determined by the laws of the USSR and the Georgian SSE, an in Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR also by the laws of the autonomous republic accordingly.
Article 6.  The City and City District Soviets of People’s Deputies shall be guided by: the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and Constitution of the Georgian SSR, this Law, the other laws of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, the Decrees and other acts of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, the Resolutions and Decisions of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, decisions and ordinances of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, the decisions of superior Soviets of People’s Deputies and their Executive Committees.
In the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR the City and City District Soviets of People’s Deputies shall also be guided by: the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Constitution of the Adjarian ASSR, the law of the Abkhaz ASSR and the law of the Adjarian ASSR on the City and City District Soviets of People’s Deputies, other acts of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR, decisions and ordinances of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Council of Ministers of the Adjarian ASSR respectively.
Article 7. The City and City District Soviets of People’s Deputies shall adopt decisions within the limits established by the legislations of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, and in Abkhaz ASSR and in the Adjarian ASSR also in pursuance of the legislation of the respective Autonomous Republic; The City and City District Soviets of People’s Deputies shall secure the observance of the aforementioned laws, safeguard their implementation, control the execution of decisions.
The decisions of the City and City District Soviets of People’s Deputies are binding to the enterprises, institutions and organizations, also the officials and citizens on the territory of respective Soviet.
In the event of failure of fulfilling the decisions of the City and City District Soviets by the heads of subordinate enterprises, institutions and organizations, the relevant superior organs are entitled to file the proposal on application of disciplinary measures up to removal from the office.  The District Soviet or its executive committee shall be informed about the results of  consideration not later than within one month.
Article 8.  The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall decide the issue on forming the cities at the places of rural settlements. The procedure for changing the city boundaries shall be determined by the legislation of the Georgian SSR.
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall form the City District (district within the city) in accordance of the number of population and proceeding from the interests of the population upon proposal of the oblast Soviet of the people’s Deputies, City Soviet of People’s Deputies of Republican subordination (Georgian SSR), and in Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR upon proposal of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the respective autonomous Republic subject to approval by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.  The boundaries of the City Districts shall be determined and altered by the respective City Soviet taking in account the visions of the relevant City District’s soviet.
Article 9.  In accordance with the Regulation on the State Flag of the Georgian SSR, the state flag shall be hoisted on the building where the sessions of City and City District Soviets are being held; the flag shall remain there during the session period.  And on the buildings of city and city district executive committees the flag shall be hoisted permanently.  .  In the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR the flag shall be hosted according to the rule established by the regulations on the Flag of Abkhaz ASSR and on the Flag of Adjarian ASSR respectively.
(...)
Article 10. The City and City District Soviet shall have the status of a legal person.
The executive committee of City and City District Soviet of People‘s Deputies has the seal with a Coat of Arms approved by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, and in Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR they have the seal approved by the respective Presidium.
(...)
Article 11. The rights and responsibilities of the City Soviet shall be determined by the legislations of the USSR an the Georgian SSR, and in Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR by the legislation of respective Autonomous Republic according to the category of the city (subordinate to the Georgian SSR, the Abkhaz ASSR, the Adjarian ASSR, the oblast). The category shall be decided on the basis of rules established by the law in account of the number of population, political, economic and cultural significance of the given city.
(...)
Article 25. For the purpose of safeguarding the observance of the law, maintaining the public order, protecting the rights of citizens and exercising the people’s control, the City Soviet of People’s Deputies shall:
1) secure the execution of the laws of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, and in the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjaria also the laws of the autonomous republics accordingly, as well as of other acts issued by the higher organs of the state authority and administration; maintain the state and public order; secure the rights and legal interests of the organizations and institutions, cooperative and other public organizations; organize the interpretation of the legislation and legal assistance to the population.
Article 27.  The city Soviet of People’s Deputies is entitled to submit the recommendation on granting the medals and conferring the honorific titles of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, and in the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR also on the state awards of the respective autonomous republic.
Article 28. The City Soviet of  People’s Deputies shall direct the work of the Village and Settlement Soviets included within its area, approve the plans of economic and social development of the villages and settlements, determine the total amount of village and settlement budgets, approve the income from state taxes, separate the revenues and expenditures of the city, village and settlement budgets, perform the other function specified for by the law of the Georgian SSR on District Soviet of People’s Deputies; and in Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR, also in pursuance to the laws of these Autonomous Republics on District Soviets of People’s Deputies.
Article 29. Under the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, the rural districts may be included under the administrative subordination of the District Soviet of the people’s Deputies on the exceptional basis.  In this case and also if there are agricultural enterprises or collective farms on the territory of the City, the City Soviets shall be guided by this law and the law of the Georgian SSR on District Soviets of people’s Deputies, and in Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR also by the laws on the District Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Republic accordingly.
(...)
Article 40. The City and City District Soviets of the People’s Deputies shall be entitled to discuss and settle at their sessions all matters within their power specified for by the legislation of the USSR, the Georgian SSR, and in Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR also by the legislation of respective autonomous republic...
Article 43. The decisions of the City (under oblast and district subordination), also city district Soviets of People’s Deputies may be revoked by the higher Soviet of People’s Deputies if they run counter to legislation.
The decisions of the City (under Republican subordination, i.e. Georgian SSR. Abkhaz ASSR, Adjarian ASSR) may be revoked by the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, the Presidium of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Presidium of the Adjarian ASSR correspondingly.
2. The Executive Committee of the City and City District Soviets of People’s Deputies
Article 45. The executive and administrative bodies of the City and the City-District Soviets of the people’s Deputies shall be the Executive Committee elected by them from among their deputies consisting of: the Chairman of the Executive Committee, the Vice-Chairmen, as secretary and not more than 15 members of the Executive Committee.
The membership of the Executive Committee of the City and the City District Soviets shall be determined by the respective City and the City-district Soviet.
Article 47. The Executive Committee of the City (under oblast and district subordination) and the City-District Soviets shall be directly accountable both to the Soviet that elected it and to the higher executive and administrative organ.
The executive committees of the City (under Republican subordination, i.e. Georgian SSR, Abkhaz ASSR, Adjarian ASSR) Soviets of People’s Deputies shall be directly accountable both to the Soviet that elected them and to the Council of ministers of the Georgian SSR, the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Council of Ministers of the Adjarian ASSR accordingly.
Article 48. The executive committees of the City and City-District Soviets of People’s Deputies shall direct the state, economic and social-cultural development of their area on the basis of decisions of higher state and administrative organs.
(...)
Article 58. The decisions and ordinances of the executive committees of the City and City-District Soviets of People’s Deputies may be revoked by the corresponding Soviets of People’s Deputies and by the Executive Committee of the higher Soviets of people’s Deputies.
The decisions and ordinances of the executive committees of the City (under republican subordination, i.e. Georgian SSR, Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR) may be revoked by the corresponding Soviet of People’s Deputies, the Council of ministers of the Georgian SSR, Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR within their competence.
61. The executive committees of the City and City-District Soviets of People’s Deputies shall have the right to form the Departments and offices.
The list of Departments and offices, as well as the rule of their forming shall be determined by the legislation of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and in the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASR also by the legislation of the respective autonomous republic.
(...)
The competence of the executive committees of the City and City-District Soviets of the people’s Deputies shall be determined by the Regulations approved by the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, and in Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR – by the respective Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic.
(...)
3. The standing commissions of the City and City-District Soviets of the people’s Deputies.
(...)
Article 67.  The major tasks of the Standing Commissions of the City and City-District Soviets of People’s Deputies shall be as follows:
Recall the Deputy of the City and the City-District Soviets.
Exercise control over the execution of the decisions of higher state organs by the Departments and Offices, enterprises, institutions and organizations.
Ensure observance of the laws of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and in the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR also of the laws of respective autonomous republic.
(...)
Article 91. ...
(...)
A deputy of the City and the City-District Soviets may not be prosecuted, or arrested, or incur a court-imposed penalty on the territory of the corresponding Soviet without consent of the respective City and City-District Soviet or, between the sessions, of the respective executive committee.
The decisions of the City (under oblast and District Subordination), the City-District Soviets or their executive committees on the issue specified for in section 4 of this Article may be annulled by a higher Soviet of People’s Deputies or its executive committee, and the decisions of the City Soviets under Republican subordination (Georgian SSR, Abkhaz ASSR, Adjarian ASSR) or their executive committees may be revoked by the Presidiums of the Supreme Soviets of the Georgian SSR, the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR accordingly subject to submission the matter to the corresponding Soviet for reconsideration. If the District Soviet reaffirms its previous decision, the issue may be decided by the Presidium of the Georgian SSR, and in the Abkhaz ASR and the Adjarian ASSR – by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic accordingly, and in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast – by the Soviet of People’s Deputies on the basis of submission of the Procurator of the Georgian SSR, Procurator of the Abkhaz ASSR, Procurator of the Adjarian ASSR and the Procurator of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
The deputy of the City and City-District Soviets of People’s Deputies shall be ensured other conditions for the unhampered and effective exercise of his rights and duties that are established by the legislation of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and in the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR by the legislation of the respective Autonomous Republic.  
(The Book of Georgian Laws, Vol.1,  p. 277-313)

 
1977
CONSTITUTION (BASIC LAW) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Chapter 1 Political System
Article 1.The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of the whole people, expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants, and intelligentsia, the working people of all the nations and nationalities of the country.
Article 33. Uniform federal citizenship is established for the USSR. Every citizen of a Union Republic is a citizen of the USSR.
The grounds and procedure for acquiring or forfeiting Soviet citizenship are defined by the Law on Citizenship of the USSR;
When abroad, citizens of the USSR enjoy the protection and assistance of the Soviet state.
 Article 34. Citizens of the USSR are equal before the law, without distinction of origin, social or property status, race or nationality, sex, education, language, attitude to religion, type and nature of occupation, domicile, or other status.
The equal rights of citizens of the USSR are guaranteed in all fields of economic, political, social, and cultural life.
Article 36. Citizens of the USSR of different races and nationalities have equal right.
    Exercise of these rights is ensured by a policy of all-round development and drawing together of all the nations and nationalities of the USSR, by educating citizens in the spirit of Soviet patriotism and socialist internationalism, and by the possibility to use their native language and the languages of other peoples in the USSR.
Any direct or indirect limitation of the rights of citizens or establishment of direct or indirect privileges on grounds of race or nationality, and any advocacy of racial or national exclusiveness, hostility, or contempt, are punishable by law.
Part III National State Structure
of the USSRChapter 8 Federal State
Article 70. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is an integral, federal, multinational state formed on the principle of socialist federalism as a result of the free self-determination of nations and the voluntary association of equal Soviet Socialist Republics.
Article 73. The jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as represented by its highest bodies of state authority and administration, shall cover:
1. the admission of new republics to the USSR; endorsement of the formation of new autonomous republics and autonomous regions within Union Republics;
    (…)
Chapter 10. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Article 82. An Autonomous Republic is a constituent part of a Union Republic.
In spheres not within the jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Union Republic, an Autonomous Republic shall deal independently with matters within its jurisdiction.
An Autonomous Republic shall have its own Constitution conforming to the Constitutions of the USSE and the Union Republic with the specific features of the Autonomous Republic being taken into account.
Article 83. An Autonomous Republic takes part in decision-making through the highest bodies of state authority and administration of the USSR and of the Union Republic respectively, in matters that come within the jurisdiction of the USSR and the Union Republic.
An Autonomous Republic shall ensure comprehensive economic and social development on its territory, facilitate exercise of the powers of the USSR and the Union Republic on its territory, and implement decisions of the highest bodies of state authority and administration of the USSR and the Union Republic.
In matters within its jurisdiction, an Autonomous Republic shall coordinate and control the activity of enterprises, institutions, and organizations subordinate to the Union or the Union Republic.
Article 84. The territory of an Autonomous Republic may not be altered without its consent.
Article 85.  …
The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic includes the Abkhaz and Adjara Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics.
(…)
Chapter 11.  Autonomous Regions (Oblasts) and Areas
Article 86. An Autonomous Region is a constituent part of a Union Republic or Territory. The Law on an Autonomous Region, upon submission by the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Region concerned, shall be adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic.
Article 87.  The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic includes the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Part IV. Soviets of People’s Deputies and Procedures for Election
Chapter 12.  System and Principles of the Activity of the Soviets of People’s Deputies
Article 89.  The Soviets of People’s Deputies, i.e. the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Supreme Soviets of Union Republics, the Supreme Soviets of Autonomous Republics, the Soviets of People’s Deputies of Territories and Oblasts, the Soviets of People’s Deputies of Autonomous Oblasts and Autonomous Areas, and the Soviets of People’s Deputies of districts, cities, city districts, settlements and villages shall constitute a single system of bodies of state authority.
Article 90. The term of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Supreme Soviets of Union Republics, and the Supreme Soviets of Autonomous Republics shall be five years.
The term of local Soviets of People’s Deputies shall be two and a half years.
Part V.  State Authority and
Administration of the USSRChapter 15.  Supreme Soviet
Article 108. The highest body of state authority of the USSR shall be the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
The Supreme Soviet of the USSR is empowered to deal with all matters within the jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as defined by this Constitution.
The adoption and amendment of the Constitution of the USSR; admission of new Republics to the USSR; endorsement of the formation of new Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Regions; approval of the state plans for economic an social development, of the Budget of the USSR, and of reports on their execution; and the institution of bodies of the USSR accountable to it, are the exclusive prerogative of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
(…)
Article 109. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR shall consist of two chambers: the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities.
(…)
Article 110. The Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities shall have equal numbers of deputies.
The Soviet of the Union shall be elected by constituencies with equal populations.
The Soviet of Nationalities shall be elected on the basis of the following representation: 32 deputies from each Union Republic, 11 deputies from each Autonomous Republic, five deputies from each Autonomous Region, and one deputy from each Autonomous Area.
Article 141. The Council of Ministers of a Union Republic has the right to suspend the execution of decisions and ordinances of the Councils of Ministers of Autonomous Republics, to rescind the decisions and orders of the Executive Committees of Soviets of People’s Deputies of Territories, Oblasts, and cities (i.e. cities under Republic jurisdiction) and of Autonomous Regions, and in Union Republics not divided into regions, of the Executive Committees of district and corresponding city Soviets of People’s Deputies.
Chapter 18. The Supreme Bodies of state
authority and Government of the Autonomous Republics
Article 143. The highest body of state authority of an Autonomous Republic shall be the Supreme Soviet of that Republic.
Adoption and amendment of the Constitution of an Autonomous Republic; endorsement of state plans for economic and social development, and of the Republic’s Budget; and the formation of bodies accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic are the exclusive prerogative of that Supreme Soviet.
Laws of an Autonomous Republic shall be enacted by the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic.
Article 144. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic shall elect a Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic and shall form a Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic, i.e. the Government of the Autonomous Republic.
Chapter 19. Local Bodies of State Authority and Government
Article 145. The bodies of state authority in Territories, Oblasts, Autonomous Areas, districts, cities, city districts, settlements, and rural communities shall be the corresponding Soviets of People’s Deputies.
Article 148. Local Soviets of People’s Deputies shall decide matters within the powers accorded them by the legislation of the USSR and of the appropriate Union Republic and Autonomous Republic. Their decisions shall be binding on all enterprises, institutions, and organizations located in their area and on officials and citizens.
Article 149. The executive-administrative bodies of local Soviets shall be the Executive Committees elected by them from among their deputies.
    Executive Committees shall report on their work at least once a year to the Soviets that elected them and to meetings of citizens at their places of work or residence.
Article 150. Executive Committees of local Soviets of People’s Deputies shall be directly accountable both to the Soviet that elected them and to the higher executive and administrative body.
Part VII. Justice, Arbitration and
ProcuratorChapter 20.  Courts and Arbitration
Article 151. In the USSR justice is administered only by the courts.
In the USSR there are the following courts: the Supreme Court of the USSR, the Supreme Courts of Union Republics, the Supreme Courts of Autonomous Republics, Territorial, Oblast, and city courts, courts of Autonomous Oblasts, courts of Autonomous Areas, district (city) people’s courts, and military tribunals in the Armed Forces.
Article 159. Judicial proceedings shall be conducted in the language of the Union Republic, Autonomous Republic, Autonomous Region, or Autonomous Area, or in the language spoken by the majority of the people in the locality. Persons participating in court proceedings, who do not know the language in which they are being conducted, shall be ensured the right to become fully acquainted with the materials in the case; the services of an interpreter during the proceedings; and the right to address the court in their own language.
Chapter 21. Procurator
Article 164. Supreme power of supervision over the strict and uniform observance of laws . . . is vested in the Procurator-General of the USSR and procurators subordinate to him.
Article 166. The procurators of Union Republics, Autonomous Republics, Territories, Regions and Autonomous Regions are appointed by the Procurator-General of the USSR. The procurators of Autonomous Areas and district and city procurators are appointed by the Procurators of Union Republics, subject to confirmation by the Procurator-General of the USSR.
Article 168. The agencies of the Procurator’s Office exercise their powers independently of any local bodies whatsoever, and are subordinate solely to the Procurator-General of the USSR.
(…)
7 October 1977
(Constitution (Basic Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Moscow, 1977, p. 5-47)


1978
CONSTITUTION (BASIC LAW) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
Chapter I
Political System
Article 1. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is a socialist state of the whole people.
Chapter 5.
Citizenship of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia. Equality of Citizens
Article 31. According to the uniform federal citizenship established in the USSR, a citizen of the Georgian SSR is a citizen of the USSR.
The ground and procedure for acquiring or forfeiting Soviet citizenship are defined by the Law on Citizenship of the USSR.
(…)
Article 32. Citizens of the Georgian SSR are equal before the law without distinction of origin, social or property status, race or nationality, sex, education, language, attitude to religion, type and nature of occupation, domicile, or other status.
The equal rights of citizens of the Georgian SSR are guaranteed in all fields of economic, political, social, and cultural life.
Article 34.  Citizens of different races and nationalities have equal rights.
Exercise of these rights is ensured by a policy if all-round development and drawing together of all the nations and nationalities of the USSR, by education of citizens in the spirit of Soviet patriotism and socialist internationalism, and by the possibility to use their native language and the languages of other peoples in the USSR.
Any direct or indirect limitation of the rights of citizens or establishment of direct or indirect privileges on grounds of race or nationality, and any advocacy of racial or national exclusiveness, hostility, or contempt, are punished by law.
III
National-state and Administrative-
territorial Arrangement of the Georgian SSR
Chapter 7
Georgian SSR is the Union Republic within the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics
Article 68. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is a sovereign Soviet socialist state. . . . The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia as a result of the free self-determination of nations voluntarily associated with equal Soviet Socialist Republics in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – the unified multinational state.
Article 69. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia retains the right to freely secede from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Article 70. The territory of Georgia shall not be altered without its consent.  The boundaries between the Georgian SSR and other Union Republic may be altered by mutual agreement of the Republics concerned, subject to ratification by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Article 71. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia includes: the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
Article 72.The jurisdiction of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, as represented by its highest bodies of state authority and administration, shall cover:
Adoption and amendment of the Constitution of the Georgian SSR;
2) Control over observance of the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and insurances of conformity of the Constitutions of the Abkhaz SSR and of Adjarian SSR to the Constitution of the Georgian SSR;
3) Forming the new autonomous republics and autonomous oblasts within the Georgian SSR subject endorsement by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR;
4) The legislation of the Georgian SSR;
5) Safeguarding the public order, rights and freedoms of citizens;
6) Establishment of rules for organization and functioning of republican and local bodies of state authority and administration;
7)  Pursuance of a uniform social and economic policy; direction of the economic sector of the Georgian SSR; promotion of scientific and technological progress and the general measures for rational exploitation and conservation of natural resources;
8) Drafting and approval of state plans for the economic and social development of the Georgian SSR; drafting and approval of the state budget of the Georgian SSR; direct the execution of the budgets of the Abkhaz ASSR, Adjarian ASSR and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, as well as of district and city budgets of the state subordination;
9) Determination of income subject to be accommodated in the budget of the Georgian SSR in pursuance the legislation of the USSR;
10) Direction of the sectors of economy, and of enterprises and amalgamations under Republican or Union-Republican jurisdiction, and general direction of industries and enterprises under Republican jurisdiction;
11) Establishment of the rules for the use of land, its bowels, water and forest.  
12) Administration of housing and municipal improvements, trade and public catering, public utilities, construction and services, and direction of the road and transport construction in the cities and other settlements;
13) Administration of public education, cultural and scientific institutions and organizations, health-care, physical training and sport, directing the social security; protection of historical and cultural monuments;
14) Issuing the act of amnesty and pardon for citizens convicted by the Courts of the Georgian SSR;
15) Representation of the Georgian SSR in international relations;
16) Dealing with other issues under the jurisdiction of the Republic.
Article 73.  The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia decides the issues of district division and the other issues relating to the administrative-territorial settlement of the Georgian SSR.
Article 75. The State language of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic shall be Georgian.
The Georgian SSR shall secure the comprehensive development of Georgian language and safeguards its application in the state and public organs, as well as in the cultural, educational and other institutions.
Free application of Russian and other languages, used by the population, shall be secured in the above mentioned organs of the Georgian SSR.  Any privileges for or restriction of any language is inadmissible.
Chapter 8,
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Article 79.  Autonomous Republic is a constituent part of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia. In spheres not within the jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, an Autonomous Republic shall deal independently with matters within its jurisdiction.
An autonomous Republic shall have its own Constitution conforming to the Constitutions of the USSR and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia with the specific features of the Autonomous Republic.
Article 80. The Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjara take part in decision-making through the highest bodies of state authority and administration of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR, in matters that come within the jurisdiction of the USSR and the Georgian SSR.
The Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjara shall ensure comprehensive economic and social development on their territories, facilitate exercise of the powers of the USSR and the Georgian SSR on their territories, and implement decision of the highest bodies of state authority and administration of the USSR and the Georgian SSR.
In matters within their jurisdiction, the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjara shall coordinate and control the activity of enterprises, institutions, and organizations subordinate the USSR and the Georgian SSR.
Article 81. The territories of the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjara may not be altered without their consent.
Article 82. The laws of the Georgian SSR are binding and shall have the same force on the territory of the Autonomous Republic.  In the event of discrepancy between a law of the Autonomous Republic and the Georgian SSR, the law of the Georgian SSR prevails.
Chapter 9
Autonomous Oblast
Article 83. The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic includes the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast.
Article 84.  The Law on the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall be adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR upon submission of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of this Oblast.
IV
The Soviets of People’s Deputies and Elections
Chapter 10.
The system of the Soviets of People’s Deputies and the Principles of their activity
Article 85. The Soviets of People’s Deputies, i.e. the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, the Supreme Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR, the Soviets of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, and the Soviets of People’s Deputies of Districts, Cities, city districts, settlements and villages shall constitute a single system of bodies of state authority.
Article 86. The term of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, the Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjara shall be five years.
The term of local Soviets of People’s Deputies shall be two and a half years.
Chapter 11.
Election System
Article 91. Deputies to all Soviets shall be elected on the basis of universal, equal, and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
Article 97. Deputies to Soviets of People’s Deputies shall be elected by constituencies.
A citizen of the Georgian SSR may not, as a rule, be elected to more than two Soviets of People’s Deputies
(…)
The procedure for holding elections to Soviets of People’s Deputies shall be defined by the laws of the USSR, and of the Georgian SSR, and in the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjara – also by the laws of these autonomous republics.
V
The highest bodies of State Authority and
Administration of  the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
Chapter 13.
The Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR
Article 105. The Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall consist of 440 deputies elected by constituencies with the equal number of population.
(…)
Article 108.  The right to initiate legislation in the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR is vested in the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjara through their highest bodies of state authority, standing commission and other commission of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, Deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, the Supreme Court of the Georgian SSR, and the Procurator of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
Article 110. The laws of the Georgian SSR, the Resolutions and other acts of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall be published in Georgian and Russian languages, and for the Autonomous Republics and Autonomous oblast – also in the language f respective autonomous republic or oblast over the signature of the Chairman and Secretary of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
Article 113.  The Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall elect the Presidium – the standing body of the Supreme Soviet of Georgia.  The Presidium is accountable to the Supreme Soviet of Georgia and in the periods between the convocation of the sessions of the Supreme Soviet of Georgia it shall carry out the function of the state authority of the Georgian SSR within the scope established by this Constitution.
Article 114. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall be elected from among the Deputies and shall consist of a Chairman, three Vice-Chairmen, among them two chairmen from the Autonomous Republics, a Secretary, and fourteen members of the presidium.
Article 115. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall:
8) determine the rules for administrative-territorial settlement of the Georgian SSR; determine and alters the boundaries of the Autonomous Oblast and districts; establish the cities in the districts and districts in the cities; decide the jurisdiction of the cities; changes the place names of the districts, cities, villages and settlements;
9) Approve the district division, of the Autonomous Republics, as well as of creation of cities and districts of the cities, changes of place-names.
10) Revoke decisions and ordinances of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR and of the Councils of Ministers of the Autonomous Republics, and the Council of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast, decisions of the District, City (Republican jurisdiction) Soviets in the event they fail to conform to the law.
(…)
Article 116. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR and subject to submission for its confirmation at the next session, shall:
2) approve changes in the boundaries of the Autonomous Republic; create the new districts and cities of the republican jurisdiction;
(…)
Chapter 14
The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR
Article 122.  The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, i.e. the Government of the Georgian SSR, is the highest executive and administrative body of the state authority of the Georgian SSR.
Article 123. The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR shall be formed by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR and shall consist of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, First Vice Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen, Ministers of the Georgian SSR, and Chairmen of State Committees of the Georgian SSR.
The Chairmen of the Councils of Ministers of Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR shall be ex officio members of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
Article 125.  Within its power the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR shall:
7) Coordinate and direct the work of Councils of Ministers of the Autonomous Republics, and of the executive committees of the local Soviets of the People’s Deputies.
Article 128. The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR has the right, in matters within its jurisdiction, to suspend execution of decisions and ordinances of the Councils of Minister of the Autonomous Republics, and to rescind decisions and orders of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, the District, City (republican jurisdiction) Soviets of People’s Deputies.
(…)
VI
The highest bodies of State Authority and
Administration of the Autonomous Republics
Chapter 15.
The Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic
Article 131. The highest bodies of state authority of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara shall be the Supreme Soviet of these Republics accordingly.
The Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara are authorized to decide the matters under their jurisdiction in conformity to the Constitution of the USSR, the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and the Constitution of the respective Autonomous Republic.
Adoption and amendment of the Constitutions of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR; endorsement of state plans for economic and social development, and of the Republic’s Budget; endorsement of the reports on implementation of the budget; the formation of bodies accountable to the Supreme Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR are the exclusive prerogative of the Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara.
Laws of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR shall be enacted by the Supreme Soviets of these Autonomous Republics.
Article 132. The Supreme Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR shall elect the Presidiums of the Autonomous Republics – the standing bodies of the Supreme Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR.  The respective Presidiums are accountable to the Supreme Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR and in the periods between the convocation of the sessions of the Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Republics the respective Presidiums shall carry out the function of the state authority of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR within the scope established by law.
The composition and competence of the Presidium of the Autonomous Republics shall be determined by the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR.
Chapter 16.
The Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic
Article 133. The Councils of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR, i.e. the Governments of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR, are the highest executive and administrative bodies of the state authority of the Autonomous Republics.
The Councils of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR are accountable to the Supreme Soviets of the respective Autonomous Republic, and in the period between the convocation of sessions of the Supreme Soviets – to the Presidiums of the Supreme Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR accordingly.
Article 134. The Councils of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR issue the decision and ordinances on the basis of the legislative acts of the USSR, Georgian SSR, Autonomous Republics, and of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, coordinate and control their execution.
Article 135.  The Council of Ministers of Abkhazia and the Council of Ministers of Adjara have the right to revoke decisions and instructions of the Executive Committees of the District and City (Republican jurisdiction) Soviets of the people’s Deputies.
 Article 136.  The Council of Ministers of Abkhazia and the Council of Ministers of Adjara have the right to revoke the acts of the Ministries, State Committees and other subordinate organs of their respective Republics.
Article 136. The Councils of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR coordinate and direct the work of the ministries, State Committees and other subordinate organs of the Autonomous Republics.
The Ministries of the Abkhaz and Adjarian ASSR direct the branches of state administration under their competence or execute the inter-institutional management and are subordinate to the Council of Ministers and State Committees of the respective Autonomous Republic, as well as of the Georgian SSR.
VIII
The local organs of state authority and
government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
Chapter 17
Article 137. The organs of state authority in the Autonomous Oblast, districts, cities and rural settlements of the Georgian SSR are the Soviets of People’s Deputies.
Article 140. The local Soviets of People’s Deputies adopt decisions and issue orders within the limits of the powers vested in them by the laws of the USSR, Georgian SSR and of the Autonomous Republic.
(…)
Article 141. The local Soviets of People’s Deputies convene the sessions of their respective executive committees at least once a year.
The Local Soviets of People’s Deputies are authorized to discuss and decide any matters under their competence in pursuance of the legislations of the USSR, Georgian SSR and respective Autonomous Republic. The list of matters decided solely at the session shall be specified in the laws on the Local Soviets of People’s Deputies.
Chapter 18.
Executive committees of the Local Soviets of People’s Deputies
Article 145. The executive and administrative organs of the Local Soviets of the People’s Deputies shall be the executive committees elected by the respective Soviets consisting of Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, a secretary and members.
The executive committees, at least once a year, shall submit the reports on their activity to the respective Soviets they are elected by, and hold the meetings of the workers’ organizations and citizens in accordance to their domiciliary.
Article 146. The executive committees of the Local Soviets of the people’s Deputies are accountable to the respective Soviets, as well as to the executive organs of higher Soviets.
Article 150. For the purpose of management of certain branches, the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia, district and city Soviets are authorized to form the executive Divisions and Offices.  These Divisions and Offices are subordinate to the respective Soviets and executive committees, as well as to the higher relevant organ of the state authority.
The matters under competence of the executive Divisions and offices of the Executive Committees of Local Soviets of people’s Deputies, also the rules for their creation shall be determined by the legislation of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and the respective Autonomous Republic.
(…)
Chapter 20
The Budget of the Georgian SSR
Article 158.  The budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is a constituent part of the budget of the USSR.
Article 159. The budget of the Georgian SSR unites the budgets of the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia ad Adjara and the local budgets.
Article 160. The separation of revenues and expenditures of the budget of the Georgian SSR shall be defined by the law of the Georgian SSR on Budgetary Rights of the Georgian SSR, Autonomous Republics and Local Soviets of People’s Deputies.
Article 161. The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR shall draw-up the state budget of the Georgian SSR on the basis of the Economic and Social Development Plan of the Georgian SSR, and of the budget of the USSR.  The budget shall be approved by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR…
Article 162. The report on implementation of the budget of the Georgian SSR shall be endorsed by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR…  
IX
Administration of Justice, Arbitration and Procurator
Chapter 21.
Courts and Arbitration
Article 163. In the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia justice is administered solely by the Courts.
The Supreme Court of the Georgian SSR, Supreme Courts of the Abkhaz and Adjarian Autonomous Republics, Tbilisi City Court, the Court of Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia and district (city) people’s courts are the Courts of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
    (…)
Article 165. The Supreme Court of the Georgian SSR is the highest judicial body in the Georgian SSR.  It is entitled to supervise the administration of justice at the courts of the Georgian SSR.
The Supreme Court of the Georgian SSR shall be elected by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR consisting of Chairman, Vice-Chairmen and People’s Assessors.
Article 171. Judicial proceedings in the Georgia SSR shall be conducted in Georgian or in the language of Autonomous Republic, or Autonomous oblast or in the language of majority of the local population of given localities.  Persons participating in the court proceedings, who do not know the language in which they are being conducted, shall be ensured the right to become fully acquainted with the materials in the case through the interpreter, and the rights to address the court in their own language
Chapter 22
Procurator’s Office
Article 176. Supreme power of supervision over the strict and uniform observance of laws. . . is vested in the Procurator-General of the USSR, as well as in the Procurator of the Georgian SSR subordinate to him and other inferior procurators.
Article 177. The Procurator of the Georgian SSR, as well as the procurators of the Abkhaz and Adjarian Autonomous SSR and of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast is appointed by the Procurator-General of the USSR.
The District and City Procurators are appointed by the Procurator of the Georgian SSR subject to approval by the Procurator-General of the USSR.
Article 178. The term of office of the Procurator of the Georgian SSR and of other inferior Procurators is 5 years.
Article 179. The agencies of the Procurator’s Office exercise their powers independently of any local bodies whatsoever, and are subordinate solely to the Procurator of the USSR.
(…)
15 April 1978
(Collection of the Constitutional Acts of the Georgian SSR, p. 249-293)
 

CONSTITUTION (BASIC LAW) of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
I. The organization of the society and the principles of the policy of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
Chapter I
Political system
Article 1. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is a socialist state of the whole people…
Article 2. All power in the Abkhaz ASSR belongs to the people.
The people exercise state power through Soviets of People’s Deputies, which constitute the political foundation of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 5. Major matters of state life shall be submitted to nationwide discussion and put to a popular vote (referendum)
Article 11. State property, i.e. the common property of the Soviet people, is the principal form of socialist property
The land, its minerals, waters, and forests are the exclusive property of the state. The state owns the basic means of production in industry, construction, and agriculture; means of transport and communication; the banks; the property of state-run trade organizations and public utilities, and other state-run undertakings; most urban housing; and other property necessary for state purposes.
Article 16. The economy of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is an integral part of the economy of the Georgian SSR, i.e. of the united public-economic complex that includes every sector of production, distribution and exchange on the territory of the USSR
II. State and individual
Chapter 4
Citizenship and equality of individuals in the Abkhaz SSR
Article 28.  According to the uniform federal citizenship established in the USSR, every citizen of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is a citizen of the Georgian SSR and the USSR
The grounds and procedure for acquiring or forfeiting Soviet citizenship are defined by the Law on Citizenship of the USSR
The citizens of the Georgian SSR and other Union Republics enjoy the equal rights as for citizens of the Abkhaz ASSR.
When abroad, citizens of the Abkhaz ASSR enjoy the protection and assistance of the Soviet state.
Article 31. Citizens of the Abkhaz ASSR enjoy the equal rights without distinction of race or nationality.
Exercise of these rights is ensured by a policy of all-round development and drawing together of all the nations and nationalities of the USSR, by educating citizens in the spirit of Soviet patriotism and socialist internationalism, and by the possibility to use their native language and the languages of other peoples in the USSR.
Any direct or indirect restriction of the rights of citizens or establishment of direct or indirect privileges on grounds of race or nationality, and any advocacy of racial or national exclusiveness, hostility, or contempt, are punishable by law.
III. Administrative-territorial arrangement of the
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
Chapter 6.
Article 64. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is a Soviet Socialist state which is a constituent part of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
Outside the spheres of the Constitutions of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, the Abkhaz ASSR exercises independent authority on its territory.
Article 65. The Territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia may not be altered without its consent.
Article 66.  The Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia shall exercise its jurisdiction through its highest bodies of state authority and administration, which covers:
1)  Adoption and amendment of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR and control its observance;
2)  Legislation of the Abkhaz ASSR;
3)  Securing of state order, protection of citizens’ rights and freedoms;
4) Introduction of the rules for administration and activity of the organs of the state authority and government in pursuance of the legislations of the USSR and the Georgian SSR.
5) Securing the implementation of the uniformed social-economic policy; administration of the economy of the Abkhaz ASSR; development of the scientific-technical progress and securing the rational use of the natural resources, and implementation of measures for environment protection;
6) Elaboration and approval of the state plans on economic and social development of the Abkhaz ASSR; draw-up and approval of the state budget of the Abkhaz ASSR, districts of republican subordination and cities; directing the implementation of the mentioned budgets.
7) Determination of the revenues used for forming the budget of the Abkhaz ASSR in accordance of the legislations of the USSR and the Georgian SSR.
8) Administration of the field of public economy under the jurisdiction of the Republic; direct the work of the organizations and enterprises under the republican or local subordination;
9) Control the use of land, its vowels, water and forest; environment protection according with the rules established by the legislations of the USSR and the Georgian SSR;
10) Administration of municipal improvement, housing, trade, public services in the cities and other settlements; direct the road construction and transport matters.
11) Administration of the educational, cultural and scientific organizations and establishments of the Abkhaz ASSR; direct the health-care, physical training and sport affairs; protection of history and cultural monuments;
12) Deciding the other important matters of the republican significance.
Article 67.  The Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia takes part in decision-making through the highest bodies of state authority and administration of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR, in matters that come within the jurisdiction of the USSR and the Georgian SSR.
The Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall ensure comprehensive economic and social development on its territory, facilitate exercise of the powers of the USSR and the Georgian SSR on its territory, and implement decisions of the highest bodies of state authority and administration of the USSR and the Georgian SSR.
In matters within its jurisdiction, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall coordinate and control the activity of enterprises, institutions, and organizations subordinate to the Union or the Georgian SSR.
Article 70. The state languages of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia are: Abkhaz, Georgian and Russian.
The Abkhaz ASSR administers the state care of the comprehensive development of the Abkhaz language and secures the application of Abkhaz and other state languages at the state and public organs, as well as at the cultural, educational and other establishments.
Application of other languages at the aforementioned organs and establishments, used by the population, shall be secured. Any privileges or restriction over the application of any language in use is inadmissible.
Article 71. The laws of the USSR and the Georgian SSR are binding on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Chapter 7
Administrative-territorial arrangement of the Abkhaz ASSR
Article 72. The district division and the matters relating to the administrative-territorial arrangement shall be decided by the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 73. The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia includes the following districts: Gali, Gudauta, Gulripshi, Ochamchire, Sukhumi, and the cities of republican (Abkhaz ASSR) subordination – Sukhumi, Gagra, Tkvarcheli.
V. The Supreme Organs of the state authority and administration
Chapter 11.
The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR
Article 93.  The highest organ of state authority of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz SSR.
The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR is authorized to decide the issues under its jurisdiction specified for in the Constitutions of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and in this Constitution.
Adoption and amendment of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR; endorsement of the economic and social development plans of the Abkhaz ASSR; approval of the budget and of the report on budget implementation.
The organs accountable to the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia shall be created solely by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Adoption of the laws of the Abkhaz ASSR by the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia.
Article 94. The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR consists of 140 members elected by the constituencies with the equal number of population. …
Article 96.  The sessions of the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia shall be convoked twice a year.
The special sessions of the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia shall be convened by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet upon its own initiative or at the request of not less than one-third of the Deputies of the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia.
The Sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR includes: the sittings of the Supreme Soviets, as well as the sittings of the standing and other Commissions, which shall be convened between the sessions of the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia.
Article 98.  The draft-laws and other issues submitted to the Supreme Soviet shall be discussed at the session of the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia. Where necessary, a draft-law or other matter may be referred to one or more commissions for preliminary or additional consideration.
A draft law of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Resolutions and other acts of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be deemed to be adopted if it is supported by the majority of the members of the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia.
The draft-laws of the Abkhaz ASSR and the major matters of state life, upon decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR or its Presidium, shall be submitted to nationwide discussion and put to a popular vote (referendum).
Article 99.  The laws of the Abkhaz ASSR, the Resolutions and other acts issued by the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia shall be published in Abkhaz, Georgian and Russian languages over the signatures of the Chairman and Secretary of the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia.
Article 102.  The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR shall elect the Presidium of the Abkhaz ASSR, which shall be a standing body of the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia, accountable to it for all its work and exercising the functions of the highest body of state authority of the Abkhaz ASSR between sessions of the Supreme Soviet, within the limits prescribes by the Constitution.
Article 103. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be elected from among the Deputies and shall consist of a Chairman, two Vice-Chairmen, a Secretary, and nine members.
Article 104. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz SSR shall:
1) name the date of elections to the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz SSR and to the Local Soviets of People’s Deputies;
2) convene sessions of the Supreme Soviet of Abkhazia;
3) coordinate the work of the standing commissions of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz SSR;
4) ensure observance of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR;
5) interpret the laws of the Abkhaz ASSR;
6) direct the work of the Local Soviets of the peoples’ Deputies;
7) determine the rule for administrative-territorial arrangement of the Abkhaz ASSR; name the new towns and rural settlements; decide the matters of the district division, creation of cities and districts within cities, change the names of the districts, cities and districts within cities - subject to approval of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Georgia.
8) revoke the decrees and ordinances of the Council of Ministers of Abkhazia, as well as the decision of the district, city (republican subordination) Soviets of People’s Deputies if they do not conform to the law.
9) institute honorific titles of the Abkhaz ASSR; award the Certificate of Appreciation of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
10) exercise other powers vested in it by the Constitution and laws of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 105. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR, between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR and subject to submission for its confirmation at the next session, shall:
1) amend existing legislative acts of the Abkhaz ASSR when necessary;
2) create districts and cities of republican jurisdiction, name and re-name the places in pursuance of the rules established by law;
3) form and abolish the Ministries, state committees and other organs of state administration established by the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR;
4) relieve individual members of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR of their responsibilities and appoint persons to the Council of Ministers on the recommendation of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 106. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR promulgates decrees and adopts decisions.
Article 109. The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR shall supervise the work of all state bodies accountable to it.
The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR shall form a Committee of People’s Control of the Abkhaz ASSR to head the system of people’s control.
Chapter 12.
Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR
Article 111. The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, i.e. the Government of the Abkhaz ASSR is the supreme executive and administrative body of the state authority of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 112. The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be formed by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR and shall consist of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, First Vice Chairman and Vice-Chairmen, Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, and Chairmen of State Committees of the Abkhaz ASSR and the heads of other state authorities established by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR, on the recommendation of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, may include in the Government of the Abkhaz ASSR the heads of other bodies and organizations of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 113. The Council of Minister of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR and, between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR, to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR shall report regularly on its work of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 114. The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR is empowered to deal with all matters of state administration within the jurisdiction of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia Union of Soviet Socialist Republics insofar as, under the Constitution, they on not come within the competence of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR or the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Within its powers the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR shall:
1) ensure direction of economic, social and cultural development; draft and implement measures to promote the well-being and cultural development of the people, to develop science and engineering, to ensure rational exploitation and conservation of natural resources, to consolidate the monetary and credit system, to implement the measures for administration of state insurance and a uniform system of accounting and statistics; and organize the management of industrial, constructional, and agricultural enterprises and amalgamations, transport and communications undertakings, and other organizations and institutions of the Republican and local subordination;
2) draft current and long-term state plans for the economic and social development of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Budget of the Abkhaz ASSR, and submit them to the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR; take measures to execute the state plans and Budget; and report to the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR on the implementation of the plans and Budgets; for the purpose of economic and social development of the districts and cities of the republican subordination coordinate and control the enterprises, organizations and agencies of the Union and Republican (Georgian SSR) subordination on the issues under the jurisdiction of the Abkhaz ASSR; submit the plans and reports on the budget implementation to the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR;
3) implement measures to defend the interests of the state, protect socialist property and maintain public order, and guarantee and protect citizens’ rights and freedoms;
4) when necessary, form committees, boards and other departments under the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR to deal with matters of economic, social and cultural development;
5) take measures to ensure state security and defence within the competence established by the constitution.
6) direct the work of the executive committees of the Local Soviets of People’s Deputies.
Article 116. The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, on the basis of, and in pursuance of, the laws of the USSR, Georgian SSR and the Abkhaz ASSR shall issue decisions and ordinances and verify their execution. The decisions and ordinances of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be binding throughout the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 117. The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR has the right, in matters within its jurisdiction, and to revoke decisions of the executive committees of the district and city (republican subordination) Soviets of People’s Deputies.
The Council of Ministries of the Abkhaz ASSR has the right to revoke the acts of the Ministries and State Committees or other subordinate organs of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 118. The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR shall coordinate and direct the work of ministries, state committees and other bodies subordinate to it.
The ministries and state committees of the Abkhaz ASSR shall direct the work of the branches of administration entrusted to them, or exercise inter-branch administration and they are subordinate to the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR, as well as to the relevant ministry or state committee of the Georgian SSR.
Ministries, state committees and other bodies of administration of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be responsible for the condition and development of the spheres of administration entrusted to them; within their competence, they issue orders and other acts on the basis of, and in execution of, the legal acts of the USSR, the Georgian SSR and the Abkhaz ASSR, and decisions and ordinances of the relevant ministries or state committees of the Georgian SSR, and organize and verify their implementation.
VII. State Plan of the Economic and Social Development of the Abkhaz ASSR and the State Budget of the Abkhaz ASSR
Article 138.  The budget of the Abkhaz ASSR is constituent part of the budget of the Georgian SSR.
The budget of the Abkhaz ASSR consolidates the state budget of the Abkhaz ASSR and the local budget.
Separation of the Revenue and Expenditure components of the Republican budget of the Abkhaz SSR shall be determined by the law of the Abkhaz ASSR on Budgetary Rights of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Local Soviets of People’s Deputies.
Article 139. The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR shall draw-up the state budget of the Abkhaz ASSR on the basis of the Economic and Social Development Plans, and of the budget of the Abkhaz ASSR.  The budget shall be approved by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 162. The report on implementation of the budget of the Georgian SSR shall be endorsed by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR…
Article 141. The reports on implementation of the Economic and Social Development plans, as well as of the budget of the Abkhaz ASSR, shall be reviewed and endorsed by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.  The general indicators of implementation of the plans and budget shall be published.
VIII. Administration of justice, Arbitration and Procurator
Article 141. In the Abkhaz ASSR justice is administered only by the courts.
Article 163. In the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia justice is administered solely by the Courts.
The Supreme Court of the Georgian SSR, Supreme Courts of the Abkhaz and Adjarian Autonomous Republics, Tbilisi City Court, the Court of Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia and district (city) people’s courts are the Courts of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
(…)
Article 144. The Supreme Court of the Abkhaz ASSR is the highest judicial body in the Abkhaz ASSR.  It is entitled to supervise the administration of justice at the courts of the Abkhaz ASSR.
The Supreme Court of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be elected by the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR for a term of five years consisting of Chairman, Vice-Chairman and People’s Assessors.
Article 150. Judicial proceedings in the Abkhaz ASSR shall be conducted in Abkhaz, or Georgian or in Russian language, or in the language of majority of the local population of given localities.  Persons participating in the court proceedings, who do not know the language in which they are being conducted, shall be ensured the right to become fully acquainted with the materials in the case through the interpreter, and the rights to address the court in their own language
Chapter 16
Procurator’s Office
Article 155. Supreme power of supervision over the strict and uniform observance of laws. . . is vested in the Procurator-General of the USSR, the Procurator of the Georgian SSR subordinate to him and other inferior procurators and the procurator of the Abkhaz ASSR and his subordinate procurators..
Article 177. The Procurator of the Abkhaz ASSR is appointed by the Procurator-General of the USSR.
The District and City Procurators are appointed by the Procurator of the Georgian SSR subject to approval by the Procurator-General of the USSR.
Article 157. The term of office of the Procurator of the Abkhaz ASSR and of other inferior Procurators is 5 years.
Article 158. The agencies of the Procurator’s Office exercise their powers independently of any local bodies whatsoever, and are subordinate solely to the Procurator of the USSR.
IX. Emblem, Flag and Capital of the Abkhaz ASSR
Article 159. The state Emblem of the Georgian SSR is the Emblem of the Georgian SSR.
Article 160.  The state flag of the Georgian SSR is the flag of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
(…)
X. Operation of the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR and the rule for its amendment
Article 162. All of the laws of the Abkhaz ASSR and other acts of the state organs shall be based on and in pursuance to the Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR.
Article 163. The Constitution of the Abkhaz ASSR may be amended only by decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR adopted by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the vote’s casts of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR.
6 June 1978
(The Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia (Basic Law), Sukhumi, 1978, p. 3-41/in Georgia)
    

LAW OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR of 21 Decem­-
ber 1978.
General provisions
Article 1. The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, i.e. the government of the Georgian SSR, is the highest executive and administrative body of state authority of the Georgian SSR.
Article 3. The council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR Shall:
ensure observance of the Constitutions of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, the laws of the USSR and other decisions of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and its Presidium, the laws of the Georgina SSR and other decisions of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, execute the decrees and ordinances of the Council of Ministers of the USSR;
support the implementation of the jurisdiction of the USSR on the territory of the Georgian SSR, execute the decisions of the organs supreme state authority and administration of the USSR.
(…)
Article 4. The rule of forming of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR. Composition of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR.
The Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall form the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR consisting of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, the First Deputy of the Chairman and Vice-chairmen, the ministers of the Georgian SSR, the Chairmen of the state committees of the Georgina SSR.
The Chairmen of the Councils of Ministers of Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Adjara shall be ex officio members of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
II. The competence of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR
Article 6. …
The Council of ministers of the Georgian SSR, when necessary, may render the right on deciding the certain matters under its competence to the Councils of Ministers of the Abkhaz and Adjarian ASSR, the executive committee of Soviets of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast district and city executive committees of the soviets of People’s Deputies (the cities of republican subordination) and other organs of state administration subordinate to it.
Article 19. Relation of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR with the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Council of ministers  of Adjarian ASSR.
The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR shall direct and exercise control over the work of the Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Council of Ministers of the Adjarian ASSR  
The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Council of Ministers of Adjarian ASSR shall participate in decision-making of the matters under the jurisdiction of the Georgian SSR.
The Council of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Council of Ministers of the Adjarian ASSR shall submit the proposals to the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR on the matters that are subject of decision of the Government of the Georgian SSR.
For the purpose of execution of the plans of social and economic development, as well as of the All-Union and republican programs, the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR shall secure the necessary coordination between the Councils of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR, and the Ministries and state committees of the Georgian SSR and subordinate organs.
The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, within the limits of its competence, has the right to suspend execution of the orders and decisions of the Councils of Ministers of the Abkhaz ASSR and Adjarian ASSR.
Article 20. Relation of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR with the executive committees of the Local Soviets of the people’s Deputies.
The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR, within the limits of its competence, has the right to revoke the decisions and ordinances of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and executive committees of the district and city (republican subordination) Soviets of People’s Deputies.
The Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR shall approve the Regulations of the Departments and Offices of the local soviets of the people’s Deputies.
(…)
21 December 1978
(The Book of Georgian Laws; vol. I, p. 233-251)


1979
LAW OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on Election of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR of
15 June 1979
(…)
Article 6.  The Deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall be elected according to the electoral districts.  One deputy shall be elected from each electoral district.
Article 7. The electoral commissions shall organize the elections; the electoral commissions shall be formed from the representatives of public organizations, labour collectives and military units nominated at the meetings of the said entities.
(…)
Article 22. The electoral Commissions of the elections of Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
The following electoral commissions shall be formed for holding the elections of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR:
The Central Electoral Commission of the Elections of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR;
The District Electoral Commissions of the Elections of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR;
The Precinct Electoral Commissions.
Article 24. Forming of the Central Electoral Commission of the Elections of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
The Central Electoral Commission of the Elections of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall consist of the Chairman of the Commission, Vice-Chairman and 14 members.  The composition of the Commission shall be approved by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR not later than the fifth day after fixing the day of elections.
Article 25.  Forming of the District Electoral Commissions of the elections of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR
The District Electoral Commission shall be formed in each electoral District consisting of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, a secretary and 10 members.
The composition of the District Commission shall be approved by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, the Presidiums of the Supreme Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR accordingly, and the Executive Committee of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast not later than the tenth day after fixing the day of elections.
Article 26. Forming of the precinct electoral Commissions
The Precinct electoral Commission consists of the Chairman of the Commissions, Vice-Chairman, a Secretary and 4-16 members, and in the precincts having less than 100 voters – Chairman, Secretary and 1-3 members.  The composition of the commission shall be approved by district, city, or city district soviet of People’s Deputies respectively not later than the thirtieth day after fixing the day of elections.
15 June 1979
(The book of laws of the Georgian SSR, vol. I, p. 119-138)


LAW OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on Elections of Local Soviets of People’s Deputies of the
Georgian SSR of 15 June 1979
(…)
Article 1. The basis of the Electoral System
In accordance with the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, the Deputies to all local Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Georgian SSR – of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, Districts, Cities, city districts, settlements and villages – shall be elected on the basis of universal, equal, and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
(…)
Article 12. Holding the elections of the Local Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Georgian SSR
The elections of all local Soviets of people’s Deputies shall be held at one time and the day of elections shall be named by the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR…
Article 13. Forming the electoral Districts
The electoral districts shall be formed for holding the elections of local Soviets of People’s Deputies:
In the Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South-Ossetian Autonomous oblast – 140 electoral districts
(…)
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR shall determine the number of electoral districts for the Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, and for each district and city (under republican subordination) within the norms established by this Article; and for the city (under the District subordination), city district, settlement and village elections of People’s Deputies – the superior executive committee of People’s Deputies;  at the same tine the number of population, territory and other local conditions shall be taken into account.
The electoral Districts shall be formed by relevant executive committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies with equal number of population.
While defining the boundaries of the electoral district, the administrative-territorial division and other conditions shall be taken into account.
(…)
Article 22.  The electoral commissions for the elections of the local soviets of People’s Deputies of the Georgian SSR
For holding the elections of the Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South-Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, the District, City, City-District, settlement and village Soviets of people’s deputies, the electoral commissions shall be formed:
the District electoral commission of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast.
(…)
Article 24. Forming of oblast, district, City, City-District, settlement and village electoral commissions
The Electoral Commission of the elections of the Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South-Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall consist of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, a secretary and 12 members.
(…)
Article 25. Forming of District Electoral Commissions
The District Electoral Commission shall be formed for the elections of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South-Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, at each electoral district of elections of the district, city, city-district Soviets of people’s Deputies consisting of Chairman, Vice-Chairman, a secretary and 4-8 members.  The composition of the Commission shall be approved by the respective executive committee of the Soviet of people’s deputies not later than the fifteenth day after fixing the day of election.
(…)
15 June 1979
(The Book of Laws of the Georgian SSR, vol. I, p. 139-160)


1980
LAW OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF GEORGIAN on the Autonomous Oblast
of South Ossetia
Chapter I
General Provisions
Article 1.  The Autonomous Oblast
The Autonomous Oblast is a form of soviet autonomy.
The Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia is included in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia on the basis of the Constitution of the USSR and the Constitution of the Georgian SSR.
The organs of state authority and the organs of state administration of the Georgian SSR shall secure the comprehensive cultural and economic development of the Autonomous Oblast.
Article 2. The legislation of the USSR and the Georgian SSR on the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
In accordance to the Constitution of the USSR and the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, the legal status of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall be determined by this Law and other legal acts of the USSR and the Georgian SSR.
Article 3. The Administrative-territorial arrangement of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia
The territory of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia may not be altered without consent of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast.
The Following districts are included in the Autonomous Oblast: Java, Znauri, Leningori, Tskhinvali, the City of Tskhinvali of oblast subordination and other residential areas.
The alteration of boundaries of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be carried out in conformity to the rules established by law.
Creation of districts and cities, settlements and residential areas, as well as their abolishment, renaming and naming, determination of district boundaries and their alteration shall be carried out in conformity to the rules established by the law of the Georgian SSR.
The issues relating to the administrative-territorial arrangement of the Autonomous Oblast shall be decided with respect of the relevant organs of state authority of the autonomous oblast.
Article 4.  Representation of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast in the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
In accordance with Article 110 of the Constitution of the USSR, five deputies shall be elected to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
Article 5. Participation of residents of the Autonomous oblast in elections of the Soviets of People’s Deputies.
The citizens residing in the Autonomous oblast participate in the elections of the Supreme Soviet of People’s Deputies of the USSR, Supreme Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Georgian SSR and Local Soviets of People’s Deputies in accordance with the legal acts of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR.
Article 6. In accordance to the Constitution of the USSR and the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, citizens residing in the Autonomous Oblast are equal without distinction of origin, social or property status, race or nationality, sex, education, language, attitude to religion, type and nature of occupation, or other status and shall have the equal right to the economic, political, social and cultural life; they also shall have the right to free application of the mother tongue and other languages of the peoples of the USSR.
Article 7. The right of direct interrelations between the organs of state authority and state administration of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and of the Georgian SSR.
Article 8. The Plan of Social and Economic Development of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia
The Plan of Social and Economic development of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia is a constituent part of the Plan of Social and Economic Development for the Autonomous Oblast of the Georgian SSR.
The major indicators of the Plan of Social-Economic Development of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast are singled out in a separate line of the Plan of Economic-Social Development of the Georgian SSR.
The Plan of Economic and Social Development of the Autonomous oblast shall secure the comprehensive economic and social development of the autonomous Oblast.
Article 9. The Budget of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
The budget of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia is a part of the budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
The Budget of the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia is singled out in a separate line in the Budget of the Georgian SSR.
The part of profit of enterprises and organizations of republican subordination that are located on the territory of the oblast Soviets shall be transferred to the budget of the Autonomous Oblast; the amount of transfers and the rules shall be established by the legislation of the Georgian SSR.
The enterprises and organizations of All-Union subordination also take part in forming the revenue part of the budget of the Autonomous oblast.  The forms and methods of such participation shall be determined by the legislation of the USSR.
Chapter II
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous oblast
of South Ossetia The major principles of forming and activity of the
Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia
Article 10. The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast as the organ of state authority.
In accordance with the Constitution of the USSR and the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast is the organ of state authority in the autonomous oblast.
Article 11. The jurisdiction of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia
The major principles of organization and activity of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast  and its jurisdiction is determined by the law of the USSR “on Jurisdiction of Soviets of people’s Deputies of Regions and Oblasts”, this law and other legal acts of the Georgian SSR.
The Oblast Soviet shall deal with all matters of local significance in accordance with the  interest of the citizens residing on the territory under its jurisdiction with respect of specifics of the autonomous oblast and other traits, implement decisions of higher bodies of state authority, guide the work of lower Soviets of people’s Deputies, take part in decision-making of matters of Republican and All-Union significance, and submit proposals concerning them.
The Soviet of people’s deputies of the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia shall form the oblast organs of state administration.
Article 12. The procedure of election of the Soviet of people’s Deputies of the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia.
The Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
The rules for conducting the elections are determined by the law of the Georgian SSR on Elections of Local Soviets of people’s Deputies.
(…)
Article 14. Direction of the state, economic and social-cultural development by the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall direct on its territory execution of plans of the state, economic and social development, the budget and submit the report on its implementation, exercise general guidance over state bodies, enterprises, organizations and collective farms, facilitate the strengthening of state security, state and labour discipline, public order and protection of rights of citizens.
The enterprises, organizations and agencies, providing the service to the population of the oblast, shall be under subordination of the Autonomous Oblast.  The rules of subordination of the mentioned enterprises, organizations and agencies shall be established by the All-Union legislation and the laws of the Georgian SSR.
Article 15. Securing the comprehensive economic and social development by the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia on its territory; relation with the enterprises and organizations under higher subordination.
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast shall ensure comprehensive, all-round economic and social development of its area, exercise control over the activity of enterprises, institutions and organizations of All-Union or Republican subordination, coordinate and supervise administration of land-resources, environment protection, construction, labour resources, production of consumer goods. The Soviet of People’s Deputies shall hear regular reports from the heads of enterprises and institutions, take decisions on them and if necessary, submit the relevant proposals to the highest organs of state authority.  The proposals shall be considered and the results communicated to the Soviet.
The Ministries of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR, the state committees and agencies shall secure submission of indicators, plans and projects, except of plans of military production to the Oblast Soviet, take into account the conclusions of the this Soviet wile elaborating and approving the development plans of branches of the Public Economy on its territory.
(…)
Organization of the Activity of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia
The Session of the Soviet of People’s deputies of the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia
Article 16. Guidance of the activity of lower Soviets by the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall direct activity of the lower Soviets of People’s Deputies in execution of decisions of higher organs of state authority, implementation of plans of economic and social development, as well as of the All-Union, Republican, regional and Interagency programs of comprehensive development in conformity to the legislation; the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall learn and disseminate the experience of Soviets, provide officials with training and re-education activity and elaborate effective forms and methods for raising their qualification.
The Oblast Soviet shall hear the reports and information from the lower Soviets regarding their activity; it shall have the right to revoke the acts of subordinate Soviets if they run counter to the legislation.
2. Jurisdiction of the Soviet of People’s
Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia
Article 17. Jurisdiction in the field of planning, material-technical supply, accounting and reporting.
The jurisdiction of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall cover:
1) Endorsement of current and prospective plans of economic and social development, organization of and control over the implementation of those plans, approval of reports on their execution; respect the requests of constituency while elaborating the current and prospective action plans, as well as of working collectives and public organizations; take measures for improving the planning works for the purpose of rational development of the economic branches; increase the effectiveness of production, acceleration of scientific and technical progress and improvement of the production quality;
2) Approval of the summarized close in the plan of economic and social development with respect of improving the working conditions, qualification and professionalism, education and cultural level, housing, health-care and other measures aimed at improving the level of life of employees;
3) Consideration of plans of organizations of All-Union and Republican subordination within the limit of its jurisdiction; submission of proposals, where necessary, to the relevant higher organs of state authority, participation in discussion of proposals; draft and approve the current and prospective plans of constructing materials, local consumer goods, communal service and cultural-housing construction, and control the implementation of the said plans.
4) Approval of the issues of location, development and specialization of enterprises, organizations and institutions of Oblast subordination and take measures for developing their material-technical basis.
5) Communication to the District and City (under the oblast subordination) Soviets the information regarding the draft-plans and approved plans of enterprises, organizations and institutions located in the area under its jurisdiction;
6) Participation in drafting the regional and other programs with regard of developing the territorial-industrial complexes and industrial blocs in the area under its jurisdiction;
7) Submission  to the relevant Ministries, State Committees and Agencies of the USSR and the Georgian SSR proposals on production of consumer goods at the enterprises under their jurisdictions (the Oblast Soviet shall be informed on the results of consideration of its proposals not later than within a month); drafting the conclusions for All-Union Ministries and the Ministries of the Georgian SSR on organization of producing of additional consumer goods outside of planned items at the enterprises under its subordination;
8) Elaboration of estimates of labour resources, local constructing materials and fuel, as well as of land resources and other estimates necessary for planning the economic and social development of the Oblast;
9) Reorganize and abolish the enterprises, organizations and institutions of oblast subordination in compliance to the rules established by law; where necessary, submit the proposals on reorganization or abolishment of the enterprises and organizations under higher subordination.;
10) Direction of organizations of oblast subordination dealing with supply and trade activity; arrangement of material-technical supply of enterprises of oblast subordination, as well as realization of produced goods;
11) Direction of accounting, reporting and statistic works at the enterprises, organizations and institutions under the oblast subordination; facilitation to the statistical entities; implementation of centralization of accounting works and introduction of progressive methods in those works; safeguarding the rules and procedures of drafting and delivering the reporting data, and its terms.
Article 18.  Jurisdiction in the field of budget and finance.
Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia:
1) Approves the total sum of revenues and expenditures of the budget of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, specifies the major sources of income and assignments for local economy and for financing the social-cultural measures and maintaining the state and administrative organs of the autonomous oblast; while drafting the budget takes into account the requests of the constituency;
2) Approves the budget of the oblast, and the amount of cash-flow in pursuance to the oblast budget; determines the quarterly allocation of revenues and expenditures of the Oblast;
3) Approves the incomes and expenditures between the Oblast budget and the budgets of districts and cities of oblast subordination;
4) Determines the income and expenditure parts of the budgets for each district and city, approves the amount of transfers from state taxes and revenues to the budget of cities of oblast subordination;
5) Coordinates the implementation of the oblast budget; exercises control over implementation of budgets of cities under oblast subordination, protection of financial discipline, execution of industrial-financial plans of enterprises, associations and organizations with respect of effective usage of labour and financial resources;  examines the results of financial-economic activity of the departments and offices of the Executive Committee, enterprises and organizations; takes measures for searching the internal economic reserves;
6) Uses the additional sum of income and savings for development of local economy and financing of social and cultural events, including the investments for renovation of premises of Executive Committee, its departments and divisions and of the Notary Office, also for purchasing the equipment and facilities for them, for building the premises for village and settlement executive committees, purchasing of transportation means and renovation of existing offices (removal of the said resources from the oblast budget, except of those left due to the non-fulfillment of investment plans and the plans of development of the social-cultural institutions, is inadmissible);
7) In the course of execution of the budget and where necessary, redistributes the resources of the oblast budget among the economic branches, departments and divisions of the executive committee, and also within the approved fund of wages;
8) Approves the Report on implementation of the Oblast budget;
9) Takes measures for strengthening material-financial basis of the lower Soviets and Executive Committee;
10)  Creates the fund in the oblast budget for unforeseen expenses;
11) Determines the rules for providing the loans for covering the cash deficit to the budgets of cities under district and oblast subordination, and defines the rules for recovering of such loans;
12) In case of necessity and in pursuance to the rules established by law renders the pecuniary aid to the citizens who have got the damage from natural calamities or other accidents;
13) On the exceptional basis writes off bad debts from certain borrowers who got the loan for construction of individual houses from the State Bank of the USSR and the Construction Bank of the USSR upon the recommendation of the district or city Soviets of People’s Deputies;
14) Directs the works for calculation and collection of state and local taxes and duties; in conformity to the legislation extends the term of covering the income tax by the collective farms having got the damage due to the natural disasters, in case of necessity exercises a partial or full exemption from taxes at the expense of relevant budget; on the basis of average tax-rate on agriculture determines the tax-rates for certain districts and settlements; where necessary may reduce the rates and introduce the benefits on the local taxes and duties to the certain objects or the groups of tax-payers, decides other issues of taxes and duties under its jurisdiction;
15) Examines the quarterly cash-plans of the office of the State Bank of the USSR in districts and cities under the Oblast subordination, takes measures for execution of those plans; approves the long-term loan plans of the Oblast aimed at developing the collective farms, economic enterprises (organizations) in the rural settlements, construction of cooperative and individual houses; exercises the control over efficient and proper application of credits and timely recovery of the long-term credits; redistributes the long-term loans between the districts and cities under the Oblast subordination within the scope of total amount determined in the plans of long-term crediting for each group of  long-term debtors;
16) Exercises control over timely transfer of assessments of collective farms to the centralized Union Fund of social security of the farmers and to the centralized Union Fund of social insurance of the farmers;
17) Decides the issues relating to transferring the premises, transportation means and other property from one state organization, institutions or enterprise to other organizations, institutions or enterprises, as well as of collective farms, economic organizations and other institutions;
18) Issues the permission to the enterprises and organizations under the local subordination for purchasing the premises and facilities from the cooperative or other public organizations within the limits of capital assignments;
19) Directs the work of the state saving-banks, coordinates the allocation of the network of saving-banks on the territory of the oblast; directs the work of the local insurance agencies;
20) Administers and directs the works of internal financial audit.
Article 19. Jurisdiction in price-policy
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast:
1) Takes measures on the territory of the Autonomous oblast for implementation of uniformed price-policy and exercises control over the proper determination and application of prices, tariffs,  extra-charges and allowances by the enterprises and organizations located on the territory of the Oblast; takes necessary measures for effective state and public control in the field of price-policy, as well as for prevention of violation of price-discipline;
2) In pursuance to the legislation decides the issues of introduction of prices and tariffs; within its competence takes measures for development of price and tariff system, also for eradication of plurality of prices on the similar items and tariffs for the similar services.
Article 20. Jurisdiction in the field of Industry
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast:
1) Administers the enterprises and amalgamates, secures implementation of financial plans, controls the application of basic and current assets, quality of the production; approves the results of financial-economic activity, and the distribution of the profit; takes measures for application in industry the new and progressive technologies, and for effective use of equipments, facilities and materials; creates the fund for development of the local industry in conformity to the legislation.
2) Distributes the products of local industrial enterprises and amalgamates made of local materials, as well as of waste products and raw materials;
3) Directs the development of public goods; coordinates and controls their production at every enterprises located on the territory of the Autonomous oblast; takes measures for increasing the level of production, enlargement the range of goods  and for improving the quality of goods; organizes production of building materials on the bases of local raw materials through application of production waste at the disposal of the oblast;
4) Assists the enterprises and organizations located on the territory of the Oblast and subordinate to higher state organs in rational application of productive capacity, materials, labour and financial resources, improving the social and cultural level of workers and servants;
5) Finds the reserves of material resources for additional enlargement of the production of public goods;
6) Assists in developing the handicraft production; takes measures for strengthening the material and technical bases for handicraft production.
Article 21. Jurisdiction in the field of construction, town-planning and Architecture.
The Soviet of Peoples Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast:
1) Directs the works on town-planning, architecture and compound-construction; develops the construction works and building of premises, as well as the application of type designs and prefabricated elements, industrial methods of construction, local building materials, effective use of investments, development of material-technical base of construction; takes measures for: reducing the price, increase of effectiveness and quality, reducing the term of construction, application in construction of achievements of sciences and technologies and progressive and const-effective methods of planning and building, engineering, modern amenities and gardening;
2) In pursuance to the established rules approves or coordinates the projects and schemes of the district planning, projects of country-side zones, general plans and detailed projects of town-planning and other settlements, introduction of new construction on the territory of the oblast, extension and reconstruction of industrial, transport and other objects;
3) Exercises control over constructions carried out on the territory of the Oblast, observes the terms and quality of building and installation works; safeguards the proper application of lands under construction of premises irrespective of their subordination; prohibits or terminates construction carried out with the breach of legislation; applies other sanctions, established by law, in the event of low-grade construction of civil objects, production of poor materials and goods not meeting the standard and technical requirement;
4) Directs the building and repairing organizations under oblast subordination; observes implementation of financial-economic plans; approves the projects and titular lists of construction of the objects under oblast subordination within the limits of estimate established by law; upon the consent of enterprises, organizations, institutions and collective farms decides the issues on joint usage of resources assigned for housing, utility, road construction, building of cultural, educational, Health-care and sport facilities, offices for trade and public catering; determines the customers at those types of construction.
Article 22. Jurisdiction in the field of Agriculture and Food Production
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast:
1) Directs the agriculture and other branches of agriculture complex; takes measures for developing of material-technical basis, increase of production and improvement of the quality of agriculture products, improvement of housing and cultural conditions for the residents of rural area;
2) Approves the tasks on state purchasing of agriculture products; organizes implementation of plans by agrarian enterprises and organizations; secures the storage of agriculture products;
3) Takes measures for application of achievements of sciences and technologies as well as the progressive methods of agriculture production to the collective farms and other agrarian enterprises and organizations aimed at effective use and storage of agriculture machines, transport, fuel, fertilizers, pesticides and other material-technical resources;
4) Exercises control over the food processing organizations; observes the conditions of storage, processing and realization of agriculture products and raw materials;
5) Takes part in decision-making relating to the process of determination or changing of major direction of collective farms and other agrarian enterprises and organizations;
6) Directs the application of melioration, secure the effective exploitation of meliorating facilities;
7) Exercises control over observance of  Regulations of Collective Farms, democratic basis of management of collective farms and reconciliation of private and public interests in the collective farms;
8) Decides the issues of forming the inter-economic organizations in agrarian sector; coordinates their activity; decides the issues of their reorganization and liquidation;
9) Directs the veterinary works; introduces quarantine where necessary and secures the observance of quarantine and other veterinary and sanitary rules;
10) Takes necessary measures for fighting against vermin and weeds; introduces and removes the  quarantine on plants; exercises control over observance of rules of technical safety while applying the chemical means of plant-protection;
11) Elaborates and implements the measures aimed at increasing the agriculture production at the facilitating farms of enterprises, organizations and institutions, as well as at the private facilitating farms of peasants, workers and other citizens aimed at further developing the horticulture and trucking;
Article 23. Jurisdiction in the filed of environment protection and rational application of natural resources
The Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast:
1) Exercises management and state control in usage and protection of land on the territory of the Autonomous oblast; considers and approves the reports on condition and quality of the land;
2) Settles the disputes regarding the distribution of lots within the limits established by the legislation of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR; provides conclusions on rendering or seizing of land holdings exercised upon decision of higher organs;
4) Changes the boundaries and sizes of lands under collective farms and other agrarian enterprises, organizations and institutions for the purpose of strengthening or consolidation of aforementioned entities; approves the decisions of meetings of farmers and representatives on enlarging the spaces for facilitating farming at the expense of lands under public usage; gives permission for extending such spaces to the agrarian enterprises, organizations and institutions;
4) Exercises control over effective use of land and its fertility; takes measures against soil erosion, salinization, swamping and other processes worsening the soil condition;
5) Gives permission on carrying out the geologic, geodesic and other research works over all lands in pursuance the rules established by law without seizing the lands from the land-users;
6) Exercises the state management and state control in the field of water, forest, soil and air protection, as well as of fauna on the territory of the Autonomous oblast; settles the disputes on usage of water; takes part in planning of forest development, application of forest resources and timber; takes measures for protection of forests and fighting against forest-fires; exercises control over execution of measures for rehabilitation of deteriorated bowels and for re-cultivation of lands;
7) Secures elaboration and implementation of measures for environment protection, and of rational usage, protection and restoration of natural resources; exercises control over the hunting and fishing; directs the work of Associations of Environment Protection, Hunters’ and Fishermen’s.
Article 24. Jurisdiction in the field of road maintenance
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast:
1) secures the development of the road-network, its maintenance and material-technical supply for traffic regulation on the territory of the Autonomous oblast, building of premises and facilities for renovation of the roads;
2) directs the building, repair-works, maintenance and exploitation of motor roads of oblast and local importance; facilitates the building, maintenance and exploitation of motor roads of all-Union and republican importance; exercises control over building, renovation and maintaining the motor roads;
3) takes measures for rational usage of labour resources, equipment and facilities for building, renovating and maintaining of the roads;
4) coordinated involvement of collective farms, sovkhozs, industrial and transport enterprises and other organization in the process of building, reconstruction, renovation and maintenance of the local roads in pursuance of the rules established by law;
5) secures development of capacity of enterprises and organizations under oblast subordination producing materials for road construction, renovation and maintenance;
6) takes part in decision-making on the issues relating to the motor roads and roads of oblast significance; approves the enumeration of roads of local significance upon the consent of the relevant higher bodies.
Article 25. Jurisdiction in the sphere of transport and communications
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast:
1) directs the work of transport enterprises and organizations of Oblast significance;
2) exercises control over the activity of the transport enterprises and organizations of public service under higher subordination; facilitates them in fulfilling the plans of freight traffic;
3)  takes measures for concentration of motor transport at the large transport enterprises;
4) organizes the registration of motor cars and other vehicles at the enterprises, organizations and under ownership of citizens; provides supervision over the technical condition of those vehicles; exercises control over the proper usage of motor cars owned by the citizens.
5) takes measures for securing the safe traffic on the roads;
6) directs the work of communication enterprises and organizations under oblast jurisdiction, takes measures for improving the public service at the communication enterprises, provides assistance for improving the telephone, telegraph and postal communication, for development of the radio and TV network, renovation and protection of the communication lines.
Article 26. Jurisdiction in the field of housing, communal and modern services.
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast:
1) directs the works of enterprises, institutions and organizations dealing with housing, communal and modern utilities under the oblast subordination; takes measures for strengthening their material-technical base; secures the complex development of organizations of housing and communal services;
2) secures the maintenance, proper exploitation, general and current renovation of housing fund under the jurisdiction of the local Soviets;
3) exercises control over the condition and exploitation of housing fund, communal enterprises and facilities, houses and premises under the personal ownership of citizens; takes measures for shifting the housing funds under agency subordination within the jurisdiction of the local Soviets;
4) exercises control over the registration of citizens not having the sufficient lodging space;
5) coordinates the works for electrification, water supply, gas supply, heating and sewerage system of urban and rural areas and other settlements; takes measures for securing the communal services and providing the fuel to the population; exercises control over the construction and exploitation of the water purification facilities;
6) takes measures for improving the condition of modern utilities and sanitary system of residential areas, maintaining and improving the gardens;
7) coordinates involvement of enterprises, institutions and organizations under higher subordination in municipal improvements of residential areas;
8) issues permission, in pursuance to the legislation, to demolish the dwellings owned by the citizens under the right to the private property for the purpose of providing the land plots for the state and public needs;
9) issues permission for renovating the houses at the expense of funds assigned for the major repairs;
10)  takes measure for maintaining the cemeteries, communal graves and other burial places;
Article 27. Jurisdiction in the sphere of trade and public catering
The Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast:
1) coordinates the state and cooperative trade, public catering on the territory of the Autonomous Oblast, as well as the works of trade enterprises and organizations under Oblast subordination; takes measures for strengthening of material-technical basis of trade enterprises and public-food organizations; provides refrigerating equipment and other facilities to those organizations;
2)  approves the plans of commodity turnover  of the retail trade enterprises and organizations under the oblast subordination; distributes the market funds of consumer goods between the organizations of state trade and consumers’ cooperation;
3) coordinates and exercises control over the works of the trade enterprises and organizations, as well as of public catering establishments under higher subordination;
4) takes measures for involving additional local resources of food and industrial production;
5) takes measures for investigation of demand on the consumer goods; facilitates in concluding the agreements between the enterprises and organizations of trade and public catering; takes measures for development of the network of trade and public catering; promotes application of progressive forms of trade and services;
6) exercises control over the agriculture products produced by the consumers’ cooperation on the basis of commissioning;
7) exercises control over observance of the Statute of oblast Union of Consumers’ Associations and of democratic foundations of management of Consumers’ Cooperation;
8) takes measures for development of trade of collective farms at the farmers’ market;
9) exercises control over the observance of trade and sanitary rules at the trade organizations, as well as at the institutions of public food and the farmers’ markets.
Article 28. Jurisdiction in the sphere of consumer services
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast:
1) directs the consumer service of the population at the enterprises and organizations under oblast subordination dealing with consumer service; takes measures for strengthening of material-technical basis and effective application of capacities of the enterprises working in the field of consumer service;
2) secures the execution of industrial-financial plans by consumer service
enterprises and organizations under Oblast subordination;  exercises control over appropriation of basic assets; approves the results of financial-economic activity and distribution of profits in accordance with the established rules;
3) approves the plans of realization of consumer services by the enterprises and organizations under Oblast subordination, also the tasks of consumer service to the population provided by the enterprises and organizations of All-Union and Republican subordination.
4) coordinates and exercises control over the works of consumer service enterprises under higher subordination;
5)  secures more comprehensive supply of consumer services; takes measures for specialization and strengthening of production and application of wider types of consumer services, improvement of quality and raising the culture of service; exercises control over the regime of activity of the consumer service enterprises and offices;
6) promotes development of patronage and cooperation system between the industrial and consumer service enterprises; facilitates to the enterprises, collective farms and Sovkhozs in effective application of their capacities and enlargement of the network of consumer services.
Article 29.  Jurisdiction in the field of education and sciences
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast:
1) directs the matters of public education, pre-school and non-school education, as well as education of children at the boarding schools, children’s home and special schools; secures the implementation of general compulsory education at secondary schools; secures the possibility to apply the native language at schools as a language of instruction; takes measures for strengthening the links between the schools and enterprises, for improvement of vocational education; provides the registration of the school-age children;
2) secures the development of the network of schools, proper allocation of secondary schools, application of training workshops and sections of enterprises, organizations and collective farms for working education; takes measures for improving the activity of the night classes and the educational institution instructing by correspondence;
3) secures the development of the network of pre-school and out-of school education, their proper allocation; when necessary may increase a number of children at the pre-school establishment above the amount determined in the plan of economic and social development of the autonomous oblast and provides the additional funds from the budget of the Autonomous oblast;
4) exercises control over the schools of general education, pre-schools and out-of school establishments irrespective of their jurisdiction, and over the proper application of educational funds;
5) secures the strengthening of educational-material capacity of schools, boarding-schools, children’s homes, as well as of material basis for labour education;
6) takes measures for providing free text-books for the pupils of schools of general education;
7) provides free transportation for the children of rural area to school and from school, as well as to the places of labour education;
8) directs the work of guardianship and trusteeship establishments;
9) take measures for assisting the development of sciences, the works high educational and vocational institutions located on the territory of the Autonomous Oblast.
Article 30.  Jurisdiction in the field of Cultural-educational and Art activity
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
1) directs the cultural-educational works at the cultural-educational establishments under the Oblast subordination; takes measure for promoting the role of cultural-educational and art institutions in developing the higher political, working, moral and ethic levels; takes measures for strengthening their material-technical basis and capacity;
2)  coordinates and exercises control over the activity of cultural-educational organizations and institutions, art schools and enterprises irrespective of their subordination;
3) elaborates and executes the various of measures for developing the network of cultural and art establishments of the autonomous oblast, the system of cultural service to the population and the network of cultural establishment at the rural areas;  takes measures for developing of national culture, art and literature;
4) directs the work of TV and Radio broadcasting; organizes the cinema service for the population; takes measures for developing of theatrical, musical, dancing and art amateur establishments and other forms of folk amateur art activities;  organizes the festivals, competitions, exhibitions and other arrangements in the field of culture and art;
5) directs the works for introducing the civil rites in the life of Soviet citizens;
6) exercises state management and state control in the field of protection of historical and cultural monuments;
7) directs the publishing activity at the enterprises and organizations under the oblast subordination;
8) renders the assistance to the Creative Unions and organizations, the Society “Tsodna” of Georgian SSR.
Article 31. Jurisdiction in the field of Healthcare.
The Soviet of People’ Deputies of the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia:
9) directs the affairs of healthcare at the medical organizations and institutions under the subordination of the autonomous Oblast; takes measures for strengthening their material-technical basis and institutional capacity; takes measures for developing the network of the medical institutions and for proper allocation of such organizations;  secures the emergency service to the population;
10) exercises control over the medical institutions under higher subordination;
11) coordinates and exercises control over the activity of all enterprises, institutions and organizations in health protection and sanitary-economic condition of the population, prevention of infection diseases; in case of threat of  spreading the contagious diseases introduces the special regime of labour, education, transportation and  freightage in pursuance to the established rules aimed at preventing from and liquidating the disease;
12) secures the medicine-supply and takes medical-preventive measures for the population;
13) organizes the work for protecting the mothers and children, improving the working and life conditions of women, implementing the recreating measures for children and juveniles;
14) coordinates and exercises control over the measures for preventing and reducing the noise at the residential and public premises, in the cities and other residential areas;
15) exercises state control over the recreation of environment, sanitary protection of water reservoirs, soil and air;
16) takes part in decision-making with regard of rendering the status of Resort Area to the territories, determination of boundaries of sanitary protection of the resorts and setting the regime of resort activities;
17) secures development of the zones of rest of workers; determines such zones and exercises control over proper application of resorts;
18) coordinates the activity of the oblast organization of the Red Cross of Georgia.
Article 32. Jurisdiction in the field of physical training and sport.
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia:
1) directs the affairs of physical training and sport;
2) secures the development of the network of sporting facilities and premises on the territory of the autonomous oblast; develops the network of gymnasiums for physical training of population; takes measures for strengthening of material-technical basis of physical training and sport;
3) coordinates the holding of sporting events in the oblast;
4) directs activity of voluntary sporting associations.
Article 33.  Jurisdiction in the field of labour, application of labour resources and training of human resources.
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast:
1) provides registration and regulation of labour resources on the territory of the Autonomous oblast; takes measures for rational application of labour resources and for development of the system of employment;  develops the system of public awareness with regard of demand in labour resources at the enterprises, organizations and institutions; takes measures for lowering the level of fluctuation movement of personnel at the enterprises, organizations and institutions located on the territory of the Autonomous Oblast;
2) exercises control over the observance of labour law, rules of labour protection and accident prevention;
3) takes part in elaboration of labour plans together with the Ministries, State Committees and Agencies;
4) approves the plans of organized staffing, resettlement, employment of school-leavers at the enterprises, organizations and institutions irrespective of their subordination;  
5) takes measure, together with the trade unions and other public organizations for developing of Socialist Emulation on the territory of the Autonomous Oblast;  approves the conditions and summarizes the result of the Socialist Emulation together with the oblast authorities;
6) directs the activity of training and retraining of workers and servants at the enterprises, organizations and institutions under the oblast subordination;  exercises control over the training courses at the enterprises, organizations and institutions under higher subordination;
7) designs the plans of employment for the institutions of education, culture and healthcare of the Autonomous oblast; secures the proper allocation of qualified staff;
8) organizes the works for providing the necessary working and life conditions to the servants working at the institutions of education, culture, healthcare and social protection;  exercises control over proper implementation of plans on providing these servants with housing conditions and privileges established by law;
9) takes measures for applying the scientific methods of work, sharing of progressive experience, increasing the labour effectiveness and strengthening of labour discipline;
10) takes measures for promoting the invention and rationalization activities, application of modern technologies and progressive methods at the enterprises; supports activity of scientific-technical societies.
Article 34.  Jurisdiction in the field of Social Protection
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast:
1) directs the affairs of social protection at the enterprises and organizations of social protection under the oblast subordination;
2) exercises control over the works of institutions and agencies dealing with the issues of social protection and located on the territory of the Autonomous Oblast;
3) coordinates the timely and proper assignment and payment of pensions and allowances;  exercises control over observance of legislation on privileges of the citizens;
4) institutes the personal pensions of local significance; files the motions on providing the personal pensions of republican and All-Union significance in pursuance of the rules established by law;
5) forms the oblast Council of Social protection for farmers and exercises control over its activity;
6) coordinates the work for employment of retired and disable citizens, as well as of members of families of military servicemen, perished soldiers and partisans; provides the job places for using the labour of disable and retired citizens;
8) decides the issues relating to the employment of citizens at the institutions of social protection; takes measures for developing the network of agencies dealing with the matters of social protection; provides support for strengthening of material basis and capacity of the institutions working in the field of social protection;
8) directs the works of the organs of forensic-labour medicine;
9) directs and controls the activity of associations of blinds and deaf;  develops the training and manufacturing establishments for these societies.
Article 35.  Jurisdiction in the field of administration of Socialist justice, protection of state and public order, rights of citizens and people’s control.
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast:
1) secures observance of laws of the USSR and the Georgian SSR, other acts issued by the higher organs of state authority and state administration;  secures the maintenance of state and public order, socialist property, rights and legal interests of citizens, enterprises, institutions and organizations;
2) takes measures for improving the legal works; directs this works at the enterprises, institutions and organizations under oblast subordination; organizes the work for legal consultations and interpretation of laws at the enterprises, organizations and institutions;
3) takes measures for preventing the crime;  analysis the crime situation on the territory of the Autonomous oblast;
4) when necessary, revokes the acts issued by the heads of subordinate enterprises and organizations;
5) suspends the acts, which run counter to the legislation and are issued by the heads of enterprise, institutions and organizations on the matters of land-management, water-management, environment protection, construction, housing and communal economy, application of labour resources, production of public goods, protection of historical monuments, and informs the relevant higher organs about such decision;
6) secures the timely and proper consideration of proposals, applications and complaints of citizens;  exercises control over implementation of such works at the Departments and Divisions of the Executive Committee of the oblast, at the enterprises, organizations and institutions located on the territory of the Autonomous Oblast;  receives the elucidative notes on these issues from the heads of aforementioned entities;
7) exercises administrative measures in case of breach of order in pursuance to the procedure established by law;
8) forms the Committee of People’s Control of the Autonomous oblast and changes its composition;  directs the activity of the Committee of people’s Control of the Autonomous oblast; considers the reports on its work;  revokes the decisions of the Committee of People’s Control if they run counter to the relevant legislation;
9) elects the court of the autonomous oblast and changes its composition;  considers the reports on the work of the court of Autonomous oblast;
10) directs the work of State Arbitration and Notary offices;  exercises general administration of the Bar Council; facilitates the organs of Procuracy in their work.
11) directs the work of law-enforcement agencies under its subordination; exercises control over the proper administration of passport regime;
12) directs the work of the organs of registration and the Oblast Archive;
13) coordinates the measures aimed at preventing the natural calamities and for liquidation of results of natural disasters;  when necessary, coordinates the involvement of such works the staff of enterprises, organizations and institutions, and population;
14) coordinates the work of voluntary squads on protection of public order,  amicable courts and other public organs;
15) directs the fire-preventive activities on the territory of the Autonomous oblast; coordinates the work of voluntary fire-brigades;
16) directs the activities for protecting the lives of people at the rivers, lakes and water reservoirs;
17) exercises control over the observance of legislation on religious rites.
Article 36.  Jurisdiction in the field of defence
Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast:
1) secures implementation of the law of the USSR on general military obligation by all individuals and citizens, as well as by enterprises, organizations and institutions;
2) directs the work of military training of civilians on the territory of the Autonomous oblast;
3) exercises control over the observance of legislation on privileges and aids determined for participants of the Great patriotic War, ex-servicemen and reserve forces, as well as the privileges and aids for families of perished soldiers and partisans;
4) takes measures for providing the reserves to the Military Forces of the USSR and for fulfilling the other tasks in the field of defence;
5)  organizes the works for military-patriotic education of the population; develops the patronage links between the working collectives and military units; directs and controls the work of voluntary defence associations.
Article 37. Jurisdiction in organizing the elections
The Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast:
secures the implementation of necessary measures on the territory of the Autonomous oblast for preparing and holding the elections of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, local Soviets of People’s Deputies, as well as of the District (City)People’s Courts.
Article 38. Jurisdiction in institution of government award
The Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast considers the recommendations on awarding the citizens with the Orders and Decorations of the USSR, granting the honorific titles of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR and submits the proposals on awarding the citizens.
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, upon authorization of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and on its behalf performs the ceremony of awarding with the Orders of the USSR.
Article 39.  Other jurisdiction of the Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast
Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast, in addition to the jurisdiction specified for in this Law, exercises other authorities in pursuance to the legislation of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR.
III. Organization of the work of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast.
Session of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast
Article 40.  Convocation and rule of operation of the Session
The Executive Committee of the Autonomous Oblast shall convoke the session of the People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast not less than four times a year.
The session may be convoked at the request of not less than one-third of Deputies of the oblast Soviet.
The first session of newly elected Oblast Soviet shall be convened by the oblast Executive Committee within three weeks after elections and the session shall be inaugurated by the oldest Deputy.  The following session shall be open by the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Soviet.
The Executive Committee of the Oblast Soviet shall inform the Deputies and the public about the time and venue of convocation of the session, as well as of the matters in agenda two weeks prior of the session.
The session of the oblast Soviet is authorized if not less than two-thirds of Deputies are present.
The Oblast Soviet shall elect a Chairman and a Secretary from the Deputies for leading the Sessions.
Article 41. The rules of submitting the issues to be considered at the session
The Executive Committee, Standing Commissions and the Deputies of the oblast Soviet are authorized to submit the issues to be considered at the session.
Proposals to the agenda of the session may be submitted by the public organizations of the Oblast, as well as by the district and city Soviets of the People’s Deputies.
Article 42. The matters decided at the sessions
The Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast is authorized to consider any issues under its jurisdiction in conformity to the legislation of the USSR and the Georgian SSR.
The following issues shall be under the sole authority of the sessions:
1) recognition of the authority of Deputies; pre-term termination of the authority of Deputies in the events prescribed by law;
2) election of the Oblast Executive Committee and alteration of its composition; formation and election of standing Commissions of the oblast Soviets and alteration of their composition;
3) consideration of reports on the activity of the executive committee and standing commissions;
4) consideration of information submitted by the Deputies on performing the duties of deputies, decisions and instructions of the Soviet and its bodies;
5) forming the divisions and department of the executive committee, appointment and dismissal of the heads of divisions and departments;
6)  forming the Committee of People’s Control of the Autonomous Oblast and alteration of its composition; consideration of reports on the activity of the Committee of the People’s Control of the Autonomous oblast; revoke the decisions of the Committee of the people’s Control of the Autonomous Oblast if they run counter to the legislation;
7) forming the Commissions at the Executive Committee in conformity to the legislation;
8) election of the Oblast Court and alteration of its composition; consideration of the Report on the activity of the Oblast Court;
9) approval of current and prospective plans of economic and social development, as well as the budget of the Autonomous Oblast;
10) approval of reports on execution of current and prospective plans of economic and social development and execution of the budget of the Autonomous oblast;
11) consideration and approval of the Action Plans on implementation of mandates;
12) consideration of questions of Deputies;
13) annulment of decisions and orders of the Executive Committee of the oblast Soviet; annulment of decisions of the lower Soviets if they run counter to the legislation.
Article 43. Decisions made by the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast adopts decisions within the scope of its jurisdiction established by the legislation of the USSR and the Georgian SSR; secures the implementation of decisions.  The decisions made by the oblast Soviet are binding to the enterprises, institutions and organizations located on the territory of the Oblast, and to the officials and citizens.
The decisions of the Oblast Soviet shall be adopted on the basis of voting by show by majority of total number of Deputies of the Oblast Soviet; the Decision shall be signed by the Chairman and Secretary of the Executive Committee.
The decisions of the oblast Soviet shall be communicated to the relevant organizations, officials and public within ten days by the executive committee.  Proposals and recommendations envisaged in the Decision addressed to the enterprises, institutions and organizations under higher subordination shall be considered by the heads of the said organizations; the latter shall inform about the results the Soviet or its executive committee within two weeks.
If the Heads of enterprises, institutions and organizations under higher subordination fail to execute the decision made by the Oblast Soviet, the latter is authorized to address to the relevant higher authorities with proposal on imposition of disciplinary sanctions up to removal from the office.  The local Soviet or its executive Committee shall be informed about the results of consideration of its proposal within a month.
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR may revoke the Decision adopted by the Oblast Soviet if it runs counter to the law.
(…)
The Executive Committee of the Soviet of
People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast
Article 45.  Executive Committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast is the executive and administrative body of the Soviet.
The executive-administrative body of the Soviet of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be the Executive Committee elected by the Soviet from among the deputies composed of: a chairman, first vice-chairman, a secretary and members. The number of members to the executive committee shall be decided by the Oblast Soviet.
The executive committee shall be directly accountable both to the Soviet that elected it to the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR.
The executive committee shall report on its work at least once a year to the Oblast Soviet that elected it and to meetings of citizens at their places of work or residence.
The sittings of the executive committee of the oblast Soviet shall be convened upon the necessity but not less than once a month.  The sitting of the executive committee shall be deemed authorized if not less than two-thirds of its members are present.
Article 46.  Jurisdiction of the executive committee
The executive Committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall guide the state, economic and social-cultural development of its area on the basis of decisions made by the Soviet that elected it and by the higher executive and administrative bodies.
The Executive Committee shall decided matters within the powers accorded to the Soviet except those that are under the sole jurisdiction of the Session of Soviet.
The Executive Committee:
convokes the session of the Soviet and provides the preparatory works;
organizes the preliminary discussion of draft-decisions of the Soviet on the important issues at the meetings of citizens at their places of work or residence;
coordinates the work of standing commissions of the Soviet;
assists the deputies in exercising their authorities;
elaborates and submits to the Oblast Soviet the current and prospective plans of economic and social development, as well as the budget of the Autonomous Oblast; takes measures for implementation of the plans and budget;  reports the Oblast Soviet on execution of plans and implementation of budget;
coordinates implementation of decisions adopted by the Soviet and higher state bodies, mandate of electors and informs the deputies and population regarding their realization.
Article 47. Performance of guidance of the divisions and departments.  Relation with enterprises, organizations and institutions
The Executive Committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast shall guide and administer the work of divisions and departments of the executive committee, enterprises, institutions and organizations under the oblast subordination;   in the period between convocation of sessions appoints and dismisses the heads of divisions and departments subject to subsequent confirmation at the session (with the consent of relevant higher body of state administration);  appoints to and removes from the office leading officials of divisions and departments of the executive committee, heads of enterprises, institutions and organizations under the Oblast subordination (in conformity to the list approved by the executive committee of the oblast Soviet and upon the consent of the higher body of state administration).
The Executive Committee of the oblast Soviet may consider the matters accorded to the competence of its divisions and departments.
Article 48.  Decisions and ordinances of the Executive Committee
Within its power, the Executive Committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall make decisions and issue the ordinances.
Decisions of the Executive Committee of the oblast Soviet shall be adopted by the simple majority of vote casts; it shall be signed by the chairman and the secretary of the Executive Committee.  The ordinances of the Executive Committee of the Oblast Soviet shall be signed by the Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Executive Committee.
The Executive Committee of the Oblast Soviet is authorized to revoke decisions and ordinances issued by the executive committees of lower Soviets of People’s Deputies.
The Oblast Soviet and the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR are authorized to revoke the decisions and ordinances issued by the executive committee of the Oblast Soviet.
Article 49.  Term of authority of the Executive committee
After expiration of the term of authority of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, its executive committee shall retain the authority until the newly elected Oblast Soviet has elected the executive committee.
Article 50.  Structure and the staff of the Executive Committee
The Structure and the staff of the Executive Committee of the people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, its divisions and departments shall be determined on the basis of norms adopted by the Georgian SSR for staffing of the given executive committee.  The number of employees shall be determined within the scope of salary fund on the basis of average wage of officials and in conformity to the salary-scheme for state officials.
(…)
Divisions and departments of the Executive Committee of the
Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Article 62.  Forming of divisions and departments
Divisions and departments of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast shall be formed by the Oblast Soviet and they are subordinate to the Soviet and its executive committee, as well as to the higher body of state administration.
Divisions and departments of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies shall report to the Soviet, its executive committee, relevant ministry and state committee of the Georgian SSR, as well as to the meetings of citizens at their places of work or residence.
The list of divisions and departments and the procedure for their forming shall be established by the law of the USSR and of the Georgian SSR.
Divisions and departments of the Executive Committee shall be financed from the budget or run on a self-supporting.
The Statute of divisions and departments of the executive Committee of the Oblast Soviet shall be approved by the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR.
Article 63.  Competence of the divisions and departments and principles of their activity
The divisions and departments of the executive Committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast shall guide the branches of state, economic and social-cultural development on the territory of the autonomous oblast within the power accorded them.
… the collegiums may be formed at the divisions and departments.  The composition of collegiums shall be approved by the executive Committee of the Oblast Soviet.  The decisions of collegiums, as a rule, shall be implemented under the Order issued by the divisions and departments.
Within the scope of his competence, the head of division or department of the Executive Committee of the Oblast Soviet issues the Orders on the basis and for execution of the decisions and ordinances of the Executive Committee, as well as of higher organs of state authority and state administration.
Chapter III
Other state bodies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast
Article 64. The Court of the Autonomous oblast
On the basis of Article 164 of the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall elect the Court of the Autonomous Oblast.
Article 65. Judicial proceedings in the Autonomous oblast
In accordance with Article 171 of the Constitution of the Georgian SSR,  judicial proceedings in the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall be conducted in the language of autonomous oblast or in Georgian, or in the language of majority of the local population of given locality. Persons participating in the court proceeding, who do not know the language in which they are being conducted, shall be secured the right to become fully acquainted with the materials in the case through the interpreter, and the rights to address the court in their own language.
Article 66.  Procurator of the Autonomous Oblast
In accordance with the Constitution of the USSR and the Constitutions of the Georgian SSR, the procurator of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall be appointed by the Procurator General of the USSR.
Chapter IV
Concluding Provisions
Article 67. Adoption of and changes to the Law on the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia
In accordance of the Constitution of the USSR and the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, the Law on the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall be adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR upon submission by the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.  The changes and amendments to this Law may be introduced by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR upon proposal of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South-Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Article 68. Application of the authority of a legal person
The Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall have the status of a legal person.
The Executive Committee of the Oblast shall have the official seal on sample approved by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
Article 69. The rules of hoisting the State Flag on the premises where the sessions of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast are held and on the Office-Building of the Executive Committee of the Oblast Soviet
In accordance with the Regulations on the State Flag of the Georgian SSR, the state flag of the Georgian SSR shall be hosting during the session period on the building, in which the session of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast is held, and on the Office of the Executive Committee of the oblast Soviet – permanently.
The raising of state flag on the building of the Executive Committee, as well as of the state flag of the USSR and the state flag of the Georgian SSR on the state and public offices, enterprises, organizations and institutions shall be carried out in pursuance of the rules established by the Regulations on the state flag of the USSR and the State flag of the Georgian SSR.
12 November 1980
(The Law of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia on the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.  Tskhinvali, 1981, p. 3-67/in Georgia)


1982
REGULATIONS on the rules of setting the issues related to the Administrative-territorial
arrangement of the Georgian SSR
(approved under the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR on 17 March 1982)
I.  Creation and abolishment of District, city-district, and
village Soviets and determination and alteration of their boundaries
1. The districts of republican (Georgian SSR) subordination shall be created and abolished by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Georgia upon recommendation by the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR subject to consequent approval by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
2. The districts and city-districts of republican (Georgian SSR) subordination in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be created and abolished by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Georgia upon recommendation of the Council of Ministers of the Republic and of the motion of the executive committees of City Soviets (republican subordination).
3. The districts and city-districts in the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR shall be created and abolished by the Presidiums of the Supreme Soviets of the respective Autonomous Republic upon recommendation of the relevant Council of Ministers subject of consequent approval by the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
4. The creation and abolishment of village Soviets, determination of village administrative centers and their replacement, as well as determination of their boundaries (except of Abkhaz ASSR, Adjarian ASSR and the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast) shall be decided by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR upon recommendation of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian SSR and the relevant executive committee of city (with district division) Soviets.
5. In the Abkhaz ASSR, the Adjarian ASSR and in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, the changes to the administrative-territorial division specified for in Article 4 shall be carried out by the respective Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic and Executive Committee of People’s Soviet of the Autonomous Oblast upon recommendation of the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic and the Executive Committee of the People’s Soviet of the Autonomous oblast accordingly.  Such decisions are subject o consequent approval by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
8. The city category, as well as the boundaries of towns (under subordination of Autonomous Republic) in the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR shall be decided by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR respectively upon recommendation of the Council of Ministers of the relevant Autonomous Republic subject to consequent approval of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
9. Determination of categories of towns, creation and abolishment of rural settlements in the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be vested in the executive committee of the Soviet of People’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast upon recommendation of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of people’s Deputies of the Autonomous oblast subject to consequent approval by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
11. The status of Republican (Autonomous Republic) and Oblast subordination may be rendered to the cities that represent the economic and cultural centers with the developed industry, communal services, significant housing fund and having more than 30 000 inhabitants, and for the purpose of their economic and social development it is found reasonable to be guided by the Republican (Autonomous SSR) and oblast authorities.
In certain cases the Republican (Autonomous SSR) and oblast subordination may granted to the cities where the number of population is under 30 000 but they represent the economic and cultural centers and have the real prospective of increase in a number of inhabitants.
(…)
15. In the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the respective Autonomous Oblast shall have the right to name and rename the districts and cities, city-districts and rural settlements, and giving them the names of eminent state and public men upon recommendation of the corresponding executive committee of District and city (under subordination of the Autonomous Republic) soviets subject to consequent approval by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR; and the names of rural settlements and of the villages shall be approved by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR respectively.
18. Renaming of the settlements that have the post and telegraph offices and railway stations shall be carried out under preliminary informing the Ministry of Communication and the Ministry of Roads of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The presidiums of the Supreme Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR, the Central Executive Committee of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast, and the executive committees of district and city Soviets (of the republican subordination /Georgian SSR/), before submitting the recommendations on renaming the residential areas having the railway stations and post and telegraph, shall agree such renaming with the Ministry of Communications and the Department of Trans-Caucasus Railway of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
22. Naming or renaming of the Collective Farms and other cooperative organizations in the districts under republican subordination (Georgian SSR), and giving the names of eminent state-men shall be carried out by the Council of ministers of the Georgian SSR, in the Autonomous Republics – by the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic, and in the Autonomous oblast by the executive committee upon the recommendation of the meetings of working collectives.
(…)
27. The administrative-territorial entities and residential areas shall be registered by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR.
(…)
30. The Orders of the Supreme Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Adjarian ASSR, the Decisions of the Executive Committee of the People’s Soviet of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast with regard of the issues relating to Articles 3,5,8,9,15 and 28 of this Regulation shall come into force after they have been published in the “Messenger of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR”.
17 March 1982
(The Book of Law of the Georgian SSR. vol. I, p. 101-107)


DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET OF THE GEORGIAN SSR on
introduction the changes on the issues of agriculture management to the laws “on Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia” and “On District Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Georgian SSR”
…the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR decrees:
1. The Soviet of people’s Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast and the District Soviets of People’s Deputies shall have the right to establish the oblast and district councils of agrarian-industrial amalgamate.
2.  The councils of agrarian-industrial amalgamates shall be established at the sessions of the Soviets of People’s Deputies upon recommendation of the respective executive committees or the higher bodies of state administration.
3. With regard of Article 1 and Article 2 of this Decree the changes and additions shall be introduced to the following legal acts of the Georgian SSR:
1) to the law of the Georgian SSR of 12 November 1980 “On the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia”…
Section 1 of Article 22, as amended, now reads:
‘1) Directs the Agriculture and other branches of agriculture complex, takes measures for strengthening of its material-technical basis, for increase of production and improvement of the quality, for improving the housing and cultural conditions of the residents of rural settlements’;
Article 22, as added section 11 and 12 now reads:
‘11) creates the oblast council of agrarian-industry amalgamates and changes their composition;
‘12) considers the major indicators of the development plans of enterprises and organizations included in the amalgamates’;
Article 42, as added section 51 now reads:
51) establishment of the Oblast Council of agrarian-industrial amalgamate and changing of its composition.
(…)
The Chairman of the Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR P. Gilashvili.
Secretary of the Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR T. Lashkarashvili.
23 June 1982
(Messengers of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR, N 6, 1982, p. 9-10)


1988
LAW OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS on changes and additions to
the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics    
… The Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics decrees:
1) To introduce to the Constitution of the USSR the following changes and amendments:
Chapter 12. The system of the Soviets of People’s Deputies and the principles of their operation
Article 89.  The Soviets of People’s Deputies, i.e. the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Congresses of the People’s Deputies of the Union and Autonomous Republics, the Soviets of People’s Deputies of Regions, Territories and autonomous oblasts, and the Soviets of People’s Deputies of districts, cities, city districts, settlements and villages shall constitute a single system of bodies of state authority.
Article 101. …
The procedure for holding the elections to Soviets of people’s Deputies shall be defined by the laws of the USSR, and of Union and Autonomous Republics.
3. Chapter 15, as amended, now reads:
Chapter 15. The Congress of People’s Deputies of the USSR and the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
Article 108.  The highest body of the state authority of the USSR shall be the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR.
The Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR is empowered to deal with all matters within the jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.    The following matters shall be under the sole authority of the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR:
2) taking decision on the national-state matters under jurisdiction of the USSR;
(…)
Article 109.  The Congress of People’s Deputies of the USSR consists of 2250 deputies elected in accordance with the following rules:
750 deputies – from the territorial electoral districts with the equal number of electors;
750 deputies – from the national-territorial electoral districts on the basis of following norms: 32 deputies from each Union Republic, 11 deputies from each Autonomous Republic, 5 deputies from each Autonomous oblast and one Deputy from each Autonomous Okrug.
750 deputies – from all-Union public organizations in pursuance of rules established by law on Election of People’s Deputies of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Article 111. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR shall consist of two chambers: the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities having equal numbers of deputies. The two chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR shall have equal rights.
The Chambers shall be elected at the Congress of People’s Deputies of the USSR on the basis of general voting.  The Soviet of the Union shall be elected from the territorial electoral districts with respect of number of People’s Deputies of the USSR and People’s Deputies from the public organizations, as well as of the number of electors.  The Soviet of nationalities shall be elected on the basis of the following representation: 11 deputies from each Union Republic, 4 deputies from each Autonomous Republic, 2 deputies from each Autonomous oblast and 1 deputy from each autonomous Okrug.
4. Article 152, 153 and 155 of Chapter 20, Courts and Arbitration, as amended, now reads:
Article 152.    The judges of the Supreme Court of the USSR, the Supreme Courts of the Union and Autonomous Republics, the courts of the Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs shall be elected by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Supreme Soviets of the Union and Autonomous Republics and the Soviets of people’s Deputies of the Autonomous oblasts and Autonomous Okrugs accordingly.
13. Article 143, as amended, now reads:
Article 143. The Supreme body of the state authority in the Autonomous Republic shall be the Congress of the People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Republic.
14. Article 144 (e), as amended, now reads:
The highest body of the legislative, administrative and controlling state authority in the Autonomous Republic shall be the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic. The Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic shall be accountable to the Congress of People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Republic.
The Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic is accountable to the Congress of People’s Deputies and to the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic.
The Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic shall be responsible and accountable to the Congress of People’s Deputies and the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic.
15. Article 149 and Article 150, as amended, now reads:
Article 149.  The works of the Soviets of People’s Deputies of Territories, Regions, Autonomous Oblasts, districts, cities and city-districts shall be organized by the their Presidiums led by the chairmen, and of the Soviets of city (under district subordination), village and  rural settlements – by the chairmen of these Soviets.
Article 150. The executive committees shall be the executive and administrative organs of the local Soviets of people’s deputies, elected by the respective Soviets…
(…)
The Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR M. Gorbachev
The Secretary of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR M. Menteshashvili
1 December 1988
(Messengers of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, 1988, N 49, p. 5-21/in Russian)







































List of Document (content)


1917
1.     Constitution adopted at the First Congress of the Union of North     Caucasus Mountain People and Daghestan, 7 May 1917.

2.     Union Treaty of the South-East union of Cossack’s Troops, the Caucasus     Mountain Peoples and of the Free Steppe Peoples, 20 October 1917.

3.     Extract from the Special Gazette of the Trans-Caucasus Committee     Sitting, 30 October 1917.

4.    Constitution of the Abkhaz People’s Council of, 8 November 1917.

5.     Declaration adopted by the Abkhaz people’s Congress, 8 November 1917.

6.     Declaration on setting the joint Government of the South-East Union of the     Cossack’s Troops, Mountain people of the Caucasus and the Free Steppe Peoples, 16 November 1917.

7.     Decree issued by the provisional government of the Union of the     Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, 4 December 1917.

8.     Resolution adopted by the Trans-Caucasus Commissariat, 7 December 1917.

9.         From the Decree issued by the provisional government of the Union     of the Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, 11 December 1917.


1918
10.     Extract from the Minutes of the sitting of the Executive     Committee of the national Council of Georgia, 9 February 1918.

11.     Extract from the Gazette of the Executive Committee of the     National Council of Georgia, 9 February 1918.

12.     Agreement between the national Council of Georgian and the Abkhaz     people’s Council, 9 February 1918.

13.     Declaration of independence of the Republic of the Mountain Peoples of the     South Caucasus and of Dagestan (Gorskaia Respublika), 11 May 1918 .

14.     Act of Independence of Georgia, 26 May 1918.

15.     Exstract from the Resolution adopted by the  Abkhaz People’s Council on negotiations     on relations with the Democratic Republic of Georgia, 2 June 1918.

16.     Decree issued by the  Abkhaz People’s Council on participation of its     representatives in Liquidating Commission working on dissolution     of the Trans-Caucasus Seima, 2 June 1918.

17.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sitting of the Government of             Democratic Republic of Georgia, 6 June 1918 .

18.       Extract from the Gazette of the sitting of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 8 June 1918.

19.       Agreement between the Government of the Democratic Republic     of Georgia and the Abkhaz People’s Council, 8 June 1918.

20.     Agreement between Government of the Democratic Republic     of Georgia and the Abkhaz People’s Council, 11 June 1918.

21.     Extract from Gazette of the sitting of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 13 June 1918

22.     Decree issued by the Abkhaz People’s Council on      necessity to occupy Sochi and Tuapse Okrug, 24 June 1918.

23.     Law on abolishment of the Gubernia Councils of Peasants     and the institution of the Peace Mediators, 9 July 1918.

24.       Extract from the Minutes of the session of the  Abkhaz People’s     Council on necessity of the presence of Georgian troops in Abkhazia     and confidence to its Headquarters, 17 July 1918.

25.       Extract from the Minutes N 58 of the session of the  Abkhaz People’s     Council on Relations between Georgia and Abkhazia, 25 July 1918.

26.     Extract from the Minutes of the session of the Abkhaz People’s Council, 28 July 1918.

27.     Law on administrative positions at Gubernia, City and County Levels, 2 August 1918.

28.     Decision adopted by the  Abkhaz People’s Council on     nationalization of the state organizations, 3 August 1918.

29.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 3 August  1918.

30.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 6 August  1918.

31.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 6 August  1918.

32.     Regulations on Military Obligations in the Republic of Georgia     and Recruitment in the Regular Army, 20 August 1918.
33.     Law on Customs offices, 30 August 1918.

34.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 3 September 1918.

35.     Law on Representation of the National Minorities at the National     Council of Georgia, 13 September 1918.

36.     Law on Nationalization of the Teaching Institute and the     Seminaries, 13 September 191.

37.     Regulations on the Interim Special Courts of the Republic, 20 September 1918.

38.     Law on the institution of the Mediating Judges, 24 September 1918.

39.     Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 25 September 1918.

40.     Law on the State Language of Georgia, 1 October 1918.

41.    Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Government     of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, 10 October 1918.

42.     Addition to the Regulations of the Parliament of Georgia on the rules     of language application, 15 October 1918.

43.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 17 October 1918.

44.     Extract from the Minutes of the session of the People’s Council     of Abkhazia, 20 October 1918.

45.       Law on arranging the state treasury, 12 November 1918.

46.     Regulations on Elections of the Constituent Assembly, 22 November 1918.

47.     Law on Tax-Collection, 26 November 1918.

48.     Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Government of the     Republic of Georgia, 28 November 1918.

49.     Resolution of the Congress of Sochi Okrug Farmers, 1 December 1918.

50.     Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Government of the     Republic of Georgia, 17 December 1918.

51.     Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Government of the     Republic of Georgia, 17 December 1918.

52.     Regulations on elections of Public Representatives at the     City Councils, 17 December 1918.

53.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 25 December 1918.

54.     Regulations on the elections of the People’s Council of Abkhazia, 27 December 1918.


1919
55.     Law on application of the language at the self-governance agencies, 14 January 1919.

56.     Regulations of the Grand-Jury Court, 17 January 1919.

57.     Law on declaring the former lots, state owned and other lands as private property,     28 January 1919.

58.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sitting of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 8 February 1919.

59.     Extract from the Minutes of the People’s Council of Abkhazia, 12 February 1919.

60.     Extract from the Minutes of the Sitting of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 1 March 1919 .

61.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sessions of the Government     of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, 13 March 1919.

62.     Extract from the session of the People’s Council of Abkhazia, 20 March 1919.

63.     Act on the Autonomy of Abkhazia, 20 March 1919.

64.     Resolution adopted by the Constituent Assembly of the     Republic of Georgia, 21 March 1919.

65.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sitting of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 29 March 1919.

66.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sitting of the Government of the Democratic     Republic of Georgia, 12 April 1919.

67.     Statement of the  Abkhaz People’s Council on Memorandum     of the Volunteer Army to the English Headquarters, 15 April 1919.

68.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sessions of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 29 April 1919.

69.     Law on certain measures for strengthening the state revenues, 27 May 1919.

70.     Law on Seizure and temporary holding of Real Estate and     on its utilization for the state and public needs, 11 July 1919.

71.     Report  of the Session of the Peoples Council of Abkhazia, 21 July 1919.

72.     Draft by the Commissariat of Abkhazia; Constitution of the     Autonomous Abkhazia, 21 July 1919.

73.     Law on Military Obligation and Recruitment to the Military Forces, 29 July 1919.

74.    Decree issued by the Commissariat of Abkhazia on management     of the Orthodox Church, 5 September 1919.

75.     Minutes of the Sitting of the Commissariat of Abkhazia, 5 September 1919.

76.     Extract from the Gazette of sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 18 September 1919.

77.     Extract from the Gazette of sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 4 October 1919.

78.     Extract from the Gazette of sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 14 October 1919.

79.     Extract from the Gazette of sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 4 November 1919.

80.     Extract from the Minutes of the sitting of the  Abkhaz People’s     Council – discussion with regard of introducing Georgian language at schools, 18 November 1919.

81.     Extract from the Minutes of the sitting of the People’s Council     of Abkhazia, 28 November 1919.

82.     Decree on assigning 200 000 rubles as the scholarship for Muslim     pupils of Georgia, as well as for the pupils of Abkhazia, Svaneti     and other remote regions of Georgia, 13 December 1919.

83.     Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 20 December 1919.

84.     Interim Regulations on Agrarian Reforms and the state-land     management in Abkhazia, 20 December 1919.

85.     Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Government of the     Democratic Republic of Georgia, 23 December 1919.

86.     Decree on assigning three million roubles to the People’s Council     of Abkhazia, 31 December 1919.


1920
87.     Resolution of the Abkhaz  People’s Council on the situation in Batumi and     Batumi Oblast adopted by the People’s Council of Abkhazia, 19 march 1920.

88.     Decree on assigning one million roubles every month for the needs     of the Commissariat of Abkhazia, 6 April 1920.

89.     Treaty between Georgia and Russia, 7 May 1920.

90.     Resolution adopted by the People’s Council of  Abkhazia  on recognition     of the independence of Georgia by Russia, 18 May 1920.

91.     Mandate, 21 May 1919.

92.     Extract from the Gazette of the Sittings of the Presidium of the     Constituent Assembly, 23 June 1920

93.     Draft-Agreement of the Parity Commission on the major     provisions for the management of Abkhazia, 7 July 1920

94.     Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Presidium of the     Constituent Assembly, 26 July 1920.

95.     Decree on assigning the loan of 4 000 000 roubles to Sukhumi city     governance, 10 August 1920.

96.     Extract from the Gazette of sittings of the Presidium of the Constituent     Assembly, 10 August 1920

97.     Draft-Constitution of the Autonomous Abkhazia, 16 October 1920.

98.     Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Presidium of the     Constituent Assembly, 6 November 1920.

99.     Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Presidium of the     Constituent Assembly, 6 December 1920.

100.     Extract from the Gazette of the sittings of the Presidium  of the Constituent      Assembly, 31 December 1920.

101.     Regulations on Autonomous management of Abkhazia, 31 December 1920.


1921
102.     Constitution of Georgia, 21 February 1921.

103.     Decree issued by the Revolutionary Committee on taking the     whole power, 26 February 1921.

104.     Protocol of Batumi Meetings on the issues of Soviet Power     and Communist Party Structures in Abkhazia, 28 March 1921.

105.     Decree issued by the Revolutionary Committee of the     Georgian SSR on arranging the Power, 21 April 1921

106.     Declaration of the Revolutionary Committee of the Soviet     Socialist Republic of Georgia on Independence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, 21 may 1921.

107.     Resolution adopted by the First Congress of the Workers of Abkhazia     on the report of the Chairman of the Revcom of Abkhazia N. Lakoba     on the National Issue in Abkhazia, 28 May 1921.

108.     Resolution of the First Congress of the Workers of Abkhazia     on the Report of Revcom Chairman E. Eshba on Building of Soviet Society, 28 May 1921

109.     Extract from the Resolution adopted by the Plenum of the     RKB CK of the Caucasus Bureau on the Political Situation of the Trans-Caucasus Republics, 2-3 July 1921.

110.     Regulations of the Public Court of the Georgian SSR, 30 July 1921.

111.     Extract from the Resolution on Independence of the Abkhazian SSR    adopted by the joint session of the RKP (B) Orgbureau, Revcom and of the State Officials, 15 October 1921

112.     Decree on the Relations between Abkhazia and Georgia adopted by the     Presidium of the RKP(B) of the Caucasus Bureau, 16 November 1921.

113.     Minutes of the Session of the presidium of the Central Committee of the     Communist Party of Georgia, 17 November 1921.

114.     Decree on subordination of the Maritime transport management to the     Revcom of Georgia and the unification of the maritime transport of the     Georgian SSR and the Abkhaz SSR, 18 November 1921.

115.     Resolution on the Relations between the RKP(B) Orgbureau     of Abkhazia and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia, 24 November 1921.

116.     Minutes of the sitting of the Presidium of the Central Committee     of the Communist Party of Georgia, 12 December 1921.

117.     Union Treaty between the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia     and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, 16 December 1921.
 

1922
118.     Resolution on Inter-relation of the state agencies adopted by the     Revolutionary Committee of the Georgian SSR, 10 January 1922.

119.     Minutes of the Session of the Presidium of the Central Committee     of the Communist Party of Georgia, 15 January 1922.

120.     Resolution of the first Congress of the Soviets of Abkhazia on              the Federation of the Soviet Republics of the Trans-Caucasus              and on Federation the Abkhaz SSR with the Georgian SSR, 17 February 1922.

121.     Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, 2 March 1922.

122.     Union Treaty of the Soviet Socialist Republics of the Trans-Caucasus, 12 March 1922.

123.     Decree on Arrangement of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast     issued by the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia     and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia, 20 April 1922.

124.     Regulation for the State Navigation of Georgia adopted by the Council     of Public Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, 20 September 1922.

125    . Resolution on Introducing the Criminal Code of the Soviet Socialist     Republic of Georgia adopted by the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR, 9 November 1922.

126.     Resolution on Introducing the Prosecutor’s Office adopted by the     Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia, 11 November 1922.

127.     Regulations of the Prosecutor’s Office elaborated by the     Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia, 11 November 1922.

128.     From the exstract Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of the Trans-Caucasus, 13 December 1922.

129.     Extract from the Treaty on establishing the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, 30 December 1922.

1923
130.     Regulation of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, 12 November 1923.


1924
131.     Basic law (Constitution) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, 31 January 1924.

132.     Decree on the application of the State Language and the languages     of majority and minority populations at the state institutions. 4 April 1924.

133.     Decree on the introduction of the Civil Justice Code of the Soviet     Socialist Republic of Georgia issued by the Central Executive     Committee of the Georgian SSR, 11 April 1924.

134.     Decree on certain changes and amendments to the Regulations on Court     Arrangement in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, 19 April 1924.

135.     Decree issued by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia      On reorganizations of the District Court of the South Ossetian Autonomous     Oblast and of the Supreme Court of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, 12 December 1924.
    

1925
136.     Regulations of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Georgian     Soviets, 12 January 1925.

137.     Regulations of the Council of Public Commissars of the Soviet Socialist     Republic of Georgia, 12 January 1925.

138.     General Regulations of the Public Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist     Republic of Georgia, 12 January 1925.

139.     Regulations of the Commissariat of the Internal Affairs of the Soviet     Socialist Republic of Georgia, 12 January 1925.

140.     Regulations of the Public Commissariat of the Education of the     Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, 12 January 1925.

141.     Regulations of the Public Commissariats of Labour Affairs of the     Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, 12 January 1925.

142.     Regulations of the Supreme Council of the Public Economy of the     Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, 12 January 1925.

143.     Minutes of the Fifth Congress of the Soviet of Workers’ and Peasants’     Deputies of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, 31 March 1931.

144.     Constitution  of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, 1 April 1925.

145.     Resolution on Unification of North and South Ossetia adopted at the     second session of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet     Georgia of the Third Convocation, 15 July 1925.

146.     Extract  from the minutes of the Central Executive Committee of the     Trans-Caucasus, 7 August 1925.

147.     Decree on changes and amendments to the Regulations on Arraigning the Courts     issued by the Central Executive Committee of Georgia, 30 October 1925.

148.     Extract from the Minutes N29 of the Sitting of Central Executive     Committee of the USSR, 27 November 1925.

149.     Extract from the Minutes N 21 of the session of the Trans-Caucasus     Central Executive Committee, 14 December 1925.
1926
150.     Extract from the Minutes of the sitting of the Presidium of CEC     of the USSR, 19 February 1926.

151.     Extract from the Minutes N 5 of the sitting of the Presidium of CEC     of the Trans-Caucasus, 30 March 1926.

152.     Resolution on adoption and application of the Constitution of the             Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia adopted at the Third Session of the             Georgian Soviets of the Third Convocation, 5 July 1926.

153.     Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, 5 July 1926.

154.     Basic Law (Constitution) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, 27 October 1926.

155.     Instruction on elections of the Workers, Peasants and Red Army deputies     and on convocation of the Congresses of  Soviets, 22 December 1926.


1927
156.     Extract from the Minutes of the sitting of the Small Presidium if the     CEC of the Trans-Caucasus, 13 January 1927.

157.     Decree on the City Councils of the Georgian SSR issued by     the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR, 25 January 1927.

158.     Minutes of the Seventh Congress of the Workers, Peasants and     Red Army Deputies of South Ossetia, 12-16 March 1927.

159.     Minutes of the Sitting of the Presidium of CEC of the Trans-Caucasus, 1 June 1927.

160.     Extract from the Minutes N 21 of the sitting of Small Presidium     of the Trans-Caucasus CEC, 15 September 1927.


1928
161.     Resolution on approval of the Regulations of the City Soviets of Workers,     Peasants and Red Army Deputies  (adopted at the Third Session of the     Fourth Convocation of the CEC of Georgia), 29 January 1928.

162.    Regulations of the City Soviets of Workers, Peasants and Red Army     Deputies, 29 January 1928.

163.     Minutes of the Session of the Trans-Caucasus CEC, 6 February 1928.

164.     Minutes of the Sitting of the CEC Presidium of the Georgian Soviet     Socialist Republic, 10 February 1928.

165.     Instruction for the activity of the Council of Public Commissars and the     Economic Council of the Georgian SSR, 10 April 1928.

166.     Extract from the minutes of the Sitting of the Small Presidium     of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia, 25 July 1928.

167.     Regulations of the Central Statistics Department of the Soviet     Socialist Republic of Georgia, 31 October 1928.


1929
168.     Regulations the Local Statistics Agencies, 30 January 1929.

169.     Regulations on the Extraordinary Measures for Maintaining the     Revolutionary Order in the Georgian SSR, 27 October 1929.


1930
170.     Decree on Changes and amendments to the Regulations of the     Procurator’s Office (Procuracy) of the Georgian SSR, 22 August 1930.

171.     Instruction on the Elections of the Councils of the Workers, Peasants and Red     Army Men Deputies and of the Congresses of Soviets, 9 November 1930.


1931
172.  Resolution of the VI Congress of the Soviets of Abkhazia on the changes             to the Constitution, 11 February 1931.

173.     Resolution of VI Congress of Councils of Workers, Peasants and Red     Army  Deputies of the Georgian SSR “on joining of the Soviet Socialist Republic     of Abkhazia the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia as the autonomous republic”, 19 February 1931.

174.     Resolution adopted at the VI Congress of the Councils of the Workers, Peasants     and Read Army Deputies of Georgia on amendments to the Basic Law     (Constitution) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, 19 February 1931.

175.     Resolution of the Sixth Congress of the USSR, 17 March 1931.

176.     Regulations on the Fiscal Authority of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist     Republic and Oblasts of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR, 12 September 1931.


1932
177.  Resolution  on changing, amendment and addition to the Regulations     of the Central Executive Committee, 17 June 1932.

178.  Regulations the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR, 17 June 1932.

179.  General Regulations of the Public Commissariats of the Georgian SSR, 17 June 1932.

1933
180.  Regulations on the Procurator’s Office of the USSR, 17 December 1933


1935
181.  Basic Law (Constitution) of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic     of Abkhazia, 7 January 1935.

182.  Rezolution of the seventh All-Georgian Congress on changes to the Constitution of the Georgian SSR, 13 January 1935.



1936
183.  Constitution (Basic Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 5 December 1936.


1937
184.  Constitution (Basic Law) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia,     13 February 1937.

185.     Constitution (Basic Law) of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist     Republic of Abkhazia, 2 August 1937.



1961
186. Law on budgetary rights of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia,     Autonomous Republics and of the local Soviets of People’s Deputie of the Georgian SSR, 27 December 1961.


1971
187.     Law of Georgia on District Soviets of People‘s Deputies of the     Georgian SSR, 9 December 1971.

188.     Law of the Georgian SSR on City and the City-District Soviets     of Peoples Deputies of the Georgian SSR, 9 December 1971.


1977
189.  Constitution (Basic Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 7 October 1977.

1978
190.     Constitution (Basic Law) of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, 15 April 1978.

191.     Constitution (Basic Law) of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist     Republic of Abkhazia, 6 June 1978.

192.     Law of the Georgian SSR on the Council of Ministers of the     Georgian SSR, 21 December 1978.

    
1979
193.     Law of the Georgian SSR on Election of the Supreme Soviet of the     Georgian SSR, 15 June 1979.

194.     Law of the Georgian SSR on Elections of Local Soviets of People’s     Deputies of the Georgian SSR, 15 June 1979.


1980
195.     Law of Georgia on the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia, 12 November 1980.


1982
196.     Regulations (statute) on the rules of setting the issues related to the     Administrative-territorial arrangement of the Georgian SSR, 17 March 1982

197.    Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR     on introduction the changes on the issues of agriculture management to     the laws “on Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia” and “On District     Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Georgian SSR”, 23 June1982.


1988
198.     Law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on changes and     additions to the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1 December 1988.




    REGIONALISM RESEARCH CENTER











STATUS OF AUTONOMOUS REGIONS OF ABKHAZIA
AND SOUTH OSSETIA WITHIN GEORGIA (1917-1988).
COLLECTION OF POLITICAL-LEGAL ACTS





Author and Chief-editor  
Tamaz Diasamidze
 

Translator and Editor
Nana Japaridze-Chkoidze



    





Tbilisi
2005





We would like to express our gratitude to the Delegation of the European Commission in Georgia and Armenia for funding the preparation and publishing of the Collection



We acknowledge assistance of collaborators of the Georgian Central State Archive of History, Central State Latest History and Presidential Archives, National Library of Georgia rendered in preparing this Collection



Collection was prepared, collected, bound and published by
“Regionalism Research Center”


Computer work provider Ruslan Surmanidze


Jacket  designer Malkhaz Varshanidze

     
Book-jacket is designed after the book “Historic Atlas of Georgia
in 1920-1921 Tbilisi, 2003” and Website  www.c-r.org /accord


Website - http://www.rrc.ge
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Collection should be indicated while using materials


© All rights reserved

Printed in Georgia
September 2005
Publishing House “GCI Ltd”


ISBN 99940-831-2-0


On the collection “Status of Autonomous Regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia within Georgian State (1917-1988). Collection of political and legal acts”, in Georgian and Russian, (Author and chief-editor Tamaz Diasamidze). Tbilisi, 2004
This collection is not Mr. Diasamidze’s first publication. His collections “Regional Conflicts in Georgia - the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia. Collection of political and legal acts”, in Georgian, Russian and English languages, covers the period 1989- 2005, proved to be extremely helpful for the Georgian society and special tribute should be made of the fact that its English version helped a great deal to those foreign experts and scientists, who are keenly interested in these issues.
The same could be said about this collection. Documents provided in this selection in Georgian and Russian languages manifestly indicate to the fact that the aforementioned regions enjoyed high democratic status during the Soviet regime and eliminate all allegations as if Abkhazia and former Autonomous District of South Ossetia had been subjected to discrimination. Documents related to the status of Abkhazia in 1917-1921, that is the period before and after the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, are of special value. These documents clearly demonstrate the process of return of Abkhazia into Georgian statehood was carried out in full compliance with the principles of democracy and indicate to its maximum possible essence, was reached based on the mutual agreement.
Special attention should be paid to those documents, which demonstrate the treacherous designs of Moscow - through the creation of autonomous entities of Abkhazia and Tskinvali region and granting them autonomous status, which would always had served as an instrument at Moscow’s disposal for undermining country from inside - initially granting Abkhazia “independence”, and thereafter declaring it as a “Treaty Republic” (1921-1932).
Moreover, after having acquainted with this documents, it becomes crystal clear how difficult and complex was the situation in which leadership of the Soviet Georgia would find itself, since they were fully aware of the true designs of Moscow – “to plant mines” under territorial integrity of the country and turn Georgia into “obedient servant” for the maximum possible length of time.
And the aforementioned circumstances, even back since the period of «National Deviators” would force the Georgian communists to “mollify” the rigid imperial policy of Moscow, but in vain.
In short, this collection vividly demonstrates that by 1988, the status of both, the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and the Autonomous District of South Ossetia was of the highest democratic quality and there had been no reasonable ground for either so called “Georgian-Abkhaz” or “Georgian-Ossetian” conflicts.
Translation of this collection into English is a matter of vital importance, since the UN, OSCE, the Council of Europe, the European Union, many international NGOs are engaged in the process of settlement of the aforementioned conflicts and they should be provided with documentary materials covering that period, which would make it easy for all those stakeholders in the peace process to better comprehend the ongoing developments.
Let me repeat myself, I deem it essential and helpful to make this collection available in English.
                                                       Academician Levan Aleksidze
       



Background information

The collection is a continuation of previous editions within the frame of research of regional conflicts in Georgia:1. “Regional conflicts in Georgia – the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia (1989-2001). Political-legal Acts”, in Georgian and Russian. Tb. 2002; 2. “Regional conflicts in Georgia – the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia (1989-2002). Political-legal Acts”, in English. Tb. 2003; 3. The second supplemented edition under the same title in two volumes, in Georgian and Russian languages, covers the period until 2005; 4. Status of autonomous regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia within Georgia (1917-1988). Collection of political-legal acts, in Georgian and Russian. Tb. 2005. These editions, as well as the contained documents in three languages, can be found at our website-http://www.rrc.ge.  
The collection, electronic version of which is already available in Internet, consists of 198 major political-legal documents with regard of Abkhazia and South Ossetia adopted in 1917-1988, namely: 1. the Statutes and Constitutions of the Autonomous Regions; 2. interstate, state and republican agreements with regard of status of the autonomous regions; 3. the acts adopted by the organs of state authority of the autonomous regions, Georgia, North Caucasus Unions, Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and of the USSR with regard of alteration of the status of these regions; 4. the Constitutions and laws of Georgia and of the USSR concerning the evolution of the status of autonomous regions; 5. other important documents.  
Many of the documents are given in a condensed version, but the positions (chapters, articles, paragraphs) reflecting the purpose of the collection and the spirit of documents are selected very carefully.
The collection has no claim to perfection but likewise of other works on the problems of conflicts, it is designed for the stakeholders and may serve as a guide for better orientation in the conflict environment.  The collection has the following objectives: to provide the readers with political-legal information of pre-conflict period in Georgia; to document the political-legal relations that later become the breeding source of political decentralization, opposition and military confrontation in these two regions.  This collection, together with the previous two editions is an attempt to realize the problem as one whole, in depth, and give a comprehensive assistance to the sides involved in the conflict, as well as other interested groups in making proper decisions on the way of the just settlement of the problem.
Tamaz Diasamidze











1917
CONSTITUTION ADOPTED AT THE FIRST CONGRESS OF THE UNION OF NORTH  CAU­-
CASUS MOUNTAIN PEOPLES AND DAGHESTAN
May 7, 1917
Art. 1.  The Union of the Mountain Peoples unites all of the mountainous tribes, as well as of Nogaits and Turkmen of Stavropol Gubernia (Province); the Union is a member of the Uni­on of the Caucasus Moslems and has the aim to secure peaceful coexistence of all the peoples of the Caucasus and Russia, unite the highlanders for protecting and strengthening the achievements of the Revolution, develop democracy and protect the common political, social and cultural-national interests of all mountainous tribes.
Art. 2.  The organs of the supreme power of the Union of the North Caucasus Mountain People and Daghestan are: 1) the Congress of Delegates and 2) the Central Committee.
Art 3.  The organs of the Union shall:
a) strengthen civil and political freedoms achieved by the Revolution;
b) protect and strengthen the right of peoples of the Union to self-determination;
c) prevent the inter-tribal conflicts;
d) maintain the peace and order, as it does not impede its implementation by the local bodies;
e) facilitate the peoples of the Union to organize the power.
Art. 4.  Each of the Peoples of the Union is autonomous in the field of its domestic public-economic interests.
Art.5. The Congress of Delegates is composed of representatives of mountain peoples, Noghaits and Turkmen - 1 delegate for 20 000 inhabitants; at that every ethnic group has a right to have at least one delegate and the remainder above 10 000 is considered as 20 000 inhabitants.
Art. 6. The Delegates shall be elected on the basis of universal, direct and equal suffrage by secret ballots; where the local district or public committees find it impossible due to the local circumstances and upon the consent of the Central Committee election shall be held on the basis of universal and two-tired suffrage by secret ballots.
Art. 7. The Delegates are elected for a term of one year.
Art. 10.  The Congress of Delegates is the supreme administrative body, which exercises the supreme supervisory function over the Union’s management; it determines the order and means for electing the Union’s governing powers; determines the measures for domestic security aimed at maintaining the peace and order; elects the members of the Central Committee and the Spiritual Board; resolves all the issues within the Union; annuls the decisions made by public and district Councils in case they run counter to the Union’s common interests; determines the dutiable for the needs of the Union; approves the reports by the Central Committee.
Art. 12. Every ethnic group has the right to be represented at the Central Committee.
At the current Congress the number of the members of the Central Committee is determined to be seventeen: 6 from Daghestan Oblast (District), 6  from Terek Oblast, 2 from Kuban Oblast and Chernomorskiy Gubernia; 1  from Zakatala Okrug, 1  from the Abkhaz people; 1 from Stavropol Gubernia.  The members of the Committee shall elect a Chairman from the members of the Committee.  Each member of the Committee may have 1 or 2 candidates (substitutes. tr.).
Art. 13. The Congress of Delegates elects the members of the Central Committee and their Candidates, at that each Oblast or Gubernia is holding separate elections subject of consequent approval by the Congress.
Art. 14.  The members of the Committee are accountable to the Congress of Delegates.
Art. 15.  The Central Committee has the right to co-opt the persons, who shall have the deliberative vote.
Art. 16.  The Central Committee directs in a general way the Union’s affairs, and it takes control over observance of the Union’s Constitution and on implementation of the Resolutions adopted by the Congress, and by its own initiative or upon complaints takes necessary measures to enforce their observance; takes measures to maintain security and peace on the territory of the Union, safeguards the interests of the Union and submits to the Congress of Delegates the projects and reports;  it is entitled to exercise supervision over the officials.
Art. 18. All of the forces of the Union, public militia and the permanent paid militia shall be subordinate to the Central Committee.
Art. 19.  The Central Committee determines the rules for forming, educating, supplying, appointing and dismissing the commanders of the units and in a whole takes all necessary measures for better organization of the application of Union’s forces.
Art. 23.  All of the resolutions adopted by the Central Committee are binding to the members of the Union; in case of disobedience to the Central Committee, the latter is authorized to propose to the Congress to expel such member from the Union.
Art. 30.  The Sittings of the Congress of Delegates at the Central Committee are held if the half of members attends it and the resolutions are adopted by the simple majority of votes.
(Union of the North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and Daghestan (1917-1918). Mountain Republic (1918-1920). Documents and Materials. Makhachkala, 1994, p. 50-53/in Russian)

UNION TREATY OF THE SOUTH-EAST UNION OF COSSACKS’ TROOPS, THE CAUCA­SUS MOUNTAIN PEOPLES AND OF THE FREE STEPPE PEOPLES
20 October, 1917
We, named below the Cossacks’ forces, the Caucasus Mountain Peoples and the Free Steppe Peoples establish the Union aimed at encouraging the good state arrangement, internal security and order in the state of Russia, as well as at providing by the Union members their inviolability, maintaining the internal peace, increasing the common welfare and thereby strengthening the good deeds achieved by the Revolution.
1.  Composition of the Union
Art. 1.  Union is composed of Cossacks’ forces: Don Troops, Kuban Troops, Terek Troops and Astrakhan Troops, Kalmik people joined the Astrakhan Troops and united in a special Union of Mountain Peoples the following steppe and mountainous peoples:
a) All the peoples of Daghestan (Avars, Dargints, Laki – also called Kazi-Kumiks, Kiurints, Kumiks, Tabasarants and others) and of Zakatala Okrug (Lezgins);
b) All the mountain peoples of Terek Region (Kabardins, Balkars, Ossetians, Ingush, Chechens, Kumiks and Salatavts);
c)  All the peoples of Terek Region (Karachay, Abazins, Cherkess, Nogaits and others);
d) Highlanders of Sukhumi Region (Abkhazs);
e) Steppe Peoples of the Terek Region (Nogaits and Karanogaits) and of the Stavropol Gubernia (Nogaits and Turkmen).
Art. 2. The territory of the members of the Union includes the lands owned by Cossacks’ Forces, the Caucasus Highlanders and the Steppe Free peoples provided for in Article 1.  
Art. 3. The name of the Union is: “the South-East Union of Cossacks’ Troops, the Caucasus Mountain Peoples and of the Free Steppe Peoples”.
Art. 4. Each member of the Union maintains its full independence regarding the internal life and is authorized to conclude the independent agreements without prejudice to the Union’s goals.
II. The goals of the Union
Art. 5.  The Union determines the following goals:
a) to achieve the rapid development of the Russian Democratic Federative Republic with recognition of the members of the Union as the separate States;
b) to support the other peoples and oblasts striving for federative settlement of the state of Russia and establishing with them close relations and mutual understanding;
c) to strive for establishing the firm and trustworthy democratic state power based on the live forces of all nationalities and territories of the country and free from the influence of irresponsible organizations;
d) to support the Central State Power in the struggle against external enemies and in establishing of worthy peace on the basis of self-determination of the peoples, maintaining the order in the country and in struggle against anarchy and counterrevolution;
e)  to secure the full independence of the Union’s members with regard of their internal life;
III. The Union’s power
Art. 8.  “Joint Government of the South-East Union” is the governing organ of the Union.
Art. 9. Each member of the Union nominates two representatives to the Joint Government.
Note 1: The Union of the Caucasus Mountain Peoples nominates four representatives where 2 shall be from Daghestan, including Zakatala Okrug.
Note 2: Astrakhan Cossacks’ Troops and affiliated Kalmik People appoint one representative.
Art. 14.  The South-East Union has its representative at the Central Government of Russia, who shall be elected by the Joint Government of the Union from its composition or from the authorized citizens of the Union.
IV. Place of residence of the Joint Government.
Art. 15.  The Joint Government temporarily is placed in the city of Ekaterinodar.
(Union of the North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and Daghestan, p. 73-76; Central State Historical Archive of Georgia (CSHAG), f. 1820, desc. 1, file 630, p. 1-2)  

EXTRACT FROM THE SPECIAL GAZETTE OF THE TRANS-CAUCASUS COMMITTEE Sitting of  30 October 1917
Heard: Sukhumi Okrug Commissariat, upon the petition of the Executive Committee of the Council of Peasants’ Deputies of Sukhumi Okrug and the local forest warden, raised the issue on inclusion again within the boundaries of the mentioned Okrug the seceded Gagra Gubernia and the Bzib district.  At the same time, before resolving of agrarian issues by the forthcoming Constituent Assembly, the motivation for restoration of the historical boundaries is based on providing the access to the summer pastures and forests to the aborigine population.
The population of the Old Gagra and Alakhadze supports this petition.
Recalling the history of the establishment of Sukhumi Okrug within the current boundaries we have to underline the following aspects.
The historical frontier of Abkhazia (within its territory – including once seceded territories of Samurzakhano and highland trenches of Bzib, Pskhu, Kodori-Tsebelda and others) to the west passed along the River Mzimta and the River Bzib, to the North – the Caucasus major mountain ridge, to the South – the Black Sea and to the East – the river Enguri.  The Sukhumi Military Division was established within these boundaries in 1865.  In 1883 it was named as Okrug and affiliated to Kutaisi Gubernia, and in 1903 it was separated as an independent Okrug.
According to the Regulations of the Committee of Ministers adopted in December 1904, the Gagra Climate Station was separated from Gagra Okrug and it was attached to Sochi Okrug administration of the Chernomorskiy Gubernia.  When projecting the aforementioned new frontiers between Sukhumi Okrug and the Chernomorskiy Gubernia, Prince Golitsin meant “only the interests of Gagra Station”.
But the Ministry of Agriculture and State Property also had the goal to settle Russians in Gagra district within the boundaries of the Chernomorskiy Gubernia on the basis of favourable conditions then in force.
After such artificial alteration of borders the Chernomorskiy Gubernia received under its jurisdiction 150.000 dessiatina ( = approx. 2 3,4 acres) of forest and summer pastures.
In addition, with the consent of Gagra and Bzib districts all of summer pastures were and still are at disposal of aborigines Abkhaz population of Gudauta segment.  Also the pastures of these regions along the mountain ridge of the Caucasus were fully transferred to the Chernomorskiy Gubernia, and the pastures of Chipshiri, Akugrig and others, where the present border of Sukhumi Okrug is passing by is divided into two segments: Northern and Southern, thereby the former is attached to the Chernomorskiy Gubernia and the latter is still within the Sukhumi Okrug.
The “Pskhu” edge was also attached to the mentioned Okrug (Mount Bzib trench, the population of which totally immigrated to Turkey in 1864), which has only one outlet to the city of Sukhumi.  This edge is total of 6000 dessiatina located at the mountainous zone, 60-70 versts (1 verst= 3500 ft.) far from the Sea shore and by its climate and soil conditions is a haven for colonization and flourishing settlement.  Though the country road to this edge built by military forces in 1868 is deteriorated now, its utilization for draught horses at the initial stage will not require any significant cost.
By explanation of Sukhumi Okrug Commissariat, the local land-management committees, taking into account the peculiarities and interests of local population, shall elaborate the necessary documentation and the land-reform plans, which will be submitted to the Constituent Assembly for deciding the agrarian issue.
The Committees may successfully fulfill this task only if they have comprehensive information regarding the land funds and the number of farmers that need the land etc.
The Constituent Assembly shall decide the matter of state forests and mountain pastures along with the agrarian issue.
The land-management committee shall have the comprehensive information with regard of existed lands, forests and pastures.  To this end the Commissariat considers necessary immediate restoration of the Okrug’s frontiers thereby returning the native forests and pastures from the Chernomorskiy Gubernia to Sukhumi Okrug, which in 1904 was attached to the latter through artificial changes of the original boundaries of the Okrug.
As it is evident that the motivation of changes of boundaries between the Sukhumi Okrug and the Black Sea Gubernia in 1904 was the vision of prince Alexander of Oldenburg – founder of the Gagra Climate Station, which ultimately considered only the interests of this station and didn’t take into account the interests of aborigines population of Sukhumi Okrug, then it will be quite fair to restore the old frontiers of the mentioned Okrug.  At the same time, proceeding from the interests of the local population, it would be reasonable to implement it as the interim measure under the decree of the Trans-Caucasus Special Committee, simultaneously lodging the motion on changing the borders pursuant to the rules established by law.
Decided: Respecting the given visions, the Trans-Caucasus Special Committee finds necessary, as the interim measure, to restore immediately the old boundaries of the Okrug and lodging the relevant motion to the Provisional Government.
For Chairman  A. Chkhenkeli
Members: M. I. Japarov
Acting Director of the Chancellery of the
Trans-Caucasus Special Committee - Kelarev
Corresponds to the original: for the clerk (signed)
(SCHAG, f. 1818, desc. 2, file 135, p. 17-20)


CONSTITUTION of  the Abkhaz People’s  Council
8 November 1917
    § 1.  The Abkhaz People’s Council is the national-political organization, which unites the Abkhaz people.
§ 2.  The Abkhaz People’s Council is the representative, and the demonstrator of the will of Abkhaz people in relations with the governing and administrative bodies and public-political organizations.
§ 3. The Abkhaz People’s Council, first of all, is responsible before the Abkhaz people through the General Congress.
§ 4.  The goals of the People’s Council of Abkhazia:
a) to protect and strengthen the achievements of the Revolution; political education and mobilization of the people; to fight against anarchy and counter-revolution;
b) to protect the national and cultural-economic interests and political rights of the Abkhaz people;
c) to prepare the ground for self-determination of the Abkhaz people;
d) to support and foster the relations of Abkhaz people with the Union of the Caucasus Mountain Peoples (doc. # 210-edit.) and implement the political mottoes, decisions and arrangements endorsed by the Union’s Central Committee.
e) to work on current issues those require the manifestation of the will of the Abkhaz people.
§ 5. The Okrug Committee, commissars and other administrative bodies, as well as the individuals retain the previous function of management, but the activity of all administrative and other agencies and individuals, as such activity is relating to Abkhazia, - shall be carried out in the context of the The Abkhaz People’s Council in order to achieve the tangible results.   
§ 6.  The The Abkhaz People’s Council recognizes the power and competence of the relevant administrative and public-political organizations, as these organizations safeguard the principles of democracy and self-determination of the nations.
§ 7.    In order to protect the interests of national minorities, the issues relating to the interests of other ethnics of Sukhumi Okrug shall be decided either by the Okrug Committee, or by the General Congress of the Okrug or the Assembly of the interested side.
§ 8.  The Abkhaz People’s Council has its representatives in the Okrug Committee and, if necessary, in other administrative and public-political organizations.
§ 9.  The People’s Council shall implement the Resolutions adopted by the Congress of the Abkhaz People.
§ 10. People’s Council shall submit the Report on its activity to the General Congress of the Abkhaz People.
Note: However, on current and urgent issues the People’s Council shall take initiative to deliver the report to the Congress on its activity and these issues.
§ 11. The Council has the right to co-optation, but the members appointed under the co-optation rule have only deliberative vote until they are approved by the General Congress.
§ 12.  The Council nominates the Presidium from its composition: chairman, secretary and treasurer; the Presidium shall be approved by the General Congress.   
§ 13.  If necessary, the Council shall set up the sections from its composition on different special fields: e.g. school, religious, financial, land-management and other issues.
Note: The Council may involve the persons outside of its composition in the work of sections.
§ 14.  The quorum is Ѕ of the total number of the members of the Council (including the Chairman) and the decisions are adopted by the simple majority of votes.
Note: If the votes are divided in equal parts, the vote of the Chairman gives the preponderance to the corresponding side.
§ 15.  The detailed Regulations and a charter of internal procedures shall be elaborated by the Council following the general directions determined in the Declaration and the Constitution adopted by the Congress.
§ 16.  Each individual member and the People’s Council in whole take responsibility to observe in their activity the Constitution and this Declaration.
Chairman of the Congress Simon Basaria
Secretaries: Tsaguria, Alania and Tarnava
Speaker: Sheripov
Adopted on 8 November 1917, Sukhumi
(Union of the North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and Daghestan, p. 79-90; Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia, Abkhazia-Historical Region of Georgia. Tbilisi, 1997, p. 389-391/in Russian)


DECLARATION ADOPTED BY THE ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S CONGRESS
8 November 1917
Before the Revolution the initiative of the people was rather limited as the servants of the previous regime used to “perform” everything themselves.  The Revolution established the equal rights and opportunities for all public-political and national groups in self-determination and protection of their own interests.
In addition to the administrative organs, the trade unions and political organizations were established everywhere, as well as the Soviets of Workers and Soldiers Deputies. These Unions and organizations, supporting the achievements of the Revolution, at the same time protect the rights and interests of classes and masses headed by them.
Evidently, the Revolution put forward the motto on self-determination of the nations oppressed by the Tsar regime.  This slogan was grasped by the interested masses and they started its swift implementation at many places (Ukraine, Finland).
The Abkhaz people, likewise the other peoples of the Republic of Russia, comprehend the Revolution first of all as the free determination of nations.
Taking into account all the aforementioned, the Congress of the Abkhaz People firmly declares that centuries-old Abkhazia, which has a great experience in state-building, shall have the political organization capable to unite the Abkhaz people and demonstrate the will of the majority protecting their interests.
The Abkhaz People’s Council will be such organization.
The tasks of the Abkhaz People’s Council shall be as follows:
1. First and foremost – to protect and strengthen the achievements of the Revolution and political education and organization of masses.
Abkhaz people understand that all freedoms, including the freedom of Abkhazia depends on the Revolution.
Multiple eruption of anarchy in entire country indicates that the people shall firmly stand for freedom and Revolution as some of the threats haven’t been removed yet.
At the same time the masses, like it is in Russia, thanks to the felonious policy of the overthrown regime found them not very well prepared and organized and these masses can serve as a foundation to the Revolution if they represent a single-whole, which is organized and conscious.
II. The shall also protect the national, cultural-economic and political rights of the Abkhaz people from any encroachment, no matter where they are coming from.
In this challenging time, when many of old structures is being destroyed and the new ones are being built, when the life condition and environment in Russia are changing drastically, as well as in Abkhazia, every nation shall observe their rights and interests protecting them from infringement in the new arrangement of Russia.  The Abkhaz people believe that their brothers, the mountain people of the Caucasus and Daghestan will support them to safeguard their rights.
III. Self-determination is one of the most important priorities of the People’s Council of Abkhazia.
At the same time we have to remember that there will not be a slow implementation of the right to self-determination; in fact it will be the preparation to the self-determination and the final forms of it are being elaborated at the Al-Russian Constituent Assembly.
This preparation means that after collecting the materials and expressing the people’s will, the project of arrangements of different issues of Abkhazia shall be elaborated.
At the same time the  Abkhaz People’s Council shall assume the prompt resolution of the issues that are relating to the self-determination and need immediate attention (school issues and others).
IV. The Abkhaz people is the part of the Union of the North Caucasus Mountain People, Daghestan and Abkhazia, and, evidently it needs to establish very close contacts with its northern brothers.
The  Abkhaz People’s Council will be a body, which will unite the Abkhaz people with the Union of Mountain People through the Central Committee of the Union.
Besides the listed objectives and goals the Abkhaz people shall strive for, this Council also is to cover the current issues, as so far there is no organized public center.
The major tasks, raised by the Revolution before the Abkhaz people gives a shape to the position of this Council toward all political organizations and administrative agencies of the Caucasus and Russia.
The People’s Council of Abkhazia, which is first of all accountable to the Abkhaz people and protects their interests and rights, recognizes the power and competence of the Sukhumi Okrug Committee, as well as of the Trans-Caucasus Committee, all public-political and administrative agencies and the members of the Central Committee of the Union of Mountain Peoples and of the Provisional Government as  these organizations and agencies observe the mottoes of the Revolution, and of democracy without prejudice to the national interests and to the political rights of the Abkhaz People.
In case of violation of the national-political, cultural and economic interests or the rights of Abkhaz people, or if some legal acts or resolutions issued by the administrative organ or public official run counter the rights of the Abkhaz people – the  Abkhaz People’s Councilreserves the right to express the decisive protest and resort the revolutionary resistance together with the people.
The Abkhaz people, making the first steps on the way of national identification, would like the other nations and public groups and organizations of Sukhumi Okrug and Trans-Caucasus to believe that the Abkhazs, being the subject not only of the social, but also of the national oppression under the previous regime, are very much dedicated to the revolution and strive for fraternal coexistence with all of the neighbors.
(Union of the North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and Daghestan, p. 80-83)  
 

DECLARATION ON SETTING UP THE JOINT GOVERNMENT OF THE SOUTHEAST UNION OF THE COSSACK’S TROOPS, MOUNTAIN PEOPLE OF THE CAUCASUS AND THE FREE STEPPE PEOPLES
16 November 1917
On 20 October of 1917 the South-East Union of the Cossacks’ Troops and the Free Steppe Peoples was established.  That day, the representatives of the mentioned troops and the peoples signed the Union Treaty in Vladikavkaz, upon which the Joint Government of the South-East Union started its operation in Ekaterinodar.   The Union consists of the following units: Don, Kuban, Terek and Astrakhan Cossacks’ troops, the North Caucasus Mountain People, Dagestan, Sukhumi and Zakatala Okrugs and the Free Steppe peoples of Astrakhan and Stavropol Gubernia.  On 31 October the Ural Cossacks Troops joint the Union.
Recognizing the Democratic Federative Republic as the best form of the state arrangement for Russia, the South-East Union will observe the general principles of federative arrangement.  The Union, securing the full independence of its members in the internal affairs, commits itself to facilitate them through all the Union resources in preparation of their internal arrangement as the independent States of the future Russian Democratic Federative Republic.
At the same time, the South-east Union intends to render a wide-scale support to the other peoples and Oblasts striving for settlement of the Russian Republic on the federative basis. To this end the Joint Government already has established the relations with the peoples of the Trans-Caucasus, Ukraine, Bessarabia, Crimea and Siberia inviting them to conclude the agreement on the best ways and means for implementation of common objectives through mutual assistance and support.
Considering important to maintain the Federative Russia united, indivisible and powerful, the Union will participate in building of the common state together with the other peoples of Russia without any misuse of its privileged rights.  At the same time the Joint Government of the Union, firmly pursuing the principles of the self-determination, will not allow any interference from any side in the developing of its internal life.  Any infringement of the federative rights of the South-East Union in a whole or its individual members will be met by decisive counteraction.
Collapse of the Central state power and the rapidly developed anarchy destroyed the unity of our great country.  The Oblasts and people, left alone before the forthcoming economic and political upheavals, had to organize their own power on the basis of self-governance.  The fighting unleashed between political parties posed the threat to the identity and peculiar traits – the historical foundation of spiritual and economic life of Cossacks, mountain peoples and the steppe people communities of the South-east of Russia.  Therefore   the Cossacks, highlanders and steppe people of the South-east took in their hands the power and rendered it to their respective governments elected through general elections, and for protection of common interests they established the Union led by the Joint Government.
Fighting against anarchy and violence, restoration and protection of rights and strengthening of normal conditions of the public-political life on the territory of the South-east Union are the primary objectives of the Joint Government, under which all citizens shall freely express their will and establish Union Government on the basis of national-territorial representation of reliable urban and rural dwellers.
Striving for the rapid implementation of this task, the Joint Government first of all has started restoring the public order at the residential areas and along the railway aimed at securing uninterrupted supply of food and forage to the long-suffering Russian Army, the population of the Trans-Caucasus, Turkmenistan and the workers of industrial centers, urban and rural dwellers of the Union – with the primary goods necessary for households.  At the same time the Joint Government is deeply concerned with the arrangement of the local finances.  Deterioration of the fiscal system established rather grave situation for the citizens working at the state, public and private organizations, and the all of the workmen too.  Protection of their interest is the ultimate goal of the Joint Government.
The South-East, which is very reach with its corn, oil, coal, livestock and other gifts of nature, has every possible mean to make flourishing spiritual and material culture, but the  autocratic regime, stifling all of the Russian people crushed it in the very bud.  The Joint Government will take every possible measure to establish the good environment for developing the education, industry and trade of the peoples of the South-East, which went through so many shocks of anarchy.  At the same time the Joint Government is dedicated to carry out painless settlement of the agrarian issue in full compliance with the interests and traditions of the farmers.
As the fates decree Russia is in a desperate situation at the front: on the one hand it practically fails to continue the severe war, on the other – it cannot conclude the separatist peace-agreement without consent of its allies.  The agreements are sacred for the Joint Government thereby declining all responsibilities from the South-East Union for the results consequent to the decision of the usurpers of central state power on concluding the separatist peace-agreement.
As a matter of fact only the power, which properly demonstrates the genuine will of the all members of the family of Russia is authorized the lead the.  The Joint Government believes that the way determined by Cossacks, Highlanders and steppe people for building the internal and common-state life will be met by democratic forces with full sympathy and finds fraternal support in the building of united, great and powerful Russian Democratic Federative Republic.
The Joint Government of the South-East Union.
Ekaterinodar, 28 November 1917
(Union of the North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and Daghestan, p. 87-88)
    

DECREE #1 ISSUED BY THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE UNION OF THE
CAUCASUS MOUNTAIN PEOPLES
4 December, 1917
The Government of the Caucasus Mountainous People’s Union has discussed the ussue of the territory that is under its full jurisdiction and decrees:
-1-
The state power of the Provisional Government of Union of Mountain Peoples fully applies to the territory of Daghestan, Khasan-Urtovsk, Grozny, Veden, Nazran, Vladikavkaz and Nalchik Okrug, as well as to the Kara-Nogait segment of Terek oblast and the territory of Nogaits and Turkmen of the Stavropol Gubernia.
-2-
With regard of Zakatala and Sukhumi Okrug, the power of the Provisional Government of the Union applies to the national-cultural and political issues.  The issue on swift and full application of the power of the Provisional Government of the Mountain peoples’ Union shall be submitted to the People’s Councils of Zakatala and Sukhumi for decision.
Deputy Chairman: Pr. R. Kapralov
Head of Justice Department: B. Dalgat
(Tamaz Nadareishvili, David Chitaia, Paata Davitaia, Problem of Separatisms in Georgia (History and Present), book 1. Tb., 2003, p. 178-179/in Georgian)


RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE TRANSCAUCASUS COMMISSARIAT
December 7, 1917
Heard the petition of the Executive Committee of the Council of Peasants’ Deputies of Sukhumi Okrug and of the local forest warden on inclusion again within the boundaries of the mentioned Okrug the Gagra Gubernia and the Bzib district seceded from Sukhumi Okrug and transferred to the Chernomorskiy Gubernia under Regulations approved by the Committee of Ministers of 25 December 1904.  This issue was decided by the Trans-Caucasus Special Committee under Resolution of October 30 as an interim measure and the relevant motion was submitted to the Interim Government.  Taking into account the urgent need to determine the final border between the Chernomorskiy Gubernia and Sukhumi Okrug, the Trans-Caucasus Commissariat decrees:
to abolish the Regulations approved by the Committee of Ministers on 25 December of 1904 and restore the historical boundaries of Sukhumi Okrug through including within the mentioned Okrug Gagra and Bzib regions.
Signed by Chairman: A. Gegechkori
Commissars: A. Chkhenkeli
M. Japarov
A. Ogadjanyan
F. Khan-Khoiskiy
M. Aslanov
Kh. Karchikyan
I. Khas-Mamedov
Authentic: for the clerk (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1818, desc. 2, file 135, p. 34)


FROM THE DECREE #4 ISSUED BY THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE UNION
OF THE CAUCASUS MOUNTAIN PEOPLES
11 December 1917
The Provisional Government of the Union of the Caucasus Mountain Peoples taking into account that though in accordance with the Constitution of the Central Committee, it is accountable for own actions only before the Assembly of Delegates.But due to the extremely high responsibility and urgency of the moment, it is necessary more close communication with population in order to disseminate information to oneself and to population about the situation in specific places and about own actions. As it is impossible to convene in the shortest period the constituent Assembly, has resolved:
-1-
To convene the Extraordinary provisional Council of the Union from the representatives of Okrugs or people’s committees or councils in according to the following scheme: Chechens, Ossetians and Kabards – 3 from each; Nogaits and Turkmens, Kumiks, Balkars and Ingushs – 2 from each; Altogether from the whole Terek and Stavropol Okrugs-19, the same from Daghestan Oblast.
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia, Abkhazia-Historical Region of Georgia, p. 398)


1918
EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES # 30 OF THE SITTING OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF GEORGIA
9 February 1918
Attended: members of the Committee A. Ckhenkeli, K. Meskhi, G. Gvazava, P. Sakvarelidze, N. Kartsivadze
Representative of the  Abkhaz People’s Council A. Shervashidze
The guests: M. Emukhvari, N. Margania, Colonel R. Khotua and B. Tsaguria
Chaired by A. Ckhenkeli
Secretary: D. Nakhutsrishvili
The meeting discussed the issue on future interrelation between Georgia and Abkhazia.
(See the Resolutions)
 (CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 1, file 9, p. 12, 14, 15)

The representative of the  Abkhaz People’s Council Alexander Shervashidze and the representatives of Samurzakano – N. Emkhuari, N. Marshania and the representative of the North Government, colonel Chkhotua attended the meeting of the Presidium of the Executive Committee of the National Council of Georgia held on February 9 of 1918.
The participants of the meeting discussed the future interrelations between Georgia and Abkhazia and decided the following:
1) to establish one united Abkhazia from the River Enguri to the River Bzinta, which will include Abkhazia itself and Samurzakano, i.e. the current Sukhumi Okrug.
2) to elaborate a future political arrangement, based on the principles of national self-identification that is a competence of the Constituent Assembly of Abkhazia subject of consequent endorsement by Georgia.
3) if Abkhazia decides to establish political relations with other nations or states it shall have prior negotiations with Georgia on this issue and vice versa, if Georgia has the same plan, then she is obliged to inform Abkhazia and hold the negotiations.
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 1, file 9, p. 18)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL
COUNCIL OF GEORGIA
9 February, 1918
Attended: A. Chkhenkeli, K. Meskhi, G. B. Gvazava, P. D. Sakvarelidze,
N. I. Kartsivadze.
Representative of the  Abkhaz People’s Council A.G. Shervashidze
The guests: M.G. Emukhvari, N. K. Marghania, Colonel Chkhotua and
B. Tsaguria.
Chaired by A. Chkhenkeli
Secretary: D. Nakhutsrishvili
The discussed issue:
… discussed the future relations between Georgian and Abkhazia.  It was found that:
1. Abkhazia, at any mean, wants to be an independent political entity and have with Georgia only neighborly relations on the basis of equal partnership.
2.  Samurzakano, as a part of Abkhazia, will not follow the Abkhazs if the latter have no moral-political ties with Georgia.
The Georgian side expressed its inclination to see Abkhazia as a part of Georgia but equipped with the full internal independence (broad autonomy) like it is considered for Muslim part of Georgia, but the proposal was denied by the Abkhaz representative.  After that
B. Ckhenkeli delivered the speech and introduced the draft Provisions:
1. to establish one united Abkhazia from the River Enguri to the River Bzinta, which will include Abkhazia itself and Samurzakano, i.e. the current Okrug of Sukhumi.
2) Elaboration of a future political arrangement, based on the principles of national self-identification, is a competence of the Constituent Assembly of Abkhazia.
3) If Abkhazia and Georgia decide to conclude written agreement with other nations or states, they are obliged to have prior negotiations on this issue with each other.
Decree:
The Provisions introduced by B. Ckhenkeli were adopted, but the  Abkhaz People’s Council will discuss them separately and inform the Executive Committee of the National Council of Georgia on the results.
Chairman
Clerk
Secretary: (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 1, file 2, p. 44; ibidem, p.1823, desc.2, file 1, p. 157-158)


AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF GEORGIA AND THE  ABKHAZ
PEOPLE’S COUNCIL
9 February, 1918
 On 9 February 1918 the meeting of the presidium of the Executive Committee of the National Council of Georgia with participation of the representative of the  Abkhaz People’s Council Alexander Shervashidze was held in Tbilisi.  They discussed the issue on establishing the interrelations between Georgia and Abkhazia and the following provisions were elaborated:
1) To re-establish one united Abkhazia from the River Enguri to the River Bzinta, which will include Abkhazia itself and Samurzakano, i.e. the current whole Okrug of Sukhumi.
2) The form of a future political arrangement of the united Abkhazia shall be elaborated on the basis of national self-determination by the Constituent Assembly of Abkhazia elected with respect of democratic principles.
3) In case Abkhazia and Georgia will be willing to conclude agreement with other national states they take mutual obligation to have prior negotiations on this issue.
Clerk of the Chancellery of the People’s Council of Abkhazia: signed; sealed.
1 June 1920
(Avtandil Menteshashvili, Historical Preconditions of the Current Separatism in Georgia. Tb. 1998, p. 75/in Russian)


DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MOUNTAIN PEOPLES OF THE SOUTH CAUCASUS AND OF DAGHESTAN (GORSKAIA RESPUBLIKA)
Batumi, 11 May 1918
We, undersigned delegates of the Government of the Union of Mountain Peoples have the honour to bring the notice to all governments on the following:
The peoples of the Caucasus elected the National Assembly, which held the meetings in May-September 1917 and declared about establishment of the Union of the Caucasus Mountain Peoples and rendered the executive power to the current government we are the member of.
Based on the right of the peoples of former Empire to free establishment of the political future that is in force in Russia and recognized by the Petrograd Government, the Government of the Union of Caucasus Mountain Peoples decided to adopt the following Resolution:
1. The Union of Caucasus Mountain Peoples decides to secede from Russia and establish the independent state.
2.  The territory of the new state will have the borders as follows: to the North – the same geographical frontier as it was for oblasts and provinces of Daghestan, Terek, Stavropol, Kuban and Chernomorskiy of the former Russian Empire; to the East – the Caspian Sea; the border to the South will be determined upon agreement with the Trans-Caucasus Government.
3. The undersigned Plenipotentiary delegates are entrusted with the task of informing all governments about this decision and make public the Declaration on establishing the independent state – Union of the Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, thereof the undersigned members declare that henceforth the independent state of the Caucasus Union considers itself legally established.
Signed by:  Abdul Medjid Chermoev, Gaidar Bammatov
(The Union of Mountain Peoples of the North Caucasus and Dagestan, p. 121)


ACT of independence of Georgia
The Georgian National Council during its plenary sitting of May 26. 1918, declared as follows:
For several centuries Georgia existed as a free and independent State.
At the end eighteenth century Georgia voluntarily allied herself with Russia, with the stipulation that the latter should protect her from enemies without.
In the course of the great Russian revolution conditions arose which resulted in the disorganization of the entire military front and the abandonment of Transcaucasia by the Russian Army.
Thus, left to her own devices, Georgia, and with her all Transcaucasia, took into their hands the direction of their affairs creating the necessary organs for this purpose; but under pressure from exterior forces the links which united Transcaucasian nationalities were broken and the political unity of Transcaucasia was thus dissolved.
The present position of the Georgian people makes it imperatively necessary that Georgia should create a political organization of her own, in order that she may escape from the yoke of her enemies and lay a solid foundation for her free development.
Accordingly, the Georgian National Council, elected by the National Assembly of Georgia on November 22 (December), 1917, declares:
(1) In future the Georgian people will hold sovereign power and Georgia will be a State enjoying all the rights of a free and independent State.
(2) Independent Georgia’s form of political organization will be Democratic Republic.
(3) In the event of international conflict Georgia will always remain neutral.
(4) The Georgian Democratic Republic will apply itself to establishing friendly relations with all nations and especially with neighbouring nationalities and states.
(5) The Democratic Georgian republic offers to all inhabitants of her territory a wide field for free development.
(6) The Democratic Georgian Republic guarantees to all citizens within her territory civil and political rights, without distinction of nationality, religion, social position, or sex.
(7) Until the convocation of the constituent assembly, the National Council, with the addition of representatives of the minorities and the provisional government responsible to the National Council, is at the head of all Georgian administration.
(Democratic Republic of Georgia. 1919-1921.Three historic documents. Preface and compilation by G. Sharadze. Editor D. Djaparidze, Tbilisi, 1991, p. 109-133/in Inglish)


EXTRACT FROM THE RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE  ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S COUN-
CIL on negotiations on relations with the Democratic Republic of Georgia
2 June 1918
Since collapse of the Trans-Caucasus Federative Republic and declaring the independence of Georgia, Abkhazia has lost the legal ground for relation with Georgia.  The detachment of the Trans-Caucasus Red Guardia, which, being outside of its own country, currently acts as the troop of Georgia, but the whole power practically is in its hands.  On June 2 of this year the  Abkhaz People’s Council decided: due to the established situation the People’s Council takes the whole power within Abkhazia.  Taking into account the fact, that vital important interests of Abkhazia and Georgia dictate to both sides to have close collaboration in arranging the state power in Abkhazia, as well as in Georgia without any violation of the people’s rights from the side of neighbours.  Proceeding from the aforementioned the People’s Council decrees: to submit the friendly application to the National Council of Georgia on assistance in organizing the state power in Abkhazia retaining the Red Guardia Detachment in Sukhumi     
As for the decrees of the Georgian Government issued on the territory of Abkhazia on administrating the justice on behalf of Georgia and the Decree on Mobilization, as a matter of fact they may lay ground to tension between two people and jeopardize the best interests of Georgia and Abkhazia.  The  Abkhaz People’s Council believes that the Government of the Republic of Georgia will abolish the aforementioned Decrees and refrain from the similar acts in a future.
In order to clear out these issues with the Government of the Republic of Georgia, the  Abkhaz People’s Council sends the following representatives to Tbilisi: the engineer R. I. Kakubava and its delegates being currently in Tbilisi V. G. Gurjua, G. D. Ajamov, G. D. Tumanov and empowers them with the right to hold the negotiations.
(Ruslan Khodjaa, Documents and Materials of the  Abkhaz People’s Council 1918-1919. Sukhum, 1999, p. 7-8/in Russian)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE  ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S COUNCIL on participation of its repre-
sentatives in Liquidating Commission working on dissolution of the Trans-Caucasus Seima
Abkhazia, being a member of the Trans-Caucasus Federative Republic may be considered as a legal person, which shall be responsible for part of debts of the collapsed Republic.  Being a payer of the debts of the Trans-Caucasus Federative Republic, the People’s Council of Abkhazia, which took certain liabilities deems necessary to be involved in the activity of the Liquidating Commission on the equal footing with other representatives of the nations of Federation, agencies of the Trans-Caucasus Federative Republic and Russia.  For this purpose we give the authorization to V. G. Gurjua, G. D. Ajamov and G. D. Tumanov.
Chairman – signed
For secretary - D. Gulia
2 June, 1918
(Ruslan Khodjaa, Documents and Materials of the Abkhazi People’s Council, p. 6)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
6 June 1918
Chaired by the acting Minister of Defense G.T. Giorgadze
Attended: the Ministers - G. D. Zhuruli, Minister of Finance; I. N. Lordkipanidze, Minister of Roads; Sh. V. Meskhiev, Minister of Justice; N. G. Khomeriki, Minister of Agriculture and Labour; G. M. Laskhishvili, Minister of Public Education.
The Comrades (deputies) of Ministers: including, labour– I. I. Pirtskhalaishvili, Kandelaki –Finances, I. M. Malania – Road Transportation, P. I. Sabashvili – Food,
G. I. Gvelesiani – Justice.
Participated the delegates from the People‘s Council of Abkhazia led by R. I. Kakuba.
Secretary – G. Cherkezov
The delegate from the People‘s Council of Abkhazia R. I. Kakuba greeted the Government of the Republic of Georgia and spoke about unity of the interests of the Abkhaz and Georgian people, their spiritual and cultural ties and expressed the vocation to retain it after the power would be completely passed to the People‘s Council of Abkhazia and asked the Georgian Government to render friendly assistance in organizing the state power in Abkhazia. Chairman – the Defence Minister welcomed the representatives of the Abkhaz people and underlined the unity of ideas and objectives of Abkhazia and Georgia expressing the desire to further strengthening of this fraternal union of two peoples.
Then two documents adopted by the People‘s Council of Abkhazia were announced.
In the first document the people‘s Council of Abkhazia informs the National Council of Georgia that upon declaring the independence Abkhazia lost the legal ground for relations with Georgia and the whole power was taken by the People’s Council of Abkhazia.  Taking into account the unity of the interests of Abkhazia and Georgia, the  Abkhaz People’s Council anticipates the National Council of Georgia to assist in state arrangement through retaining Georgian Red Guardia on the territory of Abkhazia.  At the same time it expresses the protest to the National Council of Georgia upon the decrees issued by the Government of Georgia that violate the sovereign rights of the Abkhaz People’s Council. For negotiations with the Georgian Government the  Abkhaz People’s Council delegates his representatives: R. I. Kakuba, V. G. Ghurjua, G. D. Adamov and G. D. Tumanov.
Under the second document the  Abkhaz People’s Council informs the Government of Georgia that Abkhazia, as a plenipotentiary member of the Trans-Caucasus Federation shares the part of debt and deems necessary participation of its representative, together with representatives of other federative nations in the work of liquidating commission;  V. G. Ghurjua, G. D. Adamov and G. D. Tumanov are authorized to participate in this activity.
R. I. Kakuba gave explanation to the issues raised by the Ministers of the Government of Georgia with regard of the situation in Abkhazia.
Proceeding from the report of R. I. Kakuba, the  Abkhaz People’s Council is going to convene the Congress with participation of representatives of all the peoples residing on the territory of Abkhazia in the nearest future.  The election of the People’s Congress will be held based on the four-member formula.
Currently there are several political movements in Abkhazia with this or that orientation.
For example, well-off landowners have the inclination to Turkey as they hope that Turkey will restore their lost rights; there is also a small group with Bolshevik orientation; a part of population expresses the sympathy to the North Caucasus highlanders.
In fighting against these movements the  Abkhaz People’s Council needs the assistance of the Government of Georgia and hopes that the Georgian Red Guardia will not be withdrawn from the territory of Abkhazia facilitating Abkhazia in arranging the administration and helping the newly-created international detachment in fighting against these elements.
The  Abkhaz People’s Council is facing the lack of finances and expects Georgia helping them through financial means too.
For solving all of these issues and for reaching the agreement between Georgia and Abkhazia, the Georgian Government entrust its ministers S. Meskhiev and N. Khomeriki with the task of elaborating the text of the Agreement and submit it to the Government of Georgia for further discussion.  
After adoption of this Resolution the delegates of the  Abkhaz People’s Council left the session hall and the Government continued discussion of the Agenda.
(…)
Chairman
Head of Government Administration
(CSHAG, f. 1861, desc. 1, file 10, p. 84-85)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
8 June 1918
Heard: Report by the Minister of Agriculture and Labour on the Agreement of Georgia with Abkhazia:
Decided:
a) to endorse the draft agreement elaborated by the authorized persons from the side of Abkhazia
b) to entrust the Minister of Finance with the task of supplying the Sukhumi treasury with the banknote.
c) to entrust the Minister of Interior with the task of providing additional detachment to Abkhazia for fighting against anarchy.
Original with necessary signatures.
Authentic: signed
(CSHAG, f. 1891, desc. 1, file 75, p. 41, 42)


(AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF
GEORGIA AND THE ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S COUNCIL of 8 June 1918)
AGREEMENT BETWEEN GEORGIA  AND ABKHAZIA of 8 June 1918
Copy
8 June 1918, Tiflis.
The Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in the person of its plenipotentiary representatives – the Minister of Justice Sh. A. Alekseev-Meskhiev and the Minister of Agriculture N.G. Khomeriki, and the  Abkhaz People’s Council in the person of its plenipotentiary representatives Razhden Kakuba, George Tumanov, Vasiliy Gurdjua and George Ajamov, concluded the following Agreement on 9 February of 1918 based on the agreement reached between the Georgian National Council and the People’s Council of Abkhazia.
1) The Minister on Abkhazian Affairs will be invited at the Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia;
2) The Abkhaz People’s Council exercises internal management and the self-governance in Abkhazia;
3) The credits and money, necessary for the management of Abkhazia shall be assigned from the financial resources of the Democratic Republic of Georgia and expended for the needs of Abkhazia by the Abkhaz People’s Council;
4) For the rapid development of the revolutionary order and organization of a sustainable power, the Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia sends the detachment of the Red Guardia to assist the Abkhaz People’s Council;
5) International Detachment will be created in Abkhazia, which will be at disposal of the Abkhaz People’s Council.
The financial support and equipment to the detachment will be provided by the Georgian Government;
6) The  Abkhaz People’s Council is carrying out the social reforms on the basis if the common laws of Georgia taking into account the local specifics;
7) The Congress of the Population of Abkhazia is convened on the basis of democratic principles in the nearest future for final resolution of the issues relating to the arrangement of Abkhazia;
8) This Agreement shall be reviewed by the National Assembly of Abkhazia.
The original is signed by: Noe Khomeriki, Shalva Alekseev-Meskhiev, George Ajamov, Vasiliy Gurjua, clergyman George Tumanov, Razheden Kakuba.
Head of Chancellery of the National Council of Abkhazia: signed; sealed.    
(Avtandil Menteshashvili, Historical Preconditions of the Current Separatizm in Georgia, p. 75-76; CSHAG, f. 1938, desc. 1, file 278, p. 7; ibidem, f. 1861, desc. 2, file 37, p. 54-58)


(AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF
GEORGIA AND THE ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S COUNCIL of 11 June 1918)
AGREEMENT BETWEEN GEORGIA AND ABKHAZIA of 11 June 1918
Copy
The Abkhaz People’s Council authorized its representatives R. I. Kakuba, G. D. Tumanov, V. G. Gurjua and G. D. Ajamov to conclude the following Agreement:
The Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in the person of its plenipotentiary representatives – the Minister of Justice Sh.A. Alekseev-Meskhiev and the Minister of Agriculture N. G. Khomeriki, and the Abkhaz People’s Council in the person of its plenipotentiary representatives Razhden Kakuba, George Tumanov, Vasiliy Gurdjua and George Ajamov, concluded the following Agreement for development and supplementing the Agreement concluded on 9 February of 1918:
1) The concluding agreement shall be reviewed by the National Congress of Abkhazia which will decide final political arrangement and the destiny of Abkhazia, as well as the interrelations between Georgia and Abkhazia;
2) The plenipotentiary representative of the Abkhaz People’s Council is present at the Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia with whom the Georgian Government considers the issues relating to Abkhazia;
3) Internal management of Abkhazia is exercised by the Abkhaz People’s Council;
4) In foreign affairs, Georgia – being the official representative of both contracting parties, practically acts together with Abkhazia;
5) The credits and assets, necessary for the management of Abkhazia shall be assigned from the resources of the Democratic Republic of Georgia at disposal of the Abkhaz People’s Council;
6) For the rapid development of the revolutionary order and organization of a sustainable power, the Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia sends the detachment of the Red Guardia to assist the  Abkhaz People’s Council until it’s in need;
7) The Abkhaz People’s Council shall organize the military units; the necessary equipment, uniforms and resources for these units shall be provided by the Democratic Republic of Georgia at disposal of the Council;
8) The Abkhaz People’s Council is carrying out the social reforms on the basis if laws adopted by the Trans-Caucasus Seim taking into account the local specifics;
This document is taken as information and will be added to the Agreements concluded between the National Council of Georgia and the Democratic Republic of Georgia on one side and the Abkhaz People’s Council – on the other.
Tiflis, 11 June 1918.
The original is signed by: N. G. Khomeriki, Sh.V. Alekseev-Meskhiev, Razhden Kakuba, George Ajamov, clergyman George Tumanov.
(Avtandil Menteshahsvili, Historical precondition of the current Separatizm in Georgia, p. 76-78; Khodjaa Ruslan, Documents and Materials of the People’s Council of Abkhazia, p. 8-10)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
13 June 1918
Heard:
 3.  On the loan in amount of 10 000 roubles to the Abkhaz People’s Council necessary for transportation expenses of uniforms and equipment for the military units.
Decided: to provide the loan to the Abkhaz People’s Council the loan in amount of 10 000 roubles necessary for transportation expenses of uniforms and equipment for the military units.
Original with necessary signatures.
Authentic: clerk (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1891, desc. 1, file 75, p. 50; ibidem, f. 1861, desc. 1, file 75, p. 170)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE  ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S COUNCIL on necessity to occupy Sochi and Tuapse Okrugs.
24 June 1918
The Abkhazia people’s Council, having discussed the political situation and taking into account that the Bolshevik anarchy disintegrates Abkhazia for three months already actually takes resources from Sochi and Tuapse Okrugs and also the fact, that the Bolshevik orientation is based on the lack of food, which followed to the occupation of Tuapse Sea-port by Bolsheviks cutting the communication with the North Caucasus through detaining the cargo from the North Caucasus to the Black Sea regions of Abkhazia and Georgia,
Decided:
to consider necessary the occupation of Sochi and Tuapse Okrugs including the Tuapse Sea-port in order to establish the sustainable order and Abkhazia and resolve the problem of food crisis in Abkhazia, as well as in Georgia.  To inform the Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia and the Commander of the Detachment Major-General Mazniev about this decision.
Original is signed.
Chairman of the National Council of Abkhazia – V.  A.  Shervashidze
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia, Abkhazia – the Historical Region of Georgia, p. 415)


LAW on abolishment of the Gubernia Councils of Peasants and the institution of the Peace Mediators.
I.  To abolish since publication of this law: a) the Peasants Councils in Tbilisi and Kutaisi Gubernia; b) the institution of Peace Mediators and their informants (interpreters) in Tbilisi and Kutaisi Gubernia and also in Zakatala and Sukhumi Okrugs.
II. Every former member of the Peasants’ Councils and the servants of chancelleries, as well as the mediators and their informants shall be retained at temporary posts in the basis of common rule.
III. The cases under the competence of aforementioned mediators shall be transferred to the Commissars of relevant districts and Gubernia for keeping and further transfer to the organizations.
Chairman of the National Council of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of Georgia N. Zhordania
9 July 1918
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 1, file 85, p. 18)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES N 53 OF THE SESSION OF THE ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S COUNCIL on necessity of the presence of Georgian troops in Abkhazia and confidence to its Headquarters.  
17 July 1918
The Chairman offers to vote on the confidence to the Headquarters, to confirm again the dedication to the Decrees issued by the Council and state on necessity of the presence of Georgian military units in Abkhazia.
The proposal was adopted; two members abstained.
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia, Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 418)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES N 53  OF THE SESSION OF THE  ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S
COUNCIL on Relations between Georgia and Abkhazia
25 July 1918
The mandates of newly elected members from Gudauta, Gagra and Kodori precincts were checked, as well as the number of members from the mentioned precincts.
1.  Upon the request of the newly elected members the secretary announces the agreements concluded between the Council and the Government of Georgia; the newly elected members asked for translating these documents in Abkhazian language and distribute among communities.  The chairman promised to do it.
2. The issue on nationalization of the state organizations…
The Chairman proposed the following resolution: Having heard the report on nationalization of the state organizations, the  Abkhaz People’s Council decided: considering the nationalization of the state organizations quite purposeful in general, the  Abkhaz People’s Council still doesn’t find it possible and reasonable within Abkhazia. Due to the multi-ethnicity of Abkhazia and difficulties in carrying out the nationalization of state organizations, the  Abkhaz People’s Council decided to maintain Russian as the common language at the state organizations on the territory of Abkhazia…
3.  Issue on election the Minister on Abkhaz issues… the secret ballot voting showed: Chkhotua got 22 votes, V. K. Shervashidze – 4, G. D. Tumanov – 4 and Bartsits – 1…
Thus the colonel Chkhotua was elected Minister on Abkhaz Issues by majority of votes.  The colonel Chkhotua thanked to the participants of meeting and said that he would devote himself to the protection of interests of Abkhazia and also asked the Council to give him certain instructions.
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia, Abkhazia – historical region of Georgia, p. 422)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE SESSION  OF THE THE ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S COUNCIL
Upon decision of the  Abkhaz People’s Council of 28 July, George Tumanov and Semion Basaria shall be included in the diplomatic mission of Georgia at the Constantinople Conference as advisers for participation in the Mission’s work and for clearing up, together with the Georgian Diplomatic Mission the issues relating to returning to the home-country the Abkhazs exiled from Abkhazia and residing on the territory of Turkey.
28 July 1918
(Tamaz Nadareishvili, David Chitaia, Paata Davitaia, Problems of Separatizm in Georgia, p.196)


LAW on administrative positions at Gubernia, City and County Levels
1.  To introduce the administrative positions within the boundaries of Gubernia, City and Counties: commissar of Tbilisi Gubernia – one; his two assistants; 7 county commissars; 7 senior and 3 junior assistants; 32 county Commissars; for Kutaisi Gubernia – 1 Commissar; one his assistant; seven county commissars, 7 assistants and 24 district Commissars; for Sukhumi Okrug - 1 Commissar; one his assistant and 4 district Commissars; the district Commissar is also the head of the District Police.
2. To determine the salary for the aforementioned positions as follows: to Sukhumi Okrug Commissar – thirteen thousand two hundred roubles a year; his assistant – nine thousand roubles; The district Commissar will receive four thousand two hundred roubles a year; to Zakatala Commissar thirteen thousand two hundred roubles a year; his assistant – nine thousand roubles; The district Commissar will receive four thousand two hundred roubles a year.
3. To assign sixty thousand (60 000) roubles at disposal of the Ministry of Interior for transportation expenses of Gubernia and District administration. To introduce aforementioned salaries form 1 July of this year.
4. The state treasury shall assign means for extra expenses for the mentioned administration.  
2 August 1918
Comrade of the Chairman of the National Council E. Takaishvili
Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Republic N. Ramishvili
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 1, file 85, p. 38-39)


DECISION ADOPTED BY THE ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S COUNCIL on nationalization of the
state organizations
To: the regional commissariat, regional court, post and telegraph office, treasury, customs office, national bank’ department, inspector of public education, women’s gymnasium, te­acher’s seminary, lighthouse manager, sea-port commandant, local hospital, experimental field manager.
Please find attached the Decision made by the Peoples’ Council of Abkhazia for information and implementation.
The issue on nationalization of the state organizations was raised before the  Abkhaz People’s Council on 25 July and considering it in general as a reasonable step, the  Abkhaz People’s Council decided: the  Abkhaz People’s Council still doesn’t consider reasonable to carry out this step.  Due to the multi-ethnicity of the population of Abkhazia and difficulties on the way to carry out the nationalization of the state organizations, the  Abkhaz People’s Council decided:
To retain temporarily the Russian language as a common language at the state organizations on the territory of Abkhazia.
Every servant of the state organization shall write down the warrant that they will serve to the  Abkhaz People’s Council and will be accountable to it as to the supreme body of the region.  Persons, which deem impossible to take such responsibility shall be immediately dismissed from the position and paid the liquidating fees.  Having regarded necessary reduction of personnel, the  Abkhaz People’s Council decided to prohibit the dismissal of servants on the territory of Abkhazia with respect of ethnic origin.  The educational institutions shall serve to the local population, therefore the issue of their nationalization shall be decided by the population except of gymnasiums and other educational establishments having the status of regional importance; their issue will be decided by the People’s Council of Abkhazia.  
Chairman V. Shervashidze
Secretary – signed
3 August 1918
(Khodjaa Ruslan, Documents and Materials of the People’s Council of Abkhazia, p. 15-16)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
August, 3 1918
Heard: The report by the Head of Administration of the Government
The loans for the Minister on Abkhaz Issues
Decided: To open the loan for the needs of the Minister on Abkhaz Affairs in amount of 10 000 roubles from the 10 million fund transferring this money from the Ministry of Finance to the current account of the Administration.
Authentic with original – clerk (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1861, desc. 2, file 37, p. 4)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
August 6, 1918
Heard: on creation of the defence and military units of Abkhazia
Decided: to take urgent measures for creation of international detachment in Abkhazia in accordance of Article 5 of the Agreement concluded with the People’s Council of Abkhazia.  This task shall be implemented by the Minister of Military Affairs.
Heard: on mobilization and creation of military units in Abkhazia.
Decided: to postpone the discussion of the mentioned issue.  At the same time to entrust the Minister of Military Affairs with the task of proposing at the earliest opportunity the draft on arranging the military forces of Abkhazia agreed with the Minister of Abkhaz Affairs.
Heard: on sending two delegates to Istanbul as advisors to the Georgian Delegation discussing the issue of Mohajirs.
Decided: To endorse the report by the Minister of Abkhaz Affairs on sending two advisers to the Georgian Delegation working on the Mohajir issues.  The final decision on this issue shall be decided in the nearest future.
Authentic with original: signed
(CSHAG, f. 1861, desc. 2, file 37, p. 7)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
August 6, 1918
Heard: on the rules for relation of the ministries with Abkhazia
Decided: To endorse the proposal by the Minister of Abkhaz Affairs stating that the agencies shall establish relations with Abkhazia upon information of the Minister of Abkhaz Affairs and in certain cases through his mediation. To postpone the detailed discussion of this issue until the next meeting.  Meanwhile the ministers shall submit their proposals on the forms and means for relation with Abkhazia for certain ministries.
Authentic with original: (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1891, desc. 1, file 75, p.128; ibidem, f. 1839, desc.1, file 7, p. 47)


REGULATIONS on Military Obligations in the Republic of Georgia and Recruitment in the
Regular Army.
Article 1.
The Military Service is obligatory and individual for each citizen of the Republic.
Note: this Article doesn’t apply to the Muslim citizens.
20 August 1918
Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika”, N 23, 23 August 1918)


LAW on Customs Offices
3.  To arrange 19 customs offices on the territory of Georgia at the following places:
a) The Major Office with the central authority – in Tbilisi;
b) The Customs Office of the first Degree – in Poti
c) The Customs Office of the Second Degree – in Natanebi and Sukhumi
d) The Customs Office of the Third Degree – in Gudauta, Ochamchire, Afoni, Kulevi, Anaklia, Foilo, Lagodekhi, Vorontsovka, Bakuriani, Atskuri, Abastumani, Ozurgeti and Dariali.
5. The Major and the First Degree Customs offices are shall be authorized to decide the issues on import and export of any type of goods and its taxation.
6. The Customs Offices of the second and the third grade shall have the same authority… except the cases when the goods require the chemical examination…
7. The Minister of Finance, Trade and Industry shall lead the Customs activity through the permanent representative of the Major Customs Office.
30 August 1918
Comrade of the Chairman of the National Council I. Baratashvili
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 1, file 85, p. 63-64)

 
EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
3 September 1918
Heard:
The report by the Minister of Abkhaz Affairs on conduct of Georgian Troops in Abkhazia
Decided:
In addition to the measures taken by the Minister of Military Affairs:
a) To send immediately to Abkhazia the ad hoc commission composed of the representatives of the ministries of Military Affairs, Justice and Internal Affairs;
1) To entrust this Commission with the following tasks:
a) to investigate together with three representatives of the  Abkhaz People’s Council the facts stated in the application of the Chairman of the  Abkhaz People’s Council on conduct of our detachments in general and on the arrest of Abkhaz nationals, in particular.
b) To assess, with the assistance of controllers appointed by the state, the damage carried by the local dwellers upon the misconduct of our detachments.
c) To inform immediately the  Abkhaz People’s Council about this decision.
Authentic with original
(CSHAG, f. 1861, desc. 2, file 37, p. 124; ibidem, f. 1891, desc. 1, file 1235, p. 1-2; ibidem, f. 1938, desc. 1, file 7, p. 93 )


LAW on Representation of the National Minorities at the National Council of Georgia
 1.  The national minorities, residing on the territory of Georgia and representing the Georgian citizens shall be given the right to have 26 representatives at the National council of Georgia, namely:
1. Armenians – 10 (ten)
2. Tatars – 4 (four)
3. Abkhazs – 3 (three)
4. Russians – 2 (two)
5. Ossetians – 2 (two)
6. Georgian Jews –2 (two)
7. Jews – 1 (one)
8. Greeks – 1 (one)
9. Germans – 1 (one)
2. The representatives of the National Minorities shall be nominated by the National Councils of these minorities that are elected by the citizens of Georgia and operate within the territory of the Republic of Georgia.
Note: Where such councils do not exist, the representatives of this nation, who are elected at different democratic institutions of the Republic of Georgia, shall nominate the representative to the National Council.
13 September 1918
The Chairman of the National Council of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc.1, file 85, p. 86-87)


LAW on Nationalization of the Teaching Institute and the Seminaries
a)  To annul the national departments of Tbilisi Institute and Gori Seminary.
b) To declare Tbilisi vocational institute and the seminaries of Gori and Sukhumi as Georgian state schools.
c) To establish Abkhazian Department at Sukhumi Seminary.
d) To assign the credits for all of four schools from the state treasury.
(…)
13 September 1918
Chairman of the National Council of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 85, p. 87; The collection of the legal acts of the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Tbilisi, 1990, p. 62/in Georgian)


REGULATIONS on the Interim Special Courts of the Republic
Adopted by the National Council of Georgia and the Government of the Republic of Georgia on 20 September 1918
To establish interim Special Courts in Tbilisi – for Tbilisi Gubernia and Zakatala Okrug; in Kutaisi – for Kutaisi Gubernia and in Sukhumi – for Sukhumi Okrug and the places occupied through the war for discussing the issues under the jurisdiction of the law adopted on 5 July 1918.
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 85, p. 111-113)

LAW on the institution of the Mediating Judges
1.  To introduce the position of the mediating judges in the cities and districts (Okrugs); each Okrug, together with the cities within their boundaries represent one mediating district.
16.  The language of proceedings with the district mediating judge, as well as at the Judges’ Congress shall be Georgian.
17.  In the districts where the majority of citizens belong to the non-Georgian nations, the proceedings shall be carried out in Georgian and in the language of the majority population of the district.  The Georgian text shall be considered as the official one.
18.  In the Okrug or district where non-Georgian citizens represent the significant part of the population (not less than 20 percent) – any application or verbal information can be delivered in the language of minority; they also have the right to obtain the copies of the document upon established rules without any charge.  If a person convicted in criminal offence or the sides involved in civil action ask to carry out proceedings not in Georgian language and the judge or the Congress of Judges have command in this language, the verbal proceedings shall be carried out in that language.
24 September 1918
Chairman of the National Council of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 1, file 85, p.116-119)

THE LIST
of the mediating institutions and organizations



The Congress of the Judges
Chair of Congress

District med. Judge

Congress Secretary

Assistants

Mediating Judge
Congress Interpreter

Mediating Judge

Police Officer

Court Officers
Honorary Judges
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
Sukhumi District Court (Sukhumi City)

1

7

1

1

7

1

7

1

7

3
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)

Chairman of the National Council of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
24 September 1918
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika”, N 58, 5 October 1918; Collection of the legal acts of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, p. 71-78)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
7 September 1918
Heard:
4.  The reports by the Minister of Justice
on addition of Sochi and Tuapse Court Districts to Sukhumi Court;
Decided:
a) To subordinate Sochi district court to Sukhumi District Court and
b) To entrust the Minister of Justice with the task of estimating the relevant expenditures.
The Chairman of the Government N. Zhordania
Head of Administration: S. Japaridze
Secretary – Kandelaki
25 September 1918
(CSHAG, f. 1938, desc. 1, file 7, p.106)


LAW on the State Language of Georgia
1.  Georgian shall be the State Language of Georgia.
Note: application of the minority languages at the certain institutions will be determined by the separate law.
2. The paper work and discussion at the National Council of Georgia shall be carried out in Georgian.
3.  The representative of national minority having no command in Georgian may deliver the speech in his own language.  
Note: the rule of the language application and translation shall be determined by the Regulations elaborated by the Council.
1 October 1918
Chairman of the National Council of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika”, N 59, 6 October 1918; CSHAG, f. 1863, desc.1, file 47, p.12)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SESSION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
10 October 1918
Heard:
The report by the Chairman on the situation in Abkhazia
Decided:
Taking into account the following facts: 1) the certain members of the People’s Council of Abkhazia, mostly the representatives of landowners betray the interests of the people of Abkhazia and of the residents of the whole of Sukhumi Okrug; they always tried to involve the foreign countries in the domestic affairs of Abkhazia in order to promote the interests of landowners.  Before it was Turkey (Ottoman Empire), and now – Alekseevts.  A few days ago, in order to provoke the political disorder, they surrounded the building of the People’s Council; 2) in such situation the  Abkhaz People’s Council being under the threat of violent acts, failed to work on the benefit of the people and 3) generally the members of the  Abkhaz People’s Council weren’t elected through the procedures that would have demonstrated the real interests of the population of Sukhumi Okrug
The Government Decided:
1. To dissolve the current composition of the People’s Council of Abkhazia, and hold the new elections on the basis of the universal electoral law;    
2. To set up the Central Electoral Commission for holding the elections composed of Varlam Shervashidze, Isidor Ramishvili, Vasiliy Gurjua, doctor Pashalidi and George Shanshiev; the Commission is entitled to elect the chairman and co-opt the people they consider reasonable;
3) To appoint Veniamin Chkhikvishvili as a Commissar of the Sukhumi Okrug until the election of the new  Abkhaz People’s Council and render him the whole power on the territory of Sukhumi Okrug; before appearance of Chkhikvishvili at his office the supreme military and civil power shall be exercised by the Head of Sukhumi Headquarters Tukhareli;
4) Due to the dissolving the  Abkhaz People’s Council the authority of the Minister of Abkhaz Affairs colonel Chkhotua shall be terminated; the function of the interim representative on the Abkhaz Affairs will be carried out by the Minister of Internal Affairs;
5) The Central Electoral Commission shall protect the property of the  Abkhaz People’s Council for transferring it to the new People’s Council.
Authentic with original – Gr. Robakidze (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1938, desc. 1, file 8, p. 18)


ADDITION TO THE REGULATION OF THE PARLIAMENT OF GEORGIA on the rules of
language application
1. The members of the Parliament shall deliver the speech in Georgian language.
2. Representatives of the national minorities having no command in Georgian may deliver the speech, besides their own language, at any minority language that is known at least by one member of the Presidium.
3. The representatives of national minorities, upon the consent of the Presidium, shall select one conversational language accepted by the Parliament.
4. The major essence of the speeches delivered in minority languages shall be interpreted in Georgian if there is such request from not less than 15 deputies.  The speeches delivered in Georgian shall not be translated into the minority languages.
5. The written proposals on amendment or other issues shall be done in Georgian.  The Presidium is authorized to deliver the unexpected proposals in one of the minority languages.
15 October 1918
Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(CSHAG, f. 1936, desc. 1, file 85, p. 135)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
Heard
7. The report by the Minister of Internal Affairs
b) The telegram sent by the Electoral Commission of the former  Abkhaz People’s Council Shervashidze about necessity of covering some expenditure from the current account of the People’s Council.
Decided:
1) To entrust the Minister of Finance with the task of instructing the state bank to assign to Shervashidze the necessary amount of money from the current account of the former  Abkhaz People’s Council for covering the expenses for abolishing the Council and the needs of the Electoral Commission.
17 October 1918
Secretary – V. Kandelaki (Signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1938, desc. 1, file 8, p. 29)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE SITTING OF THE ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S COUNCIL
20 October 1918
To accept without any impediment the telegrams and written correspondence in any language done with Latin or Russian scripts.
… Due to the multi-ethnicity and difficulties in nationalizing the state organizations, the People’’ Council of Abkhazia Decided:
To retain temporarily the Russian language as a common language at the state organizations on the territory of Abkhazia.
V. Shervashidze
(Tamaz Nadareishvili, David Chitaia, Paata Davitaia, Problems of Separatism in Georgia, p. 180)


LAW on arranging the state treasury
To introduce the following changes and amendments to the previous Law on the State Treasury, its Departments and Personnel
1. To divide the Treasury into four level:
a) First level – Kutaisi Treasury
b) Second level – Poti, Sukhumi and Gori Treasuries
c) Third level – Zestafoni, Chiatura, Senaki, Zugdidi, Telavi and Signakhi Treasuries;
d) Fourth level – Ozurgeti, Oni, Dusheti and Shulaveri Treasuries.
3.  To assign from the state budget six hundred thousand (600 000) roubles from 1 September 1918 to the personnel specified for in this Law.
12 November 1918
Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika”, N 98, 22 November 1918)    


REGULATIONS on Elections of the Constituent Assembly
Chapter 1
General Provisions
1.  The Constituent Assembly shall be elected through universal, equal, direct and secret ballot suffrage irrespective of sex and based on the principle of proportional representation.
2.  One electoral district shall be set up for the election of the Constituent Assembly.
The number of the members of the Constituent assembly shall be 130 people.  The Republic shall be divided in electoral precincts for voting.
Chapter II
The electoral right
3.  The right to voting shall have the citizens of the republic of both sexes who attained the age of 20 at the day of election.  Those, enlisted in the Regular Army shall have only the passive right to vote.
    (…)
Chapter III
The administration of the election of the Constituent Assembly
9.  The elections shall be organized by Central, city, district and village electoral commissions.
Note: In Sukhumi and Zakatala Okrugs the elections shall be led by Sukhumi and Zakatala Electoral Commission.
10.  The Central Electoral Commission of the Republic shall be set up by the Parliament of Georgia composed of 21 members.  The Commission shall elect the Chairman, the Comrade (deputy) of the Chairman, secretary and the treasurer.
From the day of accepting the list of candidates, the political parties or groups, which have submitted the list, shall have one representative at the Central Electoral Commission with the full right of membership.
(…)
22.  Sukhumi District Electoral Commission shall consist of nine members of City Board in accordance of distribution of power between the acting political parties.  The Commission shall have the Chairman, Comrade (deputy) of the Chairman, secretary and treasurer elected from the members of the Commission.
From the day of accepting the list of candidates, the political parties or groups, which have submitted the list to Sukhumi Okrug Commission, shall have one representative at the Central Electoral Commission with the full right of membership.
Note: Sukhumi District Commission shall have the responsibility as it is specified for the regional Commissions.
The village and community Commissions shall be set up in Sukhumi and Zakatala Okrugs and their responsibilities are specified for in Articles 18-21 of this Regulation.
(…)
22 November 1918
Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 1, file 85, p. 183-199)


LAW on Tax-Collection
1.  State, public, city and other due taxes, as well as the administration of tax-collection, including the distribution of reminding papers shall be the competence of:
a) In Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Sukhumi and Poti – the assistant to the Chief of Militia and the special tax-collecting Militia composed of senior and junior militiamen nominated by the Chief of Militia upon the consent of the Head of Treasury according the districts subject to taxation.
26 November 1918
Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 1, file 85, p. 206-207)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SESSION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
28 November 1918
Heard
… report
…the Minister of Internal Affairs:
The request of the chancellery of the Ministry of Abkhaz Affairs on advanced payment in amount of 10 000 roubles for covering the expenses in November and December of this year.
Decided:
To assign 10 000 roubles credit from the 10-million fund of the Ministry of Interior for covering the expenses of the Chancellery of the Ministry of Abkhaz Affairs in November and December of this year.
Authentic with original
(CSHAG, f. 1938, desc.1, file 8, p. 98)


RESOLUTION OF THE CONGRESS OF SOCHI OKRUG FARMERS
Having heard the report by the representative of the Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia on the political reasons and conditions for the joining on the temporary basis of Sochi Okrug to the Republic of Georgia, as well as on the government’s outlines with respect of the local cultural-economic life, the Congress of Sochi Okrug, on 1 December of this year, decided:  
1) reiterating the vocation of the Sochi Okrug to joint the Russia as soon as the sustainable unified democratic governance is established there based on the federative principles, the Congress considers that the joining of the Sochi Okrug to Georgia on the temporary basis proceeds form the Resolution adopted by the socialist parties and other democratic organizations of Sochi Okrug and represents the measure that is vital important for the protection of people’s interest.
2. Being under the protection of the laws of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, the working population has possibility to fulfill freely its future plans with regard of agrarian and economic developments; they have opportunity to establish democratic society and carry out the fair distribution of lands under the laws of the Republic pursuant to the Regulations adopted by the Russian Constituent Assembly.
3. The Congress entrusts the Presidium with the task of sending the welcoming telegram to the Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia.  With regard of Kuban Regional Rada the Congress decided: the Congress welcomes the Democratic developments initiated by Kuban Rada and expresses its hope that they will be able to unite the democratic forces and establish the close cooperation with the neighbouring democratic governments, namely with the Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
(…)
1 December 1918
(CSHAG, f. 1864, desc. 1, file 41, p. 17)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
10 December 1918
(adopted on 17 December 1918)
Article 1
Heard:
The report by the legal adviser of the Government;
a) the draft regulations on the elections of the People’s Council of Abkhazia
Decided:
To endorse the draft as it is elaborated by the representative of the Ministry of Justice and the legal adviser of the Government taking into account that Article 2 will have the following wording: “the right to vote shall be given to the residents of Abkhazia who attained the age of 20 before drafting the electoral lists and lived in Abkhazia before 19 July1914 irrespective of sex, national or religious affiliation.  Note: person can be elected as a member of the  People’s Council of Abkhazia except of those specified for in Article 2; a person, who has lived in Abkhazia even after 19 July of 1914 also can be elected if he/she meets the other requirements specified for in Article 2 and also the citizens of Georgia living outside of Abkhazia”.
Authentic with original
Clerk: signed
(CSHAG, f. 1938, desc.1, file 278, p. 22; ibidem, file 8, p. 106)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
17 December 1918
Heard
the report by the Minister of Internal Affairs
About situation in Abkhazia
Decided:
a) To submit to the Parliament the draft-Regulations on the elections of the  Abkhaz People’s Council amended upon the resolution of the Government of 10 December.  The community elections in Abkhazia shall be carried out on the basis of this Regulation.  Seventy five thousand (75 000) roubles shall be assigned from the 10-million fund for the purposes of both elections - fifty thousand (50 000) roubles for the elections of the people’s Council and twenty five thousand (25 000) roubles for community elections.  Both of elections shall be held at the same day, which will be determined by the government.
b) the Government shall issue the Appeal (Act) stating that Abkhazia has opportunity to have people’s representatives through whom it will be able to establish autonomous arrangement for its internal life.
c)  to return to Sukhumi City Self-Governance one hundred thousand (100 000) roubles as a payment of debt for food and horses taken by detachments and headquarters.  The other events shall be investigated by the special commission.
d) To assign on e hundred thousand (100 000) roubles from the credits of the Ministry of Roads for repairing the roads and bridges in Sukhumi.
e) The Ministry of Justice shall submit the conclusions within a week on the investigation of the special commission regarding the claims of Kodori dwellers on the damage caused by the misconduct of our detachments.
f) Due to the special circumstances to find necessary to appoint the second inspector on public schools.  The Ministry of public Education shall pay one-month salary to the newly appointed inspector and for future remuneration the relevant credit shall be open at the disposal of the Minister of Public Education.
g) To assign the credit of twenty thousand four hundred (20 400) roubles from the tem-million fund to the Minister of Internal Affairs to recover the credit spent in Sukhumi for fighting with epidemic diseases and for the sanitary needs.  
h) To create in Sukhumi the division of the committee on exchange of goods; the competence of the division shall be decided by the General Committee and the Commissar of Sukhumi Okrug.  The same Committee will be entitled to regulate the tobacco issue in Abkhazia too.
i) To entrust the Ministry of Trade and Industry with the task of restoring the postal communication within Sukhumi Okrug and between Poti, Ochamchire, Sukhumi, Gudauta, Gagra, Adler and Sochi using for this purpose the motor-launch.
Authentic with original – clerk (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1938, desc. 1, file 8, p.110-111)


REGULATIONS on elections of Public Representatives at the City Councils
1. The Public Representatives shall be elected for two years term.  The number of public representatives for each city is determined in the list below.
2. Every citizen of Georgia, who attained the age of 20, lives in this city or has household, or works at the office or has some other work, shall be authorized to participate in the elections irrespective of sex and religious affiliation.
(…)


LIST
of the number of Public Representatives at the City Councils
   
 


Cities
Total number of Public Representatives to be elected at the Council

(...)
Sukhumi Okrug
Sukhumi
Gudauta
Ochamchire
Gagra
Sochi District
Sochi
Khosta
Adler
(...)
 
40
20
20
20

24
20
20
17 December 1918
Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia N. Chkheidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika”, N 123, 24 December 1918; CSHAG, f. 1938, desc. 1, file 85, p. 240-244)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
25 December 1918
Article 2
Heard:
The report by the Minister of Finances
a) On assigning the loan to the People’s Council of Abkhazia.
Decided:
1.  To assign six million roubles loan to the People’s Council of Abkhazia.
2. The mentioned loan shall be given to the Ministry of Internal Affairs upon the agreement with the Ministry of Finances in certain portions within six months.
3. Repayment of the loan shall start from 1 January 1922 (five hundred thousand (500 000) roubles on every January 1 and July 1).
4. The Ministry of Internal Affairs shall submit the relevant Decree to the Constituent Assembly.
(CSHAG, f. 1891, file 1243, p. 71)


REGULATIONS on the elections of the  People’s Council of Abkhazia
II. General Provisions
1. The members of the People’s Council shall be elected; totally 40 people…
2. The right to vote shall be given to the residents of Abkhazia who attained the age of 20 before drafting the electoral lists and lived in Abkhazia before 19 July1914 irrespective of sex, national or religious affiliation.
Note: person can be elected as a member of the  People’s Council of Abkhazia except of those specified for in Article 2; a person, who has lived in Abkhazia even after 19 July of 1914 also can be elected if he/she meets the other requirements specified for in Article 2 and also the citizens of Georgia living outside of Abkhazia”.
II. The electoral lists
The elections shall be universal, equal, direct through the secret ballot suffrage based on the principle of the proportional representation.
III. Electoral Commissions
11. The elections shall be carried out by the Central, City, Precinct and Village electoral commissions.
12.  The Central Electoral Commission shall be set up by the Government of the Republic of Georgia.
VII. Securing the free and fair elections.
96.  The public elections in Sukhumi District also shall be held on the basis of this Regulation.
27 December 1918
The Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia N. Chkheidze
The Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia, Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 426-427; Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika”, N 9, 14 January 1919)


1919
LAW on application of the language at the self-governance agencies
1.  Discussion, paper-work and correspondence at the city and regional agencies of self-governance is carried out in state language.
2.  Upon the discussion of the self-governing agency some other local language can be used while delivering the speech or filing the application.
3.  If more than half of the population residing within the territory of certain self-governance speaks the same local - non-Georgian language, the discussion and paper-work, together with the state language can be carried out in the language of the given majority upon the decision of the self-governance.
4.  This law has no application to Sukhumi and Sochi Okrug.
5.  This law shall come into force since it is adopted by the Parliament.
14 January, 1919
The original is signed by:
Comrade (deputy. tr.) of the Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia I. Baratashvili
Chairman of the Government of the Republic N. Zhordania
(Collection of Laws and Decrees issued by the Government, #1, 1919, 14 January, p. 10; CSHAG, f. 1683, desc. 1, file 1430, p. 5-6)


REGULATIONS of the Grand-Iury Court
For supplementing and changing the Articles of the Regulations of the Court to decide the following:
1. The Grand Jury shall be selected from the following persons of both sexes:
a) those who are citizens (national) of the Republic of Georgia;
b) those that speak Georgian and can read and write any other language;
c) those that attained the age of 25;
d) those that lived not less than a year in that Gubernia or city where the Grand Jury shall be elected.
3. The general and regular lists shall be developed for the election of the Grand Jury.
13.  Every year in the regular list shall be included:
a) 1200 persons – for Tbilisi and its region;
b) 1000 persons – for Kutaisi and its region;
c) 800 persons – for Sukhumi and its region.
17 January 1919
Comrade of the Chairman of the National Council E. Takaishvili
Chairman of the Government of the Republic N. Zhordania
(newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika,” N 19, 25 January 1919; CSHAG, f. 1938, desc. 1, file 307, p. 6, 7)

LAW on declaring the former lots, state owned and other lands as private property
1. The lots, which weren’t approved to the former temporarily responsible peasants and the state “poselians” /settlers/ under the law of 20 December 1912 but were used by them through the “Authorized Certificate” – shall be declared as their private property.
2.  Within the norms provided for by Article 2 of the law of 7 March 1918 of the Trans-Caucasus Seim, to declare as a private property the following lands:
a) the state lands of those peasants, or villages, or associations that are under their ownership for generations;
b)  former state lands that are under their ownership through the treasury right;
c) the lands of former peasants of the Ossetian part of Gori District highlanders that are under their ownership through so called “Vorontsov’s Right”;
d) the lands owned by former peasants of Akhaltsikhe and other places possessed by them under so called “Tappskiy Right”;
e) the lands of former Sukhumi Okrug peasants given them under the rules of 8 November 1870;
f) the lands owned by persons of Sukhumi Okrug given them for permanent usage under law of 1 May 1900.
The friend of the Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia     Ekvtime Takaishvili
Chairman of the Government N. Zhordania
28 January 1919
(CSHAG, f. 1836, desc. 1, file 402, p. 24)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
8 February 1919
Heard
On setting up the court in Sukhumi
Decided:
To endorse the proposal of the Ministry of Justice on setting up the Extraordinary Court in Sukhumi Okrug.  The following persons were approved as the members of the Extraordinary Court:
Chairman – G.D. Solomon-Eristavi;
As a Comrade – Ev. Gr. Bokeria;
Members:
1) E. I. Arefeev.
2) G. Karaliov.
3) A.L. Grigolia.
4) D.K. Emukhvari
5) A.L. Gelovani
6) I.G. Pashalidi
7) V.A. Shervashidze
(CSHAG, f. 1891, desc. 1, file 211. p. 53)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES # 1 OF THE PEOPLE”S COUNCEL OF ABKHAZIA
of 12 February 1919
Tarnava: (independent socialist on behalf of C.D. Internationalists)
„ Having heard the issue on elections at the Constituent Assembly and taking into account the fact that the relation between Georgia and Abkhazia was not formed finally, the Constitution of Abkhazia was not elaborated and Abkhazia’s participation at the Constituent Assembly may lay ground to the negligence of autonomous rights of Abkhazia, they decided: to postpone the elections until the Constitution of Abkhazia is elaborated“.
7 – yes;
17 – no.
From the C. D. faction:
„Having heard the issue on additional elections at the Constituent Assembly, the  Abkhaz People’s Council deems necessary to hold elections at the nearest future.  As for the means for its implementation, we have to offer troops to the Presidium of the  Abkhaz People’s Council upon the consent of the Presidium of the Constituent Assembly“.
17 – yes
7 – no
(Tamaz Nadareishvili, David Chitaia, Paata Davitaia Problems of Separatism in Georgia, p. 212-213)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
1 March 1919
Heard
b) on assigning 10 000 roubles of prepayment for the needs of Chancellery of the Ministry of Abkhazia
Decided:
To assign ten thousand (10 000) roubles from the 10-million fund of the Ministry of Interior to the Chancellery of the Ministry of Abkhazia for salary and other expenses.
(CSHAG, f. 1891, desc. 1, file 211, p. 77)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
13 March 1919
Heard
The Report by the Chairman of the Government:
a) The Declaration of the Government on Abkhazia
Decided: the representative of the Government shall declare at the opening of the session of the  Abkhaz People’s Council that Abkhazia has the full autonomy in its internal affairs and the People’s Council is authorized to carry out the administration of Abkhazia and the concrete separation of power will be determined by the Constitution.
Chairman of the Government – N. Zhordania
Head of Administration of the Government – K. Japaridze
Assistant to the Secretary – Lomtatidze
Authentic with original – clerk (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1891, desc. 1, file 211, p. 93)


EXTRACT FROM THE SESSION OF THE PEOPLE’S COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA
20 March 1919
While speaking Kakuba abused Chkhikvishvili calling him as expropriator that disappointed the deputies and the whole of audience.  Many of them jumped up from the seats and were ready to retaliate.  Kakuba, changing the tune of his speech still didn’t change his position but left the hall without finishing his presentation.  His comrade from the faction Demianov said that Kakuba hadn’t been right to Chkhikvishvili and he knew about his honest political past (everybody applauded).
Then the Resolution by all socialist factions was introduced. . .
Demianov raised the issue on authorization of the Council and pointed that according to the previous agreements he didn’t recognize such right.  He was supported by the breakaway group: Tsaguria, Alania, Chanba, Margania.  Having discussed this issue they held the model voting.  29 were in favour of authorization, 5 – abstained, against - none.
There are three points in the Resolution: first – about autonomy on the platform declared by the Social-Democrats and the third – about mixed Commission of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia and the Council for elaboration of the Constitution set up on the principle of equal footing.  In order to reach the consensus, the second point, after personal consideration, was withdrawn from the agenda.  The first point was voted through secret voting.  Yes – 27; abstained – 3.  Four blank papers weren’t taken into account.
The second point was adopted unanimously, by show.
The amendment on guarantees of  break-off with Georgia in case of changing the latter’s po­litical arrangement was rejected by the majority as needless.  While adopting the Act on indepen­dence the whole audience was applauding wholeheartedly for a few minutes shouting “hurrah”. . .
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia, Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 433-434)


ACT on the autonomy of Abkhazia
20 March 1919
The First People’s Council of Abkhazia, elected through general, direct, equal and secret ballot voting, at its first session on 20 March 1919, on behalf of the peoples of Abkhazia decrees:
1. Abkhazia enters into the Democratic Republic of Georgia as its autonomous entity;  this decision shall be communicated to the Government of the Republic of Georgia and its Constituent Assembly.
II.  The mixed Commission set up on the principle of equal footing is elected from the Constituent Assembly of Georgia and the  Abkhaz People’s Council with the aim to elaborate the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and determine the relation between the Central and Autonomous government.  The elaborated proposals, after adopting at the Constituent Assembly of Georgia and the  Abkhaz People’s Council shall be included in the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
Secretary: G. Koroliev.
20 March 1920
Authentic with original: Head of Chancellery of the  Abkhaz People’s Council (signed)
27 October 1920
Authentic with copy:
Original is signed: Chairman of the  Abkhaz People’s Council (signed)
27 October 1920 – authentic with copy.
(Avtandil Menteshashvili, Historical Precondition of the Current Separatism in Georgia, p. 78; CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 863, p. 44)

(RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA)
Sukhumi, to the People’s Council of Abkhazia
On 21 March of 1919 the Constituent Assmebly of the Republic of Georgia heard with a great pleasure the ACT on the Autonomy of Abkhazia adopted by the  People’s Council of  Abkhazia on 20 March 1919.
From now the firm foundation is being laid to the free existence of the Abkhaz nations in Georgia.  From now we can state that the democracy of Georgia fulfilled the task that even many great powers failed to achieve.
Historical and inherent unity of two fraternal nations has been restored that poses a treat to the enemies of democracy and makes happy our friends.
The Constituent Assembly of Georgia will be striving for final victory of the democracy and continue working until the free existence of the nations is established within the boundaries of the republic.  Purposeful and regular work, the Abkhaz democracy stands ready to participate – is the guarantor to the success.  To this end, and especially against the background of a grave historical moment, the Constituent Assembly of Georgia will take a good care of Abkhaz nations considering their needs and deeds as their own ones.
Comrade of the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia A. Lomtatidze
Senior secretary: K. Japaridze
(CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 52, p. 7, 8)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
25 March 1919
Heard
3.  The report by the Minister of Interior
b) on setting up the fact-finding commission for investigation unlawful acts committed by the Georgian military unites against Armenian dwellers of Sukhumi Okrug.
Decided:
To entrust the  Abkhaz People’s Council with the task of setting up the fact-finding commission, which, together with the government representatives shall investigate the acts committed by the Georgian military units in Sukhumi Okrug and  ascertain the amount of damage.
And now, to assign 50 000 roubles from the Military Fund at disposal of the Ministry of Interior as an advanced payment to help the victims of the unlawful acts.
This decision shall be implemented before the Gazette is approved.
The Chairman of the Government Evg. Gegechkori
Head of Government Administration K. Japaridze
Authentic with the original: clerk (signed)
29 March 1919
(CSHAG, p. 1938, desc. 1, file 189, p. 20; ibidem, p. 1891, desc. 1, file 211, p.101; ibidem, f. 1861, desc. 1, file 9, p. 122)
    

EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
12 April 1919
Heard: report by the Minister of Justice:
on the motion of Francuz and Tatrakhan Anchabadze and Murad Bei (Murad Beg) Marshania and others on compensation of damage caused by Georgian troops in Kodori Gorge.
Decided:
1. To render to: a) Murad Bey (Murad Beg) Marshania - one hundred thousand (100 000) roubles, b) Francuz Anchabadze – forty thousand (40 000) roubles and c) Tatrakhan Anchabadze – seventy thousand (70 000) roubles as a compensation to damage.
2.  A half of a mentioned amount in Article 1 shall be given immediately and the second half – within next six months.
3.  The amount mentioned in Article 1 shall be taken from the military fund.
4.  The motion of other victims with regard of compensation is rejected.
Authentic with original: secretary D. Didebulidze.  Signed
Authentic with original: clerk. Signed
(CSHAG, f. 1938, Desc. 1, file 427, p. 2)

STATEMENT OF THE  ABKHAZ PEOPLE’S COUNCIL OF on Memorandum of the Volun-
teer Army to the English Headquarters
15 April 1919
Having heard the report of the Member of the Abkhaz Council I.I. Ramishvili on the Memorandum of the Volunteer Army to the English Headquarters, where it is said that: “the population of Abkhazia, according to the Memorandum, which is especially hostile to Georgians and has a vocation to Russia often asks the Volunteer Army to help them in ousting Georgians and attaching Sukhumi Okrug to Russia.  After receiving such application from the official representatives of the Abkhaz people the Headquarters send the telegram to the Generals Milns and Forstie proposing to carry out the following measures:
1. To expel Georgian troops and administration from the Okrug;
2. To declare neutrality in the Okrug and entrust the elected power with the task of maintaining the public order;
3. To withdraw Georgian across the Enguri River.
The  Abkhaz People’s Council publicly declares: 1) The  Abkhaz People’s Council is the sole authorized and plenipotentiary representative of Abkhazia elected through the most democratic principles; 2) through this Council Abkhazia established close links with the Democratic Republic of Georgia, entered in the Republic as an Autonomous entity and defined its an Georgia’s common state borders; 3) any “official representative” of Abkhazia, mentioned in the Memorandum, is just the enemy of the Abkhaz and Georgian democracy, who tries to prepare fertile soil for the counter-revolution and for restoration of the old order aimed at deteriorating the democratic achievements; 4) the Abkhaz democracy, in collaboration with the Georgian democracy will be able to curb unbidden “representatives” of the Abkhaz people and take over the counter-revolution and its agents for the sake of revolution; 5) the  Abkhaz People’s Council wants to know who are those impostors that make an appeal on behalf of the Abkhaz people to the Volunteer Army.  The  Abkhaz People’s Council declares them as traitors and states that the evidence given in the Memorandum doesn’t correspond to reality; 6) to inform the allies about this Resolution through the Democratic Republic of Georgia”.
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia; Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 436-437)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
29 April 1919
Heard
The report by the representative of the Government I.S. Ramishvili:
on the current activity and the situation in Abkhazia.
Decided:
To set up commission composed of N.B. Ramishvili, N.G. Khomeriki, Ev.P. Gegechkori and entrust it with the task of elaborating, together with Ir. Ramishvili, the proposals on relations with Abkhazia and submit them to the Government.
Chairman of the Government – N. Zhordania
Head of Government’s Administration – K. Japaridze
Secretary – Lomtatidze
Authentic with original. Clerk – signed
(CSHAG, f. 1891, desc. 1, file 211, p. 140)


THE LAW on certain measures for strengthening the state revenues
(…)
1. To introduce a non-recurrent tax fro 1919.
2. Non-recurrent tax applies to the lands that are the subject of state and land taxation, except the pastures and forests.
3. The amount of a single tax for the whole village is determined by the inspector upon the following rule: average amount of tax for dessiatina that is indicated in the attached list shall be multiplied by relevant dessiatina that is specified in land register.
4. The total tax determined for the village will be distributed among land-owners according to the space and land-quality or the income within the village.  The village commissar shall submit the protocol on the tax distribution to the Tax-inspector.
7.  The 3/5th of  from the district and county income shall be transferred to the state treasury and the  2/5th – to the revenues of the same district or county.
27 May 1919
The original is signed by:
Senior Comrade of the Chairman
of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia Al. Lomtatidze.
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(Collection of Laws and Decrees adopted by the Government, #9, 1919, p.136-140)

LIST
A single tax introduced to Dessiatina of land

# #

Name of District and County



Amount of tax introduced to one Dessiatina of Land

comment



Dry land

Vineyard
Fruit
bay leaf
Tobacco Plant.



1 categ.
2 categ
3 categ
1 categ
1 categ
3 categ





(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)

88.
Sukhumi Okrug
125
105
50
90
70
40
120
80
125

 
(Collection of Laws and Decrees adopted by the Government, #9, 1919, p.142)

Addition to Article 203 of the Tax-Regulation
the Chart for calculating the land-tax




Name of place
One Dessiatina in roubles
Note

vineyard fruit orchard and veget.
Tobacco plants
Irrigated Land
Dry lands and hay-lands
pastures Forests

(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)
(...)

Sukhumi Okrug
750
1650
_
280
23

 
The original is signed by:
Senior Comrade of the Chairman
of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia Al. Lomtatidze
Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(Collection of Laws and Decrees adopted by the Government, #9, 1919, p.143)


LAW on Seizure and temporary holding of Real Estate and on its utilization for the state and
public needs Adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Georgia and the Government of Georgia on
11 July 1919
Extract
If the state runs the business the property was seized for, or right to utilization is decided, the state shall pay 100 000 roubles to the property owner before seizure if the value of property or damage  exceeds 100 000 roubles, and the rest of amount shall be paid no later that within a year from the day of seizure in equal portions together with the profit specified for in Article 10.
If the business is run by city or society and the value of property or damage exceeds 75 000 roubles - in Tbilisi, 50 000 roubles – in Kutaisi, Poti and Sukhumi, and 25 000 roubles – in other towns and districts, the owners shall receive 75 000 roubles before seizure in Tbilisi and 25 000 roubles in other towns and districts.  The rest of money will be paid within 6 years  from the day of seizure in equal portions together with the profit specified for in Article 10.
(Collection of Legal Acts of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, p. 308)


REPORT OF THE SESSION OF THE  PEOPLE’S COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA of 21 July 1919.
(…)
Chairman: the draft by the Commissariat  got 21 votes, the draft by the Commission of majority – 15 votes, so, the decision is not adopted.
Upon proposal of Marghania (Independent socialist) the personal voting was held, that showed the following results: for the draft by the Commissariat  – 20 votes; for the draft by the Commission of majority – 14 votes.
Chairman: 20 deputies voted in favour of the draft by the Commissariat  out of 34 present, i.e. less than 2/3 of the present, therefore the decision is not adopted again.
(Sealed)
Authentic with original: Head of Chancellery of the People’s Council of Abkhazia
(CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 20, p. 178)


DRAFT BY THE COMMISSARIAT OF ABKHAZIA. CONSTITUTION of the autonomous Abkhazia
General provisions
1.  Abkhazia enters the Democratic Republic of Georgia as autonomous entity; it is independent in the sphere of legislation and management if otherwise is not provided by this Constitution.
2. The official language on the territory of Abkhazia shall be Russian.
3.  Abkhazia shall have Representation at the parliament of Georgia proportionate of its population to the number of Georgian population.
4. The deputies from Abkhazia at the Parliament of Georgia shall be elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by a secret ballot; Abkhazia represents the separate electoral district.
5. Plenipotentiary representative on Abkhaz Affairs shall be present at the Government of Georgia.  
6. Plenipotentiary representative of the Government of Georgia shall be present at the Abkhaz Government.
7. Abkhazia shall exercise its autonomous rights in the sphere of legislation through the  Abkhaz People’s Council and in the sphere of management – through the Commissariat of Abkhazia.
8. The common affairs of state importance of Georgia and Abkhazia shall be within the competence of the Parliament and Government of Georgia; the other affairs in the sphere of legislation, as well as of internal management shall be exclusively under the competence of the People’s Council and the Government of Abkhazia.
9.  The affairs of state importance are as follows:
a) Criminal, civil and common social law.
b) Foreign affairs; trade agreements with the foreign countries.
c) Currency system and state finances.
d) Customs affairs.
e) Post and telegraph.
f)  Army.
g) Judiciary.
h) Railway.
10.  The issues of foreign affairs that concern the direct interests of the Autonomous Abkhazia shall be agreed between Georgia and Abkhazia.
11. Georgia and Abkhazia represent common customs and trade territory with the common customs border and unified customs duties.
12. The military forces in Abkhazia shall be formed on the common basis with Georgia, but with respect of territorial principle of recruitment and they shall serve for Abkhazia except during the martial law.  These military forces shall subordinate to the military laws of Georgia and the military leadership of Georgia.  Withdrawal of military units from the territory of Abkhazia during peace-time shall be carried out only upon the special decree issued by the People’s Council of Abkhazia.  Presence of other military formations on the territory of Abkhazia during the peace-time is admissible only upon consent of the People’s Council of Abkhazia.
13. Expenditures and revenues for the common affairs and for the managing organiza2) to decide the issues relating to the loans, taxes, duties, uncollected fees of the Autonomous Abkhazia;
14. Autonomous Abkhazia is independent in other affairs; the following affairs shall be within the authority of its legislative and governmental institutions:
a) legislation on every issue, except of those provided for in Article 9 (a),
also the legislation on the issues that are not in contradiction with the common-state laws;
b) local agrarian legislation;
c) local finances (budget, cash-flow, taxes, taxation, loans and others);
d) management of state property and natural resources of Abkhazia;
e) public education;
f)  agencies of local self-governance (district and city);
g) Mediator judges;
h) administration;
i) health care and sanitary;
j) roads of local importance, granting concession to them and others.
About legislative power
15. The  People’s Council of Abkhazia is the legislative organ of the Autonomous Abk­ha­-  zia, which shall be elected on the basis of universal, equal, direct and proportional suffrage by secret ballot for a term of 2 years; A citizen, who attained the age of 20, has the right to vote.
16.  The People’s Council shall adopt the Electoral Law on the basis of previous Article and determine the number of deputies.
17.  The People’s Council shall determine the composition of the Presidium and follow the guidelines elaborated by the Council.
18.  The  People’s Council of Abkhazia shall examine the legitimacy of the elected deputies and approve the election results.
19.  The  People’s Council of Abkhazia is inviolable and no government has the right to dissolve it; but the Council may adopt the decision on its pre-term dissolution and on holding the new elections.
20.  The members of the People’s Council shall not be prosecuted on the account of the ideas and opinions expressed by them while performing their duties.
21.  Arrest of a member of Council shall be permissible only by the consent of the Legislative Assembly, except in the cases when he/she is caught  flagrante delicto.
22. The members of the council may be brought to the court only upon the decision made by the Council and the proceedings shall be carried out in accordance of the court’s jurisdiction.
23.  The remuneration for the members of the Council shall be determined by law.
24.  The members of the Council shall not be authorized to take the office upon appointment of the Government.
25.  The members of the Government may attend the sessions of the People’s Council and participate in discussions, but they participate in the voting only if they are the members of the Council.
26.  Sittings of the Council shall be public; the Council shall be entitled to declare a sitting thereof closed while discussing a particular issue.
27.  No one shall have the right to enter the session hall, either the building of the  Abkhaz People’s Council with the fire-arm.  The guards and military forces may be invited upon decision of the Council, or, in special circumstances – under the decree issued by the Presidium.
28.  The following issues fall within the authority of the People’s Council of Abkhazia:
1) to discuss and approve the draft-law;
2) to decide the issues relating to the loans, taxes, duties, uncollected fees of the Autonomous Abkhazia;
3) to discuss and approve the budget;
4) to discuss the report on budget implementation;
5) to elect the Chairman of the Commissariat of Abkhazia;
6) to decide the issues relating to the alienation of state property and expropriation of private property for the state needs;
7)  also the affairs and issues that Council considers to retain under its authority and denies to transfer them to the Government.
29.  The legislative initiative is the authority of the Abkhaz Government and the People’s Council of Abkhazia.
30.  The draft-laws and the proposals shall be submitted by the relevant government members to the Council.  Each deputy also may submit the draft-law or proposal to the Council, but it shall be signed by five members of the Council.
31.  The draft-law or proposal may be revoked if there was no final voting on it.
32. None of the draft-laws or proposals completely rejected by the People’s Council shall be submitted again without changes during the same session.
33. The sitting of the People’s Council is legitimate if more than a half of its members are present.
34. Decision of the People’s Council shall be adopted by the simple majority except the issues on changing the Constitution.
35. In case of equal number of votes the proposed draft-law shall be considered rejected.
36.  The budget shall be submitted to the People’s Council for discussion every year wit­hin the terms specified by the Council, which actually determines the start of the budgetary year.
37.  If for some reason the budget is not discussed at the beginning of a fiscal year, the previous budget shall remain in force.
38.  None of the loans of the Autonomous Abkhazia shall be concluded without consent of the People’s Council.
39.  The first sitting of the people’s Council shall be held within two weeks after the elections organized by the Commissariat; the People’s Council shall be convened for a new session by the Presidium of the previous session.
40.  In case of emergency between the session terms the Commissariat of Abkhazia is authorized to convene the extraordinary session.
41.  All of the laws adopted by the People’s Council of Abkhazia, as well as the laws adopted by the Parliament of Georgia on the common-state affairs shall be published in the official gazette of the People’s Council and come into force within a week after it has been published unless the term of entry is otherwise defined.
Executive power
42. The supreme executive organ of Abkhazia shall be the Commissariat of Abkhazia, which is accountable to the People’s Council and its composition shall be determined by the People’s Council.
43. The Commissariat of Abkhazia shall be set up by a person, who is elected by The  People’s Council of Abkhazia l and enters the Commissariat as its Chairman.
44.  The Commissars of Abkhazia are accountable for their performance and instructions.
45.  The supreme representatives of executive power and the public servants take an oath on dedication to the Constitution before taking the position in a form specified for.
46.  Appointment, replacement and dismissal of local public authorities shall be carried out by the Commissariat of Abkhazia, and for the common-state officials – by the Government of Georgia but under the consent of the Commissariat of Abkhazia.
47.  The members of the Commissariat of Abkhazia are accountable only to the People’s Council of Abkhazia.
48.  Every public official is liable to the criminal and civil law for the offenses committed by them while performing their duties.
About judiciary (courts)
49.  The judiciary function shall be carried out by persons and organizations that are not subordinate to the executive power; the judges are irremovable unless otherwise is specified by law.  It’s inadmissible to combine administrative and judiciary functions in one institution or in one person.
Rights and responsibilities of citizens
50.  Every citizen of Abkhazia is equal to the law and no one has the right to violate the law or justify his/her action on the ground of not knowing the law.
51. Any privilege or restriction relating to the social belonging, sex, ethnic origin and religion, as well as the ranks and decorations are annulled.
52.  Everyone arrested in the cities of Abkhazia or other places where the judicial power is established shall be brought before competent court within 24 hours, and if a person in arrested in other places – within 3 days; if the court fails to adjudicate upon the detention, the individual shall immediately be released.
53.  The citizens shall have the right to freedom of assembly and association, as well as of free movement, trade and entrepreneurial activity according the rules provided for by the laws of Abkhazia.
54.  Every citizen shall have the right to freedom of conscience; no one shall be persecuted for religious convictions.
55. Everyone’s life and place of residence shall be inviolable. No one shall be subject of arrest or search otherwise than it is specified for by the law.
56.  The personal correspondence shall be inviolable.
57.  Everyone shall have the right to freedom of speech, press and petition.
58.  The law on citizenship, as well as the conditions and rules for acquisition of the right to citizenship shall be under the competence of the People’s Council of Abkhazia.
59.  In case of discord between the  Abkhaz People’s Council and the Parliament and Government of Georgia in application of this Constitution to the common-state affairs, the issue shall be submitted to the conciliating commission, which consists of the equal number of representatives of the Parliament of Georgia and the People’s Council of Abkhazia.  The decision adopted by the mixed Commission shall be submitted to the Parliament of Georgia and the  Abkhaz People’s Council for approval.
60. The representative of the Government of Georgia shall have authorization at the Government of Abkhazia if he/she foresees the violation of this Constitution in proposals and draft-laws submitted to the  Abkhaz People’s Council in prejudice of the Republic of Georgia; his/her arguments shall be submitted to the Council.  If the Council fails to reach the agreement, the issue shall be submitted to the Commission pursuant to the rule provided for in Article 59.  The decisions adopted by the Council shall not come into force unless such procedure is completed.
Revision, changing and approval of the Constitution.
61.  The Constitution may be revised at any time, in whole or partially.
62.  The partial revision of the Constitution shall be considered as changing or annulment of one or more Articles, or adding the new provision; the revision of the whole of Constitution  represents its replacement by the new Constitution.
63.  The partial revision of the Constitution shall be carried out though the normal legislative procedures upon the request of five deputies of the People’s Council of three thousand electors; the initiators of the revision shall submit the draft of general comments on the changing of Constitution.
64.  The revision of the whole Constitution shall be carried out upon the request of not less than 10 members of the People’s Council or six thousand electors.  The public initiative may be submitted in a form of general comments or in a detailed draft.
65.  The issue on the revision of the Constitution shall be decided at the sitting of the People’s Council attended not less than 2/3 of its members and it shall be deemed to be adopted if 2/3 of present members endorse it.
Concluding provisions
66.  The draft-Constitution adopted by the People’s Council shall be submitted to the conciliating commission pursuant to the rule provided for in Article 59; it shall come into force after the Parliament of Georgia, as well as the  Abkhaz People’s Council has approved the decision adopted by the conciliating commission.
67.  The provisions of the Constitution of the Autonomous Abkhazia, upon endorsement by the  Abkhaz People’s Council and the Constituent Assembly of Georgia, shall be included in the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
68. None of the laws, resolutions or decrees that contravene to the Constitutional provisions shall be published by anyone and they may not have any legal force in Abkhazia.
The head of Chancellery of the People’s Council of Abkhazia: signed
Round Seal of the People’s Council of Abkhazia
(21 July 1919)
(Avtandil Menteshashvili, Historical Preconditions of the Current Separatizm in Georgia, p. 82-89)


LAW on Military Obligation and Recruitment to the Military Forces
Article 1.  The military obligation is universal and personal for every citizen of the Republic.
Note: this Article doesn’t apply to Muslims and Dukhobors.
Article 2.  Every citizen of the Republic, but the exceptions specified for in the law, from the age of 20 to 45 shall discharge the military obligation.
Individuals, which are the subject to discharge the military obligation but do not fit to combatant service, shall be called-up to the Army at the positions relevant to their physical condition or profession.
Note: the Government may apply this Article to Dukhobors.
(…)
29 July 1919
The Senior Comrade of the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly Al. Lomtatidze
Deputy Chairman of the Government of Georgia Evg. Gegechkori
(CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 49, p. 28)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE COMMISSARIAT OF ABKHAZIA on management of the Ortho-
dox Church
The Commissariat of Abkhazia adopted the decision at the session of 1 September 1919:
1. The Cathedral in Sukhumi, the residence of clergyman and the building of the former educational council shall be declared as the property of the Autonomous Abkhazia.
2. The position of Sukhumi archimandrite shall be considered vacant and the measures shall be taken to appoint there the permanent and independent bishop.
3. Before the bishop is elected, the Head of Orthodox Churches of Abkhazia shall be appointed with the residence in Sukhumi.
4. The Head shall be authorized: to replace, appoint and dismiss the clergymen; to examine the monasteries and other church institutions; to establish eparchy at their own discretion.
5. To provide the Head with the residential place of archimandrite and the premises, which previously were at disposal of Sukhumi bishop.
6. To render to the Head the authority on personal management of archimandrite’s house and Dranda Monastery.
7. To entrust the acting Commissar of Internal Affairs I. N. Lortkipanidze with the task of implementing this decision.
Chairman of the Commissariat D. Emukhvari
Acting Commissar of Internal Affairs I. Lortkipanidze
Authentic with original:
Clerk of the Commissariat: K Chanturia (signed)
5 September 1919, Sukhumi
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia; Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 450-451; CSHAG, f. 1863, desc. 1, file 707, p. 2)


MINUTES OF THE SITTING OF THE COMMISSARIAT OF ABKHAZIA    
3 September 1919
Attended: Chairman of the Commissariat D.K. Emukhvari; Commissar of the Internal Affairs, Education and Justice I.N. Lordkipanidze; Clerk of the Commissariat K.G. Chanturia.
Heard: on taking the vacant position of the Head of Abkhaz Churches.
Decided: to appoint archimandrite John as the acting Head of the Abkhaz Orthodox Churches from September 1 retaining at him his current position.
Chairman of the Commissariat: D. Emukhvari
For the  Commissar of  Internal Affairs, Education and Justice I. Lordkipanidze
Authentic with original:
Clerk of the Commissariat K. Chanturia
5 September 1919, Sukhumi
(CSHAG, f. 1863, desc. 1, file 707, p. 3)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
18 September 1919
Heard:
Report by the Chairman of the Commissariat of Abkhazia: on the delegation sent by the  Abkhaz People’s Council and its further activities.
Decided:
1.  The Constitutional Commission sent by the  Abkhaz People’s Council shall meet the Presidium of the Constituent Assembly and ask for discussion of the Constitution of Abkhazia at the earliest possibility.
2.  To inform the Chairman of the  Abkhaz People’s Council that the representatives of independent group may participate in the work of the Constitutional Commission by the deliberative vote, as Georgian Government is not authorized to hold the negotiations with the individuals having no authorization from the People’s Council.  At the same time the Government considers necessary to hear them in order to get the comprehensive idea about vision of the population and different groups of Abkhazia.
For the Chairman of the Government N. Ramishvili
Head of Government Chancellery – K. Japaridze
Secretary – Didebulidze
Authentic with original: clerk (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1938, desc. 1, file 294, p. 23)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
4 October 1919
The report delivered by the Delegation on certain urgent measures that shall be carried out before elaboration of the General Constitution.
Decided:
Having heard the report by the Delegation of the  Abkhaz People’s Council and the vision of the Constitutional Commission of the Constituent Assembly on certain measures for regulating the state life of Abkhazia, the Government of the Republic considers necessary to take the following steps:
1. The Constitutional Commission of the Constituent Assembly shall identify the special commission from its composition including there the representatives of the Constitutional Commission of the  Abkhaz People’s Council on equal footing (the same delegation).  The work done by this mixed Commission shall be submitted to the Constitutional Commission of the Constituent Assembly and later (through this Commission) to the Constituent Assembly.
For the Chairman of the Government Evg. Gegechkori
Head of Chancellery of the Government K. Japaridze
Secretary – D. Didebulidze
Authentic with original: (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1938; desc. 1, file 294, p. 37)

EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SESSION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
14 October 1919
Heard: the Reports by the Chairman of the Government:
b) The draft-regulations on the major competence of Abkhazia elaborated by the parity Commission.
Decided: To endorse in general the draft-regulations on the major competence of Abkhazia.  To advise the parity Commission to deliberate the wording of provisions regarding the Agrarian legislation through discussions with the Head of Agrarian Agency.
(CSHAG, f. 1891, desc. 1, file 1243, p. 2)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
4 November 1919
Heard
The reports by the Ministry of Military Affairs:
c) on release from discharging the military obligations of Abkhazs, regardless their different religious affiliation and on rendering them the right to serve as volunteers.
Decided:
To suspend temporarily the application of Article 1 of the Law on Military Obligations and Recruitment to the Military Forces to the Abkhazs and instead render them the right to serve as volunteers.
Chairman of the Government – N. Zhordania
Head of Government’s Chancellery – K. Japaridze
Secretary – Lomtatidze
Authentic with original – clerk (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1938, des.1, file 294, p. 73)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE SESSION OF THE  PEOPLE’S COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA – discussion with regard of introducing Georgian language at schools.
18 November 1919
V. Anchabadze . . . I know very well that the knowledge of state language is vital important for the public law.  We all agreed that Abkhazia was a part of Georgia as it was declared on 20 March, but they don’t want to make a logical conclusion that learning of Georgian language proceeds from this fact.  Some of deputies meet this issue with certain irritation. We all know that Abkhazia is international country but comprehensive application of Georgian language shall be met with a due understanding.  This issue has its practical meaning.  We are teaching Russian, German and other languages – why?, because it’s good to know the language of your neighbors from the point of cultural and economic interests. No one objects to learning of German.  What language shall we learn, if not Georgian?  This is a language of neighboring nation we linked our destiny with.  When you are against this language, you just don’t understand the principles of the public law.  When you support the application of this language, you understand necessity of its application at our schools. The state language shall be taught – this is axiomatic.
I. Pashalidi. . . I didn’t want to speak about this issue but the deputy Marghania said that I also spoke Georgian.  If he mentioned the Greek language, I could understand him, but here we have discussion about Georgian language. None of languages shall be compulsory in the democratic society.  I first heard this vision from deputy Marghania.  Maybe they are teaching Georgian in a covert manner. Commissariat could introduce Georgian instead of Russian, but it would be the violation of agreement.  Not teaching, the learning is the issue.  Such request has no ground.  The teaching is in Russian, Georgian is a state language – this is evident. It’s crystal clear that introduction of a state language is the absolute necessity.  Why is the Commissariat guilty?  You say – the Decree wasn’t introduced to the People’s Council of Abkhazia.  Where do you see the violation of Council’s rights? If the future generations have a good command in Georgian, is that a violation? if we spoke about Chinese language (laughing) I hope you had no questions.
Lortkipanidze (Commissar of Public Education).  I think that there is some misunderstanding.  It is not enough to say – I’m not against in general.  There is a French proverb: “the tune creates the music”.  Let me reiterate  - there is no imposition at all.  You insisted to introduce Georgian and now you claim why we did a good job without you.  This is a formal side of this issue.  I say again that Georgian is not a foreign language in Abkhazia.  I’ve mentioned already that 1/3 of the population considers Georgian as a native language.  First time I hear that Mengrelians are not Georgian.  Even these local Mengrelians and Abkhazs consider Georgian as the native language and use it as a language of instruction at the primary schools.  What did we do? I’ve already mentioned that it is necessary to introduce Georgian language at the high schools and after third year at gymnasium if we would like to establish the schools of a new type.  If we had done it without you, you would have been right.  It was said that we had violated some agreement.  The agreement is about teaching and paper-work language.  So far Russian is this language.  If we had introduced Georgian as a language of instruction, your question would have had the ground… If you find necessary the learning of Georgia, you have to prove it.  I say again – it’s not the imposition of learning of a foreign language, it’s the issue of learning of a state language.  You have to agree that we were right.
Chairman.  Please put forward your proposals.
I. Pashalidi.  On behalf of the Faction of Social Democrats I would like to propose the Resolution.  Having heard the explanation by the Commissar of Education on introduction of Georgian language, the  Abkhaz People’s Council finds this explanation satisfactory and starts discussing the next issue.
Chairman: there are no other proposals.
Tarnava (special group).  I admit that it’s necessary to introduce Georgian as a language of instruction at schools in Abkhazia, but at the same time the  Abkhaz People’s Council expresses its protest to the arbitrary decision adopted by the Commissariat and refrains from sanctioning this law.
The voting was in favour of the first proposal.  
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia, Abkhazia – the Historical Region of Georgia, p. 454-456)

EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE SESSION OF THE PEOPLE’S COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA
28 November 1919
The financial-economic crisis in Abkhazia has reached the catastrophic edge. The private initiative takes rather chaotic character.  The chemical productions, as well as tobacco enterprises are facing the great difficulties. As a result of the aforementioned the local democracy and the population is in a grave situation.  The local democratic institutions –  Abkhaz People’s Council and its executive body – the Commissariat, as well as the local economic agencies and self-governance bodies fail to fulfill their tasks.  The urgent and decisive measures are necessary to improve the situation.
Proceeding from the aforementioned, the People’s Council of Abkhazia, the local legislative organ considers the following steps to be taken in order to promote the issues relating to the cultural-economic development of Abkhazia:
1. To permit the Commissariat of Abkhazia to export in foreign countries not less than 50 000 pood (1 pood=16,38 kg.) of tobacco leaf, nuts and wine.
2. To permit the Commissariat of Abkhazia to produce and export the wood.
3. To give the right to the Commissariat to monopolize the maize, hay, bean and pork production.
4. The government of the Republic of Georgia shall provide the loan of 10 million roubles with the right to cover it in equal portions from the year of 1922.
5. To regulate the public-values, lands and cultural enterprises located on the territory of Abkhazia, which are now almost deteriorated.
6. The production on behalf of the state shall be under the competence of the Commissariat of Abkhazia;  the Commissariat shall base its operation on the local democratic government – the public and city governing agencies.
Once again we reiterate that the aforementioned measures are necessary for promoting the cultural-economic condition in Abkhazia, which is the autonomous part of the Democratic Republic of Georgia.  For negotiating of these issues with the Government, the  Abkhaz People’s Council nominates the delegation composed of the following representatives: V. G. Gurjua, M. I. Berulava, M. I. Tarnava, I. N. Marghania and G. K. Kvaratskhelia.
The mentioned delegation is authorized to negotiate the aforementioned items with the Government of the Republic of Georgia.
At the same time, the  Abkhaz People’s Council asks the representative of the Government of Georgia I. I. Ramishvili for assistance to this delegation.
Original with relevant signatures. (Sealed).
Authentic with original: Head of Chancellery of the People’s Council of Abkhazia. (Signed).
(CSHAG, f. 1833, desc.1, file 645, p. 7; ibidem, f. 1862, desc. 2, file 120, p. 29)

DECREE on assigning 200 000 rubles as the scholarship for Muslim pupils of Georgia, as
well as for the pupils of Abkhazia, Svaneti and other remote regions of Georgia
1. To assign two hundred thousand (200 000) roubles from the state treasury at disposal of the Minister of Public Education as the scholarship for Muslim pupils of Georgia, as well as for the pupils of Abkhazia, Svaneti and other remote regions of Georgia.
2. To entrust the Minister of Public Education with the task of elaborating the general rules and norms for distribution of scholarship mentioned in Article 1.
3. This Decree shall come into force after its adoption by the Constituent Assembly.
13 December 1919
The original is signed by:
Comrade of the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia l. Lomtatidze
The Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia N. Zhordania
(Collection of Laws and Decrees adopted by the Government, #22, 1920, p. 427)


EXTRACT EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTING OF THE GOVERNMENT
OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
20 December 1919
Heard:
The report by the Minister of Agriculture:
a) Interim Regulations on Agrarian Reforms and state-land management in Abkhazia.
Decided:
To approve the Interim Regulations submitted by the Minister of Agriculture
Chairman of the Government N. Zhordania
Head of Chancellery of the Government: K. Japaridze
Secretary – Lomtatidze
Authentic with original: clerk – (Signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1891, desc.1, file 1243, p. 67)


The Interim Regulations on Agrarian Reforms and the state-land management in Abkhazia.
From now and on, until elaboration of the Constitution of Abkhazia, the following Regulations will be in force for the agrarian reforms:
The Commissariat of Abkhazia shall be authorized to carry out the agrarian reforms and manage the valuable lands in Abkhazia through its Department of Agriculture.
The Head of Agrarian Department and other officials, as well as the managers of the valuable lands shall be appointed by the Commissariat of Abkhazia upon the consent of the Ministry of Agriculture.
1. The Agricultural Department shall submit the reports to the Commissariat of Abkhazia and the monthly reports - to the Ministry of Agriculture.
2. For implementation of agrarian reforms, the target group shall be set up at the Department of Agriculture.
3. The state valued lands shall be received through the speedy procedures by three-member special commission set up by the Department of Agriculture.
Note: for receiving the state lands the sub-commission shall be set up in the same composition.
6. For management of the state valuable lands the Commissariat of Abkhazia shall elaborate the expenditures and economic plans, which shall be submitted to the Ministry of Agriculture.
7. The tax rate from the revenues obtained from the valuable lands shall be determined upon common ground together with other lands without pre-determination of the Commissariat’s share.
8. Agrarian-economic school will be open in one of the state valuable land aimed at raising the agrarian experience among the population.
9. The Department of Agriculture shall carry out the general supervision over the officials working at the experimental horticultural station and local forest department; the information about their activity shall be submitted to the Ministry of Agriculture.
10. The Commissariat of Abkhazia shall submit to the  Abkhaz People’s Council and the Ministry of Agriculture the relevant draft-laws and proposals on the unforeseen issues raised in the course of agrarian reform for further submission to the Government and the Constituent Assembly.
20 December 1919
(CSHAG, f.1861, desc. 1, file 200, p. 1)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
23 December 1919
Heard: the report by the Minister of Finance on introduction the duties to the tobacco exported by the Commissariat of Abkhazia.
Decided:
The duties on tobacco export determined by the Commissariat of Abkhazia shall not be collected from now and on as those duties haven’t been approved by the legislative body.
The Minister of Finance shall draw-up the relevant letter to the Commissariat of Abkhazia.
The Decision shall come into force before approval of the Gazette.
(CSHAG, f. 1861, desc. 1, file 9, p. 637)


DECREE on assigning three million roubles to the People’s Council of Abkhazia
1. To assign from the state treasury three million (3 000 000) roubles at disposal of the Ministry of Interior as a loan for the People’s Council of Abkhazia.
2. The loan specified for in Article 1 shall be given to the ministry of Interior in certain portions from 1 January 1920 within three months upon the consent of the Ministry of Finances.
3. The Peoples’ Council of Abkhazia shall start recovering the debt from 1 January 1922 therefore paying two hundred and fifty thousand (250 000) roubles on January 1 and July 1, unless the whole debt of 250 000 roubles is recovered.
4. The Decree shall come into force from the day of its adoption by the Constituent Assembly.
31 December 1919
Comrade of the Constituent Assembly Al. Lomtatidze
Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia Evg. Gegechkori
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika”, #10, 15 January 1920; CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 645, p. 20)
1920

RESOLUTION OF the People’s Council of Abkhazia on the situation in Batumi and
Batumi Oblast adopted by the
19 March 1920
Having discussed the situation of the population of Batumi and Batumi Oblast, the People’s Council of Abkhazia at its session on 19 March – on the first anniversary of its existence, unanimously decided to make the following appeal to the Constituent Assembly of the Republic of Georgia and to the High Commissioner of Great Britain to Antanta:  The  Abkhaz People’s Council always considered the Brest-Lithuanian Peace-Agreement as a devastating factor to the democratic developments; under this Agreement the part of the Trans-Caucasus, together with Batumi was given to the despotic regime of Turkey, which fortunately so far failed to rule-out this historically Georgian province.  In early 1918 when Batumi fell down, as well as now the population of Abkhazia and the  People’s Council of Abkhazia realize the political and economic significance of the oblast and city for the Democratic Republic and having the benefit from the peaceful coexistence with the Democratic Georgia, stand ready to apply every possible means together with the rest of population of Georgia to bring this region back to the Republic and reunite forcibly separated Batumi Oblast with Georgia.
For the Chairman – T. Kvaratskhelia
Secretary – K. Akirtava
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia; Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 457-458)


DECREE on assigning one million roubles every month for the needs of the Commissariat
of Abkhazia
1. To assign from the state treasury from 1 January until 1 June of 1920 one million roubles at disposal of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for covering the expenses of the Commissariat of Abkhazia.
2. This Decree shall come into force form the day of its adoption by the Constituent Assembly.
Comrade of the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly Al. Lomtatidze
Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia Evg. Gegechkori
6 April 1920
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika“, N 82, 15 April 1920)


TREATY BETWEEN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA  AND THE RUSSIAN
SOCIALIST SOVIET FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC
May 7, 1920
The Democratic Republic of Georgia and the Russian Socialist Soviet Federation Republic animated by a common desire to establish stable and peaceful relations between the two countries, in order to assure the well-being of the populations of the respective countries have for that purpose decided to conclude a special treaty, and have appointed as plenipotentiaries:
the Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia – Mr. Gregoire Ourotadze, and the government of the Russian Socialist Soviet Republic – Mr. Leon Mikhailovich Karakhan, Assistant Commissar of Foreign Affairs, who after communicating to each other their full powers found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following articles:
Article I
Based on the right proclaimed by the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic of all peoples to fully dispose of themselves to the extent of and including total withdrawal from the state of which they form a part, Russia recognizes without reservations the independence and the sovereignty of the Georgian State, and voluntarily renounces all sovereign rights which belonged to Russia with respect to the Georgian people and territory.
Article II
Based on the principles proclaimed in the foregoing Article I Russia agrees to renounce all intervention in the internal affairs of Georgia.
Article III
1. The state boundary between Georgia and Russia runs from the Black Sea, along the Psou River to Mount Akhakhtcha, crosses Mount Akhakhtcha and Mount Agapet, follows the southern boundary of the former Black Sea Governments Koutais and Tiflis, to the Zakataly district and the eastern boundary of the said district to the Armenian frontier.
2. All the passes situated on the above-mentioned boundary line are declared neutral until January 1, 1922. They can neither be occupied by the troops of either of the said parties.
3. As regards Darial pass ,neutralization provided for in paragraph 2 of the present article will apply to that part of the hill comprised between Balta and Kobi to Mamisson pass; from Zaramag to Oni; and, to all the other passes, for a distance of five versts on each side of the boundary line.
4. The exact direction of the state boundary between the two contracted parties will be determined by a special joint boundary commission, composed of an equal number of representatives of each party. The results of the work of this commission will be embodied in a special treaty to be concluded between the two contracting parties.
Article IV
1. In addition to those parts of the Black Sea Government awarded to Georgia by a provisions of paragraph 1 of Article III of the present treaty, Russia agrees, without reservations, to recognize as being comprised in the Georgian State the following governments and regions of the former Russian Empire: Tiflis Koutais, and Batum, with all the districts forming the said governments and regions, and also the Zakataly and Soukhoum districts.
2. As soon as relations are established hereafter between Georgia and states of other than Russia-states already existing or that may be formed subsequently and bordering Georgia by other frontiers than those defined in Article III of the present treaty, Russia declares herself ready to recognize as belonging to Georgia such or much other part of the former vice royalty of Caucasus as may accrue to her by a virtue of treaties concluded with these states.
Article V
Acceding to Russia’s demand to effect that there shall not be tolerated henceforth any military operations, quartering of troops , nor any other acts likely to create a situation on Georgian territory which might threaten her independence or be capable of transforming Georgia’s territory into a base of operations directed against the public order there established, Georgia agrees:
1. To immediately disarm and intern in consecration camps on military or naval units, departments, and groups having pretension to the role of Government of Russia or of her allies- who may be on Georgia territory at the time of the signature of the present Treaty or who may subsequently enter her territory.
2. To immediately disarm and intern the naval vessels belonging to the organizations and groups mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present article, which may be in the ports of Georgia, and also any vessels, which for any reason whatsoever may be in these parts at the disposal other said organizations and groups, The provisions of paragraph 1 of the present article apply in their entirely to the crews of the said vessels.
3. To hand over to Russia without charge, and with out demanding any compensations all, military and naval supplies without exception, all securities and funds which may be on the possession, enjoyment, or at the disposal of the organizations and groups mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present article, and which in accordance with paragraph 1 and 2 of the same Article, are to be placed at Georgia’s disposal. By the terms of the present paragraph the following shall be considered as military and naval war materials: Vessels and other floating material; all artillery, commissary (including stocks of provisions and equipment), engineering, and aviation material in general.
4. To deliver to Russia, after disarmament, the units, organizations, and groups, as well as the crews, mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present article.
Note: Russia agrees to spare the lives of all those who may be delivered to her in accordance with the present article.
5. To take measures to send away from the Georgian territory comprised within the boundaries fixed by Article IV of the present treaty all troops and military detachments not forming part of the national troops of Georgia.
6. To take steps to forbid the sojourning hereafter on Georgian territory of the troops and military detachments mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present Article.
7. To forbid any person belonging  to the units, organizations and groups enumerated in paragraphs 1 and 5 of the present article, in so far as said persons are not of Georgian nationality, to enter, in any capacity whatsoever, among others, as volunteers, the troops of the Government of Georgia.
8. Not to permit henceforth the formation and sojourn on her territory within the boundaries fixed in Article IV of the present Treaty, of any troops and organizations pretending to the role of Government of Russia or any part thereof, or to the  role of Government of Russia or that of her allies; Georgia also agrees not to permit the transportation by the above-mentioned organizations, groups, representations, and functionaries across Georgian territory, of anything that could be utilized to attack Russia or her allies , and also to prohibit the sojourn in her ports and waters of vessels and other floating material belonging to the said organizations, except in the case of vessels in distress and other cases provided for by international law.
9. In case the organizations, groups, representatives, or functionaries mentioned in the foregoing paragraph 8 of the present Article should attempt to violate the interdiction stipulated in the said paragraph 8, proceeding will be taken with respect to the persons and property that the Georgian Government undertakes to arrest in accordance with the terms of paragraph 8 of the present Article as stipulated in paragraphs 3 and 4 of the said Article.
Article VI
Russia agrees not to permit on her territory the sojourn and the activity of any group or organization pretending to her role of the Government o Georgia, or any part of thereof, nor of any group and organization seeking to overthrow the Government of Georgia. Russia agrees to use all her influence with her allies to the end that the groups and organizations mentioned in the present Article shall not be admitted to this territory.
Article VII
In order to avoid any misunderstanding , the two contracting parties agree that at the time of the execution of paragraph 5 and 6 of Article V of the present Treaty in the parts of the territory accruing to Georgia by the terms of paragraph 2 of Article  IV of the said Treaty, after the delimitation of the frontiers of Georgia and neighboring countries other than Russia, the necessary measures of security in these cases shall be taken by Georgia within the shortest possible time, once she shall have assumed formal exercise of her sovereignty in such or such of the said territories.
Article VIII
A joint commission, composed of an equal number of representatives of each party hereto, shall be appointed to see to the strict enforcement of Articles V and VI of the present Treaty and to the delivery and reception of the persons and property stipulated in paragraphs 3 and 4 of the said Article V. The commission shall itself determine its method of procedure. The delivery and the reception of the persons and property specified in paragraphs 3 and 4 of the said Article V of the present Treaty shall be affected within a period of two months from the date of the signature of the said Treaty.
Article IX
1. Persons of Georgian origin, residing on Russian territory, and having reached the age of 18 years, shall have the right to choose Georgian nationality. Likewise, persons, not of Georgian origin, residing on Georgian territory, and having attained the age above mentioned, shall be entitled to opt for Russian nationality.
2. The details relative to the enforcement of the present Article shall be embodied in a special agreement to be concluded between the two contracting parties.
3. The nationals of the two contracting parties, who desire to take advantage of the rights conferred on them by the provisions of the present Article, shall be required to comply with the formalities to which they are subjected, within one year from the date of the coming into force of the convention mentioned in the foregoing paragraph 2.
Article X
Georgia agrees to release from penalties imposed and from administrative or legal prosecution, all persons subject to such proceeding on Georgian territory, because of acts committed in the interest of the Russian Socialist Soviet Republic or the interest of the Communist party.
Note: Georgia agrees to release immediately all persons imprisoned for the above-mentioned acts.
Article XI
Each of the contracting parties agrees to recognize and to respect the flag and the arms of the other party hereto, as being the emblem of a friendly state. The designs of the flags and the arms, as well as any changes that may subsequently be made therein, shall be communicated to the respective parties through diplomatic channels.
Article XII
Pending the conclusions between the two contracting parties, of a treaty of ecommerce, the necessary measures for which will be taken as soon as possible, the economic relations between Georgia and Russia shall be regulated provisionally in accordance with the following general arrangement:
1. The two contracting parties lay down, as the basis of the commercial relations, the principle of the most favored nation.
2. Goods whose origin or destination is one of the contracting parties shall not be subjected by the other party to any duty or transit tax.
Article XIII
The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of the foregoing Article XII shall serve as the basis of the treaty of commerce which is to be concluding between the contracting parties, in accordance with the terms of the said Article XII.
Article XIV
Diplomatic and consular relations between Georgia and Russia shall be established as soon as possible. Pending the conclusion by the two contracting parties of a special convention regulating the law relative to consult of the respective contracting parties, the necessary measures for the drafting of which will be taken, the rights of obligations of the said officials shall be determined by the rules in force in that connection with each of the contracting parties.
Article XV
The settlement of questions arising in the domain of public of private rights between the citizens of the two contracting parties and the settlement of certain special questions between the two States shall be entrusted to special Russo – Georgian joint commissions, which shall be appointed as soon as possible after the signature of the present treaty. The compositions, rights and the duties of the said commissions shall be determined by special instructions drawn up for each commission as may be agreed upon by the two contracting parties. The jurisdiction of the said commissions shall extend, among other matters, to the following:
1. Formulation of the Treaty of commerce and other economic agreements.
2. Settlement of questions concerning the distribution of the archives and the disposition of current matters, administration and legal records, and social State documents in the formal central institutions.
3. Settlement of the question of the method of utilization, possession, and disposition of the Batum – Baku pipe line in respect to that part of it which, by virtue of Article IV of the present Treaty is situated on Georgian territory. This question shall be settled ultimately by means of a special agreement between the two contracting parties.
Article XVI
The present Treaty becomes effective from the very fact of its signature, without any special ratification being necessary. In witness where of the plenipotentiaries of the two parties have with their own hands signed the present treaty and affixed thereunto their seals.
Done in duplicate at Moscow on the 7th of May, 1920.
Signatures:
G. Ouratadze.
L. Karakhan.
(Democratic Republic of Georgia. 1918-1921. Three historic documents, p. 101-108)


RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE  PEOPLE’S COUNCIL OF ABKHAZIA on recognition
of the independence of Georgia by Russia
18 May 1920
Having heard the information by the Chairman of the Commissariat on Peace-Agreement concluded with Russia and on the other hand the sad news about attack of the troops of Azerbaijan at the border of the Republic, the Peoples Council of Abkhazia welcomes the attempt of restoring the friendly relations with the Democratic Russia, as well as the measures taken by the Republic for protecting the country from Turkish troops and stand ready to apply every possible means for supporting the extraordinary measures taken by the government.
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia; Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 459)


MANDATE
21 May 1920
Based on the Decision adopted by the  Abkhaz People’s Council of 21 May of this year, the bearers of this Mandate: 1) Varlaam Shervashidze; 2) Grigoriy Zukhbai; 3) Dmitriy Zakharov; 4) Dmitriy Emukhvari; 5) Vionor Anchabadze and 6) Mikhail Tarnava shall be sent to Tbilisi as the delegation to participate in elaboration of the Constitution of Abkhazia.
The Delegation is instructed to base its work on the draft-Constitution elaborated by the Council and uphold the maximum of autonomous rights of Abkhazia.
(Avtandil Menteshashvili; Historical Preconditions of the Current Separatism in Georgia, p. 79)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTING OF THE PREZIDIUM OF THE CON-
STITUENT ASSEMBLY
23 June 1920
(…)
Chaired by Al. Lomtatidze
Secretary K. Japaridze
The discussed issue:
On publication of the law in the language of national minority in addition of the publication in the state language.
(…)
Decision: Having heard the conclusion by the legal commission on application of the member of the Constituent Assembly Paul Bulli, the Presidium considers necessary to declare the following:
The Presidium shares the opinion that every law shall be published in the language understandable to each citizen of the country.
But the question comes how to realize this principle – to deliver the law to each citizen without any discrepancies.
The Legal Commission considers desirable to publish the laws in a language understandable to national minorities and the Government should organize it.
Of course here we mean translation of the laws into the languages of different minorities residing in Georgia, or into one language that is understandable for all of the national minorities.
The Presidium considers impossible to translate and publish  the laws in several languages.
In order to accept the proposal of the Legal Commission, even if the Ossetians and others will not be taken into account the laws shall be translated at least into three languages: Armenian, Azeri and Russian as there are quite large communities of these nations in Georgia.
It goes without saying that the state agency responsible for translation will not be able to provide correct and accurate translation in Armenian and Azery languages.
Problem is not to find interpreter; the translation shall be checked by the authorized official who will take responsibility for accuracy, as well as for proper interpretation of the provisions.
The Presidium considers that at the current state it will not be possible to find such an official.  Without such authorization the translation of laws may lay ground to the misinterpretation of the laws.
As for the Russian language, there is the least impediment in translating.  But in this case the major principle, i.e. translation of laws into the language understandable for all of the national minorities will be unfeasible.  First of all Russians know the Russian language, also some small groups of Armenians and Azeries, i.e. intelligentsia.  But the wider layers of both nations have poor command in Russian and they fail to understand the laws while reading without interpretation into their own language.
Therefore the situation for the most part of the national minorities remains as it was before, i.e. the laws will be published only in the state language.  At the same time it should be mentioned that the workers in the city and the farmers in the villages have better command in Georgian rather than in Russian.
As for translating the laws into Russian for Russians and those minorities who speak Russian, the difficulties still exist but it’s possible to overcome them.
The major obstacle still is the responsibility for accuracy of the translation.
It’s difficult itself to draw up the clear and comprehended law in original and of course the translation is much more difficult.  Therefore translating the laws from one language into another is a risky business.
It’s easy to assume that mistake in translation may lay the ground to misinterpretation and hazy ideas. Consequently we will be facing the breach of legal principles, as well as the deterioration of substantive interests.  Who will be responsible for this?  Of course the state as the state shall be accountable for the conduct of public officials.
Another practical issue also shall be underlined.
The Georgian legislation is rather young yet and the legal language and legal mentality shall pass the long way until they achieve the necessary form and wording.
If in this process of development simultaneously to Georgian the Russian language will be used, which is already developed in this field and has its form, evidently the Georgian language will be oppressed.
Today many of the legal acts are just translated from Russian original and the alien spirit and Russian mentality are vividly demonstrated there. In Georgian they sound rather strange in a form of questions and answers.
If translating the laws into Russian is obligatory, evidently the laws will be written in Russian and the Georgian original actually will be the translation.
Proceeding from the aforementioned the Presidium concludes that the laws shall be published only in the state language, as it is in practice now.
With this the Presidium underlines that distribution of laws in other languages is the business of private publishers.  The National Councils of different nations residing in Georgia may provide a good service to minorities in this issue and the Government should assist the relevant organizations in this endeavour.
Chairman (signed)
Secretary (signed)
(CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 726, p. 3-5; ibidem, file 712a, p. 231-233)


DRAFT-AGREEMETN of the Parity Commission on the major provisions for the manage-
ment of Abkhazia
1. Abkhazia is the autonomous part of the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
2. The Autonomous Abkhazia, in addition to the legislative organ and the legislation of the Democratic Republic of Georgia shall have its local legislative Assembly – the  People’s Council of Abkhazia elected through universal, direct and equal elections by secret ballot suffrage.
3. The members of the  People’s Council of Abkhazia shall the same rights and privileges as the members of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia granted them under the Decree of 9 May 1919.
4. Abkhazia shall represent the separate electoral district at the elections of the legislative organ of Georgia and enjoy the proportional representation in this organ.
5. Commissariat on management of Abkhazia shall exercise the executive power in Abkhazia.
6. The terms of convocation and duration of sessions of the People’s Council, as well as the Regulations on executive organ (Commissariat) shall be determined by the People’s Council of Abkhazia.
7.  The  People’s Council of Abkhazia shall have the right to initiate the legislation.
8. The members of the People’s Council, representative of the executive power, as well as all the public officials shall take the oath and draw up the warrant on dedication to the laws of the Republic and the Autonomous Abkhazia.
9. The People’s Council shall have the right to adopt the laws on all of the issues, including: domestic affairs, tax and customs system, establishment of common courts and Senate, civil, criminal and national legislation, post, telegraph, railway of a common-state importance.
10. The  People’s Council of Abkhazia shall have the right to introduce the taxes, form its own budget and finances established by the law of the Republic.
11. In the sphere of land management the  People’s Council of Abkhazia shall have the right increase or reduce the land taxes and the conditions on rendering the lands to the working class pursuant to the common agrarian laws and Decrees issued by the Republic.
12. The lands, estates, entrails having the common-state status and are not the subject to distribution is the property of the Republic and they shall be managed and utilized by the  Abkhaz People’s Council under general guidance and control of the Central power.
13. The central power of the Republic shall exercise the control through its plenipotentiary representative on compliance of the legal acts and Decrees issued by the  People’s Council of Abkhazia with the common-laws of the Republic.
14. In case of incompatibility of the legal acts and Decrees issued by the Peoples Council of Abkhazia with the laws of the Republic, the Central Government shall be authorized to terminate the validity of those documents within 15 days after publication and submit them to the Senate for discussion.
15. Georgian shall be the general state language in Abkhazia, but the  People’s Council of Abkhazia has the right to introduce the language of instruction at educational establishments and the language of paperwork at the state and public organizations at its own discretion.
16. The rights and responsibilities, as well as the civil rights and freedoms of citizens on the territory of Abkhazia shall be secured under the common laws of the Republic.
Authentic with original: Head of Chancellery of the People’s Council of Abkhazia; sealed.
7 July 1920
(Tamaz Nadareishvili, David Chitaia, Paata Davitaia; Problem of Separatism in Georgia; p. 229-231; CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 865, p. 11)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTING OF THE PREZIDIUM OF THE CON-
STITUENT ASSEMBLY
of  26 July 1920
The discussed issue:
Application submitted by the Delegation of the  Abkhaz People’s Council on requesting for the following changes to the Constitution: 1) To render the Autonomous Rights to Abkhazia, 2) To render the legislative power to Abkhazia and 3) Administrative arrangement and its management shall be carried out by the autonomous organ of Abkhazia.
Decision:
To submit the proposals to the Constitutional Commission for final conclusion.
Authentic with original
Head of Chancellery – signed
(CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 863, p. 33)


DECREE on assigning the loan of 4 000 000 roubles to Sukhumi city governance.
1. To assign from the state treasury the loan of four million (4 000 000) roubles at disposal of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the Sukhumi City Governance with 3.5 percent of interest for the term of two years.
2. The amount specified for in Article 1 shall be repaid to the state treasury annually by Sukhumi City Governance from the day of issuing the loan through paying the equal portions of interests.
3. The loan provided under this Decree shall be recovered by the City Governance from the revenues obtained through the per-pound taxation.
4. This Decree shall come into force from the day it is adopted by the Constituent Assembly.
10 August 1920
Comrade of the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly Al. Lomtatidze
Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Georgia Evg. Gegechkori
(Newspaper “Sakartvelos Respublika”, N 184, 17 August 1920)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTING OF THE PREZIDIUM OF THE CON-
STITUENT ASSEMBLY
10 August 1920
The discussed issue:
1. The notification N 46 of 10 August of this year by the Constitutional Commission states the following:
“- the Constitutional Commission has discussed the application submitted by the Delegation of Abkhazia addressed to the Presidium of the Constituent Assembly and has the following vision:
the provisions on Abkhazia represent the part of the common Constitution of the Republic and proceeds from it; it’s inadmissible to recognize this or that principle of it until the Constitution is finally adopted,
2) Inclusion of the issues stated in the application into the agenda of the Constituent Assembly is not in accord with the Regulations of the Parliament and it would be rather artificial,
3) The principle of the autonomy is recognized by the Constitution of the Republic and its inviolability is fully secured, and
4) The Regulations on the Autonomy of Abkhazia will be heard at the sitting of the Constituent Assembly right after the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic; therefore the motion by the Delegation of Abkhazia shall not be admitted.
Decision:
To take the notification as information and communicate it to the factions.
Authentic with original.
Head of the Chancellery – signed
(CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 863, p. 35)


(To the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia)
29 October 1920
The People’s Council of Abkhazia, at its sitting on 16 October of this year discussed the draft Constitution of the Autonomous Abkhazia and decided: “to delegate to the Constituent Assembly of Georgia the following members of the Council: 1) Varlam Shervashidze, 2) Ivan Pashalidi, 3) Dmitriy Zakharov, 4) Vasiliy Gurjua, 5) Mikheil Ubiria, 6) Mikheil Tarnava, 7) Mikheil Tsaguria, 8) Mikheil Berulava and 9) Dmitriy Alania for joint work on the draft-Constitution of the Autonomous Abkhazia; the Delegation shall base its work on the Act adopted on 20 March 1919 and the given draft of the Constitution”.
All of the Articles of the attached draft-Constitution are adopted unanimously except of Articles 5, 7, 9 and 10, which are adopted in two versions.
Attached: Draft-Constitution of the Autonomous Abkhazia adopted by the  Abkhaz People’s Council at its sitting on 16 October 1920.
Comrade of the Chairman: Akirtava (signed)
Head of the Chancellery: (signed)
(CSHAG, 1833, desc. 1, file 865, p. 1)

DRAFT CONSTITUTION of the Autonomous Abkhazia
Adopted by the Peoples Council of Abkhazia at its session on 16 October 1920
On the basis of the Act adopted by the  Abkhaz People’s Council on 20 March 1919 on entering Abkhazia the Democratic Republic of Georgia as the autonomous entity and in accordance with Article 120 and 121 of the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Georgia on . . . 1920, the following Constitution of the Autonomous Abkhazia has been elaborated.
Chapter I.
General provisions
Art. 1.  Abkhazia, with the frontiers: from the north-west to the south-east from the River Makhadir to the River Engur and from the south to the north from the Black Sea shore to the Caucasus Chain bordering with Kuban and Terek Oblasts – enters the Democratic Republic of Georgia as the autonomous entity and in the field of legislation and management it is independent if otherwise is specified for by this Constitution.
Art. 2.  The territory of Abkhazia within the mentioned borders is indivisible.
Chapter II
Legislative Power
Art. 3.  The Legislative Assembly shall be the legislative organ of Abkhazia elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by ballot based on the principle of proportional representation for a term of three years by the citizens, who attained the age of 20 irrespective of sex.
Art. 4.  All lands and property on the territory of Abkhazia, as well as the population residing on the territory of Abkhazia shall be under the jurisdiction of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.
Art. 5. The matters not falling within the jurisdiction of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia are as follows:
1) Supreme policy.
2) Military forces.
3) Military-navy affairs.
4) Civil and Criminal legislation.
5) Common judiciary system (District Court, Court Chamber and Senate).
6) Port management
7) The first version has been adopted by not-qualified majority (19 votes)
Financial and monetary system.
Note: the right on taxation in Abkhazia is under sole jurisdiction of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.
Second version has been adopted by 12 votes.
Financial and monetary system.  The Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia receives the banknotes from the Central Government upon special agreement.
Note:  the right on taxation in Abkhazia is under sole jurisdiction of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.
8) Customs system.
Note: the customs rates on the items exported from Abkhazia shall be determined on the basis of agreement between the legislative organs of Georgia and Abkhazia.
9) Management of post and telegraph.
10) Management of rail and ordinary roads of all-state importance.
Note: the division of rail and ordinary roads into all-state and local significance shall be carried out on the basis of special agreement between Georgia and Abkhazia.
Art. 6. The Matters under jurisdiction of the Legislative Assembly of the Autonomous Abkhazia:
1) Adoption of laws on all issues except of those specified for in Article 5.
2) Finance: budget, taxation, credits.
3) Public education: primary, secondary and high education on the territory of Abkhazia and the entire cultural development.
4) Organs of local self-governance: cities and districts.
5) Mediating judges and the rules of their appointment.
6) Protection of individual and public security and order.
7) Administration.
8) Public health and veterinary.
9) Roads.
10) Consideration of reports on appropriation of local assignments.
11) Solving the issues on alienation of private estates for public and cultural needs on the basis of common laws of the Republic.
Art. 7.  In addition to the matters specified for in Article 6 the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia is authorized to determine the size of land lots and the rules for transferring the land to the working people on the basis of rules established by the agrarian legislation of the Republic.
Art. 8. The issues on resettlement and settlement in Abkhazia shall be decided by the legislative Assembly of the Autonomous Abkhazia.
Art. 9. The first version is adopted by non-qualified majority (19 votes).
The lands, cultural-valuable estates, climatic stations, mineral and salubrious waters, water energy facilities, as well as forest shall not be subject of distribution and represent the public property under jurisdiction of the legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.  The bowels of state significance shall be under jurisdiction of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia in accordance to the common law of the Republic.
Second version, adopted by 12 votes.
The lands, cultural-valuable estates, climatic stations, mineral and salubrious waters, forest and bowels shall be under jurisdiction and at disposal of the legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.
Art. 10. The first version adopted by non-qualified majority (19 votes).
The concession at any type of enterprise and exploitation of natural resources shall be competence of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.  With regard of bowels the mutual agreement between Georgia and Abkhazia is necessary.
Second version adopted by 12 votes.
The concession at any type of enterprise and exploitation of natural resources shall be competence of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.
Art. 11.  Introduction and revocation of monopoly on the production of items in Abkhazia shall be under authority of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.
Art. 12. Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia has the right to export the trade items from the Republic; the Legislative Assembly shall harmonize its legislation in this field with the common financial policy of the Republic.
Art. 13. All revenues from all-state institutions and expenses for maintaining the organizations dealing with the all-state affairs shall be divided between Georgia and Abkhazia upon agreement concluded annually between the Legislation Assembly of Abkhazia and Central Legislative Organ.
Art. 14. Formation of military forces in Abkhazia shall be carried out on the common basis with Georgia in accordance of principle of territorial recruitment discharging the military obligation in Abkhazia except the cases when the whole state is under the threat.  These troops shall be under command of Georgian military leadership.  Withdrawal of military units from the territory of Abkhazia in peace-time may be exercised upon special decision of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.
Art. 15. On the territory of Abkhazia, the legislative Assembly of Abkhazia has the right to choose the language of instruction and paper-work at every state, judicial and public institutions and at the territorial-military units at its own discretion.
Art. 16. The legislative Assembly of Abkhazia for the elections to the Assembly determines the number of Deputies.
Art. 17. The legislative Assembly of Abkhazia shall verify whether the elections were conducted in a proper manner and approve the electoral proceedings.
Art. 18. The legislative Assembly of Abkhazia shall elect its Presidium and be guided in its activity by the Statute.
Art. 19. The Sessions of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia shall be public, but the Assembly is authorized to close the sitting for certain issues.
Art. 20. The terms and duration of the sessions of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia, as well as the statute of the Executive organ shall be elaborated by the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.
Art. 21. The legislative Assembly of Abkhazia shall be convoked:
1. by the Government of Abkhazia not later that within two weeks after elections are completed;
2. by the presidium of previous Assembly to the new session.
Art. 22. The law and Resolutions adopted by the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia, as well as the laws of the Central Executive Organ on common issues shall be promptly published in official gazette of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia come into force within a week from the day of promulgation unless otherwise has been decided with regard of the term of enactment.
Art. 23. The Organ of the Central state authority shall be informed about laws and Resolutions of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia right after they have been published.  In the event of discrepancies between this Constitution and the Laws and Resolutions adopted by the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia, the organ of central state authority shall submit them to the Senate within 15 days from the day of adoption.  The preliminary suspension of the laws subject to protest shall be decided by the Senate of Abkhazia.
Art. 24. The legislative Assembly of Abkhazia is inviolable and only the Assembly is authorized to make decision on pre-term dissolution and appointing of new elections.  Any infringement upon inviolability of the legislative Assembly by any individual or organization is punishable by law as treason.
Art. 25. The right to initiate local legislation is vested in the Government of Abkhazia, deputies of the legislative Assembly and not less than 5000 electors.
Art. 26. The legislative Assembly of Abkhazia is obliged to put the law, adopted by it, to the nationwide discussion (referendum) if 5000 voters request for it in written form.  The procedure for referendum shall be determined by law.
Art. 27. The members of the legislative Assembly of Abkhazia shall have the following rights and privileges: the members of the legislative Assembly of Abkhazia shall not be prosecuted for the visions and ideas expressed by them while exercising their function; the member of the Legislative Assembly is inviolable; arrest of or criminal prosecution against a member of the Legislative Assembly is prohibited without consent of the Assembly, unless he is caught in the act of committing a crime. The Legislative assembly shall be promptly informed about such event and a member of the legislative Assembly, arrested or subject of criminal prosecution, shall be released upon decision of the legislative Assembly.
Art. 28. A member of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia shall have the right not to gi­ve a statement regarding the facts he has got acquainted with while exercising his function as a member of the legislative Assmebly.  He shall retain this right when he is not a deputy any mo­re.
Art. 29. Members of the legislative Assembly of Abkhazia may not take an office upon appointment of the Executive power of Abkhazia.
Art. 30. Members of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia shall get remuneration fixed by the Executive power of Abkhazia.
Art. 31. At the elections of the Legislative organ of Georgia, Abkhazia shall represent the separate electoral District and enjoy the proportionate representation in this organ.
Art. 32. The Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia has the right to initiate legislation at the Central Legislative Organ within the scope of common legislation.
Chapter III
Executive power
Art. 33. The Government of the Autonomous Abkhazia shall be the supreme executive organ of Abkhazia elected by the Legislative Assembly.  The executive organ shall continue its functioning until the convocation of the new Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia and electing the new Government.
Art. 34. The members of the Government of Abkhazia are accountable and responsible solely to the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.  At the sittings of the Legislative Assembly they shall give the explanation and information on the matters under their jurisdiction.  The members of the Government shall take part in voting if they are the deputies of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.
Art. 35. Appointment, dismissal and replacement of officials at the local institutions shall be under the jurisdiction of the Government of Abkhazia.  The officials of the common-state status shall be appointed by the Central Government with maximum effort to select them from the local residents.  The Government of Abkhazia has the right to recommend appointment or dismissal of officials at the common-state institutions located on the territory of Abkhazia.
Art. 36. No credits of the Autonomous Abkhazia shall be concluded without consent of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia.
Art. 37. The legislative Assembly of Abkhazia shall elect the Controller of the Autonomous Abkhazia.  The Controller shall invite the employees to his subordinate agencies.
Chapter IV.
Rights and Responsibilities
Art. 38. The rights and responsibilities of citizens and the civil freedoms on the territory of Abkhazia shall be secured by the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia.
Art. 39. All citizens of Georgia shall enjoy the right of citizenship of Abkhazia.
Art. 40.  The citizens of the Autonomous Abkhazia shall have the status of citizens of the Republic of Georgia.
Chapter V.
Revision of the Constitution
Art. 41.  The right to initiate general or partial revision of the Constitutions shall be vested in:
a) the members of the Legislative Assembly of Abkhazia not less than half of the total number of deputies;
b) 10 000 voters.
Art. 42. The proposal on general or partial revision of the Constitution shall be included in the agenda of the legislative Assembly not earlier than 6 months after its submission.
Art. 43. The proposal on general or partial revision of the Constitution shall be adopted by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the votes cast and it shall come into force after it has been adopted by the majority of population.
Chapter VI
Concluding Part
Art. 44. None of laws, Decrees and Orders, confronting the Constitution of the Autonomous Abkhazia, shall be promulgated and having a legal force in Abkhazia.
Art. 45. The members of the legislative Assembly, representatives of the executive power, as well as the civil servants on the Autonomous Abkhazia shall take an oath and sign the statement on dedication to this Constitution.
Chairman of the legislative Assembly of Abkhazia (signed)
Comrade to the Chairman Akirtava (signed)
Secretary (signed)
16 November 1920
(CSHAG, desc. 1833, file 865, p. 1-7)
    

EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTING OF THE PREZIDIUM OF THE CON-
STITUENT ASSEMBLY
6 November 1920
The discussed issue:
Application by the Delegation of Abkhazia on the election of 9 members from the Constituent Assembly to the Joint Commission on elaboration of the Constitution of the autonomous Abkhazia.
The Decree (Act) adopted by the Peoples Council of Abkhazia on 20 March 1919 was attached to the application.
Decision:
The application of the delegation shall be submitted to the Commission for conclusion.
Head of Chancellery – signed.
(CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 863, p. 45)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTING OF THE PREZIDIUM OF THE CON-
STITUENT ASSEMBLY
6 December 1920
The discussed issue:
Application by the Constitutional Delegation of the People’s Council of Abkhazia: 1) Tarasov, 2) Tsaguria and 3) Alania on the draft-Constitution of Abkhazia.  They declared that the consideration of the draft-Constitution was not follow the order that had been introduced by the  Abkhaz People’s Council and due to this fact they wouldn’t be able to participate in further discussion of the Constitution; therefore they decided to go back to Abkhazia.
The copy of the Decree (Act) adopted by the  Abkhaz People’s Council on 20 March 1919 was attached to the application.
Decision:
To take as information.
Authentic with original
Head of Chancellery – signed
(CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 863, p. 82)


EXTRACT FROM THE GAZETTE OF THE SITTING OF THE PREZIDIUM OF THE CON-
STITUENT ASSEMBLY
31 December 1920
The discussed issue:
(…)
3)  Notification N 232 of the Constitutional Commission of 26 December of this year and attached draft “On Regulations of the Autonomous Management of Abkhazia” – elaborated by the Small Constitutional Commission.
Information: the given draft hasn’t been considered yet by the Constitutional Commission and it hasn’t elaborated the final conclusions.
The draft was submitted to the Presidium in a form of information.
Decision:
To take as information the draft elaborated by the Small Constitutional Commission.
Chairman Al. Lomtatidze
Secretary: K. Japaridze
Head of Chancellery (signed) Al. Zurabishvili
(CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 713, p. 369)


REGULATIONS on autonomous management of Abkhazia
Before adoption of the Constitution of the Republic the Constituent Assembly of the Republic of Georgia is publishing the interim Regulations on management of Abkhazia.
1. Abkhazia – from the River Mekhadir and Black Sea shore to the Caucasus Chain is indivisible part of Georgia and exercises autonomous management of its internal affairs within this territory.
2. The Autonomous Abkhazia shall have its local legislative organ – People’s Council elected on the basis of universal, direct, equal suffrage by secret ballot for the term of two years by the citizens of both sexes.
3. The autonomous state authority of Abkhazia applies to the lands and ownership and to the citizens residing there with respect of the common laws of the Republic.
4. The autonomous management of Abkhazia shall cover the following matters:
a) local finances, taxes, credits.
b) public education – primary, secondary and high education; cultural activity.
c) local public and civil management.
d) mediating judges.
e) maintenance of public order and personal security;
f) administration.
g) public health, medicine, veterinary.
h) local transportation and roads.
i) approval of budget, estimate of local expenditure;
j) expropriation of private property for the public cultural needs in pursuance to the common laws of the Republic.
k) the matters under the competence of the  Abkhaz People’s Council in accordance to the law.
1) Besides the matters specified for in Article 4:
 The autonomous Government of Abkhazia shall independently decide the issues of introducing the norm for the land ownership and of determination of forms for socializing the state land fund.
6. All the lands of local significance, valuable estates, forest, mineral waters and water-energy facilities under 10 000 horse-power shall be under the management of the Autonomous Abkhazia.  The land and forest of common-state significance, Gagra climatic station and the water energy facilities over 10 000 horse-power shall remain as a state property.  The land bowels, in accordance with the common-law of the Republic shall be under the entire management of the state.
7. The state language in Abkhazia shall be Georgian, but the People’s Council may introduce the local language as a language of communication at the autonomous institutions.
8.  The Rights and responsibilities, as well as civil freedom shall be secured by the Constitution of the Republic and the laws.
9. The  People’s Council of Abkhazia and the Commissariat shall have the right to appoint, displace or dismiss the officials at the local institutions.  The priority in appointing the officials at the common-state institutions shall be given to the local residents.
10. Abkhazia shall represent the separate electoral district at the elections to the legislative organ of Georgia. Abkhazia shall be represented in that organ on the basis of proportionate representation.
11. The members of the People’s Council of Abkhazia, representatives of the executive power and the officials of the institutions of the autonomous Abkhazia shall take the oath on dedication to the Constitution of the Republic of Georgia.
12.  The  People’s Council of Abkhazia shall consist of 30 members.
13.  The  People’s Council of Abkhazia shall determine its composition and peruse the Regulations elaborated by it.
14. The  People’s Council of Abkhazia shall examine the legality of the elections and approve it.
15. The member of the  People’s Council of Abkhazia l shall not be prosecuted for the visions and ideas expressed by them while exercising their function. A member of the People’s Council is inviolable.  A member of the People’s Council shall not be detained or prosecuted without consent of the People’s Council, unless he is caught in the act of committing a crime.
16. A member of the People’s Council shall get the remuneration in amount determined by the People’s Council.
17. The issues relating to the convocation and dissolution of the People’s Council, as well as the term of sessions and the Regulations on the executive organ shall be determined by the People’s Council.
18.  The member of the People’s Council shall not take any position by the executive organ.
19. The sittings of the People’s Council shall be public.  The people’s council may close the session for discussing of certain issues.
20. The initiative of the local legislation shall be vested in electors, people’s Council and in the Commissariat.  The procedure for initiating the law shall be determined by the People’s Council.
21. The Commissariat of Abkhazia shall be the Executive organ of the Autonomous Abkhazia.  The members of Commissariats shall be elected by the People’s Council.
22. The members of the Commissariat are accountable and responsible to the People’s Council.
23. The laws adopted by the People’s Council shall be published by the Senate of the Republic of Georgia.
24. For the purpose of filling the budget, the autonomous government of Abkhazia has the right to use the part of common-state taxes.  It also takes the part of income from concessions issued on the territory of Abkhazia.
25. The general or partial revision of the Regulations may be initiated by the Parliament of Georgia and the People’s Council of Abkhazia.  The process of revision and its approval shall be carried out by the Parliament of Georgia in accordance to the rules established by the law.
       (31 December 1920)    
(Tamaz Nadareishvili, David Chitaia, Paata Davitaia, p. 466-469; CSHAG, f. 1833, desc. 1, file 863, p. 93-95; ibidem, file 827, p. 1-3)


1921
CONSTITUTION OF GEORGIA (adopted by the constituent assembly february
21, 1921)
Chapter I-General Basis
A r t i c l e
Georgia shall be a free, independent, and indivisible State. The permanent and unchangeable form of its political constitution shall be the democratic Republic.
A r t i c l e  2.
The capital of Georgia shall be Tiflis.  
A r t i c l e  3.
The official language of Georgia shall be the Georgian language.
A r t i c l e  4.
The flag of Georgian Republic shall be of cherry colour (dyed dogberry) with one black and one white stripe. The seal of the Georgian Republic shall be the effigy of Georges-Le-Blanc mounted on a horse, surmounted by seven astres.
A r t i c l e  5.
The laws and decrees shall only enter into force after they have been published in the regular manner.
A r t i c l e  6.
The territory of the state may neither be ceded, divided, nor sold. The enlargement of the territory or the rectification of the frontiers which may be contested is only possible by virtue of  low.
A r t i c l e  7.
The administrative division and the establishment or alteration of the autonomous boundaries (limits) can only be established by relevant legistature.
A r t i c l e  8.
The Constitution shall be the supreme low of the state. Any low, any decree, any ordinance, or decision which is in contradiction with the principles or the spirit of the constitution can not be promulgated. All the authorities of the state are to fulfill the constitution and to apply its principles, in the legislative domain as well as in the administration.
A r t i c l e  9.
The laws and decrees passed previous to the constitution shall remain in force if they are not in contradiction to the constitution and its principles.
A r t i c l e  10.
The present Constitution remains in force permanently and uninterruptedly, except in cases provided for in the Constitution itself.
A r t i c l e  11.
After the adoption of the Constitution the Constituent Assembly shall publish it with the signatures of its members.
Chapter II – Citizenship
A r t i c l e  12.
The Georgian citizenship is acquired by birth, by birth, or by naturalization.
A r t i c l e  13.
A Georgian citizen can not be at the same time the citizen of any other state.
A r t i c l e  14.
A Georgian citizen can not renounce his nationality except after having fulfilled all his obligations to the state.
A r t i c l e  15
The detailed conditions of acquiring and loss of the citizenship shall be determined by law.
Chapter III – Rights of Citizens
A r t i c l e  16.
All citizens are equal before the law.
A r t i c le  17.
There is no distinction of class.
A r t i c l e  18.
No titles, except degrees of the universities, shall be conferred. Decorations are abolished; distinctive marks may be conferred by reasons of war.
A r t i c l e  19.
Capital punishment is abolished.
A r t i c l e  20.
Nobody can be condemned except by way of the judiciary, with the exception of disciplinary punishments provided for by law.
A r t i c l e  21.
All citizens are judged by the same form of procedure.
A r t i c l e  22.
Every person enjoys individual inviolability. Nobody can be arrested or deprived of his liberty in any other manner, nor submitted to search except by warrant of court of justice or by the medium of inquiry.
A r t i c l e  23.
The administration can only proceed with the arrest on its own initiative on the following cases:
a) When the guilty person is surprised in the very act
b) When the guilty person is indicted on the place of the crime by the victim or by witness.
c) When any object establishing the guilt of the prisoner is found upon his person, or when incontestable signs or traces of the crime are found upon his person or his domicile.
A r i c l e  24.
The arrest of culprits by private individuals is lawful when they surprise him in the very act of crime and when there is a cause of fear of escape before the arrival of the agents of the public forces.
A r t i c l e  25.
Any person arrested by order of the judiciary or administrative forces must be brought before the nearest court within 24 hours; in cases where the court is too far away in order to bring a culprit before it within that period, it may be prolonged, without, however, exceeding 48 hours.
A r t i c l e  26.
The court must proceed immediately, in no case later than 24 hours to interrogate the prisoner. After this it may ordain, by written order, either the further detention of the culprit or his immediate release.
A r t i c l e  27.
The judicial authorities are obliged , in cases where it happens that a person ahs been arrested in violation of the abovementioned rules, to look immediately into the case and to give immediate orders either for his release or to keep him in custody.
A r t i c l e  28.
The domicile of a citizen is inviolable, and searches are only authorized in cases provided for by law.
A r t i c l e  29.
Private correspondence is inviolable and can only be seized and examined in pursuance of a judgment of the court.
A r t i c l e  30.
Every citizen has the right of moving and selecting his own residence; there is no restriction of this right except by order of the court of justice.
A r t i c l e  31.
Every citizen enjoys full liberty of conscience. He can not be prosecuted nor have restrictions brought upon his political or civil rights for reason of his religion or convictions. Everybody has the right to profess his own religion, to change same, or not to have any religious creed. No person has the right to evade his political or civil obligations by calling upon his religion or convictions except in cases provided by law. The actions of a religious character modify in no way the civil rights or position of anybody.
A r t i c l e  32.
Every citizen has the right to express his opinions, to propagate them verbal, by the public press, or by any other means without previous authority of the government. In this case he is only responsible to the court of justice for any crime committed.
A r t i c l e  33 .
The citizens of Georgia have the right of public assembly without arms, either indoors or in the open air.
A r t i c l e  34.
The administration has the right to close any meeting if it becomes unlawful.
A r t i c l e  35.
The citizens of the Georgian Republic have the right to form professional or other societies without previous authority of the government, provided that their object is not forbidden by law. The dissolution of such societies is only possible by order of a court of law.
A r t i c l e  36.
The free development of the intellectual professions, commercial, industrial and agricultural pursuits is guarantied by the Republic.
A r t i c l e  37.
The right of individual or collective petition is assured.
A r t i c l e  38.
Workmen have the right to strike.
A r t I c l e  39.
The citizens of both sexes enjoy equal political civil, economical   and family rights.
A r t i c l e  40.
Marriage is based on equal rights and upon mutual consent of husband and wife .The form and rules of marriage are determined by law. Children born in or out of wedlock have the same rights and duties. The mother has the right to seek and prove the paternity of a natural child by way of the courts, and this child by way of the courts, and this child has the same right to seek and prove the paternity.
A r t i c l e  41.
No fugitive for political reasons and who takes refugee in this Republic can be extradited.
A r t i c l e  42.
All official and private persons guilty of infractions of the above lows aimed at the rights of the citizens will be prosecuted according to the penal code.
A r t i c l e  43.
In case of sedition within the country or in case of war, parliament has the right to suspend temporarily the constitutional guaranties contained in articles 19, 22, 225, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, and 38; in case of war the guaranties contained in article 21 may also be suspended, provided the accused be not amenable to justice of a council of war in the military zone. When parliament is not in session the government has the right on its own responsibility to suspend the constitutional guaranties above mentioned. But in this case it is obliged to convoke parliament immediately and to submit its decision.
A r t i c l e  44.
In case of serious epidemics the government has the right to suspend temporarily the constitutional guaranties in articles 22, 25, 26, and 30, in so far as this act is necessary to fight the epidemic.
A r t i c l e  45.
The rights and guaranties enumerated in the constitution do not exclude other rights and guaranties, although not yet formulated, but nevertheless run along the principles established by the constitution.
Chapter - IV
A r t i c l e  46.
The representative body of the Georgian Republic is the Parliament of Georgia, composed of deputies elected by universal, equal, direct, secret, and proportional voting. Every citizen, without distinction of sex, enjoying all his rights and being over 20 years old has the right to take part in the elections. The parliament is elected for three years.
A r t i c l e  47.
The rules of a legislative election are laid down by a special law.
A r t i c l e  48.
Members of parliament are not held responsible for opinions expressed by them during the term of their office. The person of a member of parliament is inviolable. He can neither be arrested nor indicated without consent of parliament. An exception is made in the case of “flagrante delicto”, which must be brought immediately to the knowledge of parliament. A member arrested or indicated must be released immediately if parliament so desires.
A r t i c l e  49.
Members of parliament may refuse to bear witness about facts which may have been entrusted to them in their quality of deputies. This right may be invoked even after the expiration of their term of office.
A r t i c l e  50.
Members of parliament receive an indemnity fixed by law.
A r t i c l e  51.
The cases of incompatibility between the office of deputy and the exercise of a public office or whatsoever profession shall be determined by law.
A r t i c l e  52.
The sovereignty belonged to the entire nation. Parliament exercises this sovereignty within the limits fixed by the constitution.
A r t i c l e  53.
Parliament votes on the laws, decrees, and decisions; the manner of their publication shall be fixed by a special law.
 A r t i c l e  54.
The powers of parliament are the following.
a) Legislation.
b) Supreme direction of the army of the Republic and in general of all the armed forces.
c) Declaration of war.
d) Ratification of treaties of peace, commerce, or other treaties with foreign powers.
e) The right of amnesty.
f) Making of the budget.
g) The right to make interior or foreign loans.
h) Appointment of officials as provided by the constitution.
i) General control of the executive power.
A r t i c l e  55.
The sessions of parliament are public; but parliament has the right by special decision to hold entire or partial sessions behind closed doors.
A r t i c l e  56.
    Parliament decides itself the validity of the election of its members and resolves on all questions relative thereto.
A r t i c l e  57.
All decisions of parliament are made by a simple majority of votes, unless another modus has been adopted by law or regulation.
A r t i c l e  58.
    The openings of parliamentary sessions necessitate the presence of at least half of the total number of Deputies.
A r t i c l e  59.
Parliament has the right to interpellate the Government and to question it. Interpellations and questions are subject to rules determined by law or by regulation. Parliament has the right to nominate commissions of inquiry.
A r t ic l e  60.
The parliament fixes itself by regulating the procedure of its discussions.
A r t i c l e  61.
The annual sessions of the parliament begin on the first Sunday of November. The elections for the renewal of the parliament take place in the autumn, simultaneously in the entire Republic, and in time to permit the newly elected members to be present at the opening of parliament.
A r t i c l e  62.
The operations of the parliament can only be suspended by parliament itself. During the interruptions in the work of the parliament the right to assemble this latter in extraordinary cases belong to the Government or to the bureau of the parliament. The assembly of the parliament is obligatory if one quarter of the number of deputies desires it.
A r t i c l e  63.
The right of initiative belongs to:
Any member of parliament.
a) Any group of 5.000 electors.
b) Any group of 5 000 elections.
A r t i c l e  64.
Parliament is obliged to submit any new law to a popular referendum if 30.000 electors require it in writing. The rules of referendum are determined by law.
A r t i c l e  65.
Parliament elects its bureau yearly.
Chapter V – Executive Power
A  r t i c l e  66.
The executive power belongs to the Government of the Republic.
A r t i c l e  67.
The President of The Government is elected by the parliament for the period of one year. The same president can only be reselected once.
A r t i l e  68.
The other ministers, members of the government are appointed by the President from among the citizens who have the right to take part in parliamentary elections.
A r t i c l e  69.
Members of the government may not fill any other office or profession. They may only be members of parliament or of the councils of self-government.
A r t i c l e  70.
The president of the government is the supreme representative of the Republic. He appoints the representatives of Georgia to other powers, and it is to him that the representatives of foreign powers are accredited. In the absence of a government decision which may find itself obstructed, the president may by exceptional right have recourse to the armed forces of the Republic, but he must inform parliament immediately. The ordinances of laws and by-laws relative thereto emanate from the president of the government, who, however does not have the right to arrest the action of the laws or to hinder its execution. The president of the government has the right to order the extraordinary control of republic or local administrations, or the revision of particular cases, according to the rules determined by law. The president has no other rights except those conferred on him by the constitution.
A r t i c l e  71.
The president of the government has a lieutenant. In the absence of the president his attributes devolve upon his lieutenant.
A r t i c l e  72.
The general rights and duties of government are:
a) To assure the supreme direction of the affairs of the Republic according to its laws.
b) To watch over the application of the Republic and the execution of its laws.
c) To put before parliament its plans for laws, as well as its conclusions about plans of laws emanating from the parliament or from the people.
d) To defend the external interests of the Republic.
e) To safeguard the Republic from external dangers and to defend its independence.
f) To insure security and order in the interior of the country. If  unforeseen circumstances require it, to mobilize the armed forces of the country, but not far any period longer than 21 days. This period can only be prolonged by consent of parliament.
g) To manage the finances, to issue money according to law, and to submit annually to parliament a budget of revenue and expenses of the State.
h) To give an account to parliament of  its work and to submit at least once a year a report about the internal and external situation of Georgia. To present also to parliament any special reports if desired.
i) To acquit itself of all obligations imposed by parliament or by law.
A r t i c l e  73.
The members of the government share in the directions of the affair of the Republic, which do not depend directly on the president. Each member of the government directs independently, and under sole, personal responsibility to parliament, the department confided to him. He must resign as soon as he loses the confidence of parliament. A minister has only the right to vote in parliament if he is a member. The president of the government is responsible to parliament for the general politics. He is obliged to submit to the decisions of parliament and to execute the same, if necessary to change the ministers or even to re-form the entire cabinet.
A r t i c l e  74.
Every member of government has the right to be present at the sessions of parliament and at the meetings of special commissions. Parliament, as well as the commissions, is obliged to listen to the minister if he requires it. On his part the minister is also obliged to present himself, if required before parliament or commissions, and to furnish explanations.
A r t i c l e  75.
The president and the government are responsible, under penalties, for any violation of the constitution but only the president may indict these before a court of law. Members of the government are judged as provided for by the common law.
Chapter  VI – Justice
A r t i c l e  76.
The supreme court of Georgia is the senate elected by parliament and has the following functions:
a) To watch over the strict enforcement of the law.
b) To find out justice in the capacity of a court of cassation.
A r t i c l e  77.
Civil and criminal matters and administrative debatable matters belong to the department of permanent tribunals. The organization, jurisdiction, and competence of these tribunals are determined by law.
A r t i c l e  78.
The judiciary power is independent and only obeys the law. Justice is rendered in the name of the democratic Republic of Georgia.
A r t i c l e  79.
The verdicts pronounced by the Tribunals can not be annulled, modified, or suspended by any legislative, administrative, or executive body.
A r t i c l e  80.
The hearings of the courts are public; in certain cases, where the morale or public security requires it, courts can be held behind closed doors.
A r t i c l e  81.
All serious matters belong to the penal jurisdiction, as well as political matters, and offences of the press are submitted to a jury.
A r t i c l e  82.
Judges are elected for fixed period. The rules of such elections as well as the conditions to which the judges have to submit are determined by law.
A r t i c l e  83.
Expect by determination of the court, judges can not be the object of any change to their wishes. They can only be temporarily   dismissed, if they are arraigned by justice or if their case is under consideration. Their definite dismissal can only take place by judgment of the court.
Chapter VII – Finances of the State
A r t i c l e  84
No tax can be instituted or levied if not previously sanctioned by parliament Note. The right bodies of self-government to levy taxes are determined by special laws.
A r t i c l e  85.
Nobody can be exempted from the taxes of the state if not sanctioned by law.
A r t i c l e  86.
No sum for retiring pensions, compensations, or whatsoever expense be deducted from the treasury of the state except conforming to the law.
A  r t i c l e  87.
No loans of state nor any other financial obligation may be contracted without the authorization of parliament.
A r t i c l e  88.
All revenues and all expenses of the state must appear in the budget. The budget must be presented every year to parliament for its approval.
 r t i c l e  89.
If parliament does not get to voting the budget for the commencement of the budget year, the government can be authorized by parliament until the approval of the budget to cover the expenses of the state on the basis of the budget of the previous year.
A r t i c l e  90.
No transfer of expenses of one chapter of the budget to another may be made without authority of parliament.
Chapter VIII – Control of the State
A r t i c l e  91.
The control of the State is performed as follows:
a) Rigorous execution of the budget of the state.
b) All revenues and expenses of the state.
c) The accounts and balance sheets of the different ministerial departments.
d) The finances of the bodies of the local self-government.
A r t i c l e  92.
The controller of the state is elected by parliament. He is not in the cabinet, but has all rights of a minister of state and is only responsible to parliament. He gives an account of his office every year.
A r t i c l e  93.
The organization of the control and the rules of its application are determined by law.
Chapter IX – National Defense
A r t i c l e  94.Every citizen is compelled to do military service according to the law.
A r t i c l e  95.
The object of the military organization is to defend the republic and its territory.
A r t i c l e  96.
The duration of military service and the organization of the forces is determined by law.
A r t i c l e  97.
The effective force of the recruiting contingent is fixed every year by parliament.
Chapter X – Self-Government
A r t i c le  98.
The institutions of self-government being at the same time local administrative bodies are charged with the direction of economic and educational affairs within the limits of their territory.
A r t i c l e  99.
The organizations of self-government, its rights and duties as well as the manner of their administration are fixed by law.
A r t  c l e  100.
The institutions of self-government have the right to make by-laws for public administration conforming to the law.
A r t i c l e  101.
The self-government is elected by secret, proportional, equal, and universal suffrage.
A r t i c l e  102.
The by-laws and orders of the self-government can only be changed by legal manner.
A r t i c l e  103.
The central bodies of the government have the right to suspend the by-laws and orders of self-government when they are contrary to law, but such matters must immediately be brought before a legal power. The manner and conditions of such suspensions are determined by law.
A r t i c l e  104.
The self-government depends on the central bodies of government for the direction of its general administration.
A r t i c l e  105.
    The cases where the resolutions of self-government must be approved by Government are determined by law.
A r t i c l e  106.
The institutions of self-government have their own budget according to a special law.
Chapter XI –Autonomous Administration
A r t i c l e  107.
Abkhasie (district of Soukhoum), Georgia Musulmane (district of Batum), and Zakhatala (district of Zakhatala), which are integral parts of the Georgian Republic, enjoy autonomy in the administration of their affairs.
A r t i c l e  108.
The statute concerning the autonomy of the districts mentioned in the previous article will be the object of special legislation.
Chapter XII –Public Institutions and Schools
A r t i c l e  109.
The arts and sciences and their institutions are free, and it is the duty of the State to protect them and to help in their development.
A r t i c l e  110.
Elementary instruction is gratuitous, general, and obligatory. The scholastic system is an organic whole where primary education serves as basis for secondary and for superior teaching. The teaching is in all its aspects laical.
A r t i c l e  111.
The state must see to it that indigent children have free schooling food, clothing and school materials. The government and the bodies of self-government must set aside yearly from their resourced a certain sum for the defrayal of these expenses.
A r t i c l e  112.
Private schools are subject to the general school laws.
Chapter XIII –Social and Economic Rights
A r t  c l e  113.
The Republic sees to it that all its citizens have dignified existence.
A r t i c l e  114.
Forced expropriation or restriction of private enterprise can only tale place in virtue of a special law, which determines their manner, and only for the needs of the state and for public utility. The owners of property who have been expropriated will be indemnified, provided there are no dispositions to the contrary made by law.
 A r t i c l e  115.
The Republic has its own commercial and industrial organization. Its principal object is to develop this organization and to create a single and complete system of social economy. The Republic will aid the bodied of self-government in the development and strengthening of similar economic organizations. The government has the right  to socialize by legislature  the commercial, industrial, and agricultural enterprises which  may be suitable for this purpose.
A r t i c l e  116.
The State watches particularly against the private exploitation of the work of small producers, of the agricultural, the workmen, and the home-worker. The Republic will also give its special attention to the prosperity of agriculture. The proprietor of land has a duty toward society to cultivate the same to get the best possible results.
A r t i c l e  117.
The existence of the State is based on work, and it is therefore a particular duty of same to protect same.
A r t i c l e  118.
The laws of the Republic entrust the bodies of self-government with the work of establishing labor exchanges, employment agencies and similar institutions which shall keep statistics of unemployed persons and assist them to obtain work. The representatives of workers unions to the extent of half, at shall take part in the central direction of these institutions.
A r t i c l e  119.
Citizens who are out of work shall have the assistance and help to procure work for them.
A r t i c l e  120.
Any citizen who is incapacitated from work by age, sickness, or other causes and having neither by law or custom a claim of support from his heir curator, or any private or public institution, and begin without means of existence, has the right to have assistance from the state by way of insurance or other methods. This assistance is also given by the State in cases where the heir or curators are not in a position to care for the invalid.
A r t i c l e  121
Any citizen incapacitated from work by age, mutilation, or other causes will receive in the way of insurance an assistance proportionate to his salary. The insurance capital will be raised by means of a tax levied on the employer.
A r t i c l e  122.
Beside the tax mentioned in the preceding article a certain part of the receipts of the republic shall be annually set aside for the same object.
A r t i c l e 123.
The normal duration of working time of hired help shall not be more than 48 hours per week. The worker must at the same time have a weekly respite from work of at least 42 uninterrupted hours per week. The exception to the weekly hours of work is determined by law. The fixing of the normal time of work for agricultural laborers and season workers necessitating special working conditions are fixed by law.
A r t i c l e  124.
The employment of minors under 16 years in establishments is forbidden; the working hours for minors between the ages of 16 and 18 is fixed at 6 hours per day; minors under 18 and women may not be employed in night work.
 A r t i c l e  125.
The republic fixes the minimum rate of wages and establish normal working conditions. It creates a special inspection of work and sanitary control independent of the employers.
A r t i c l e  126.
The protection of female labour will be the object of a special law. The employment of women at work detrimental to mater nity is forbidden. During the time of confinement the female worker is excused from her work for least two months without suspension of salary. It is the duty of an employer to permit his female worker to the necessary time to their nurslings.
A r t i c l e  127.
Any infraction of the laws giving protection to labour comes within the penal code.
A r t i c l e  128.
It is incumbent on the Republic and the bodies of self-government to insure the protection of mothers and children.
Chapter XIV-Rights of Ethnical Minorities
A r t i c l e  129.
It is forbidden to bring any obstacle to the free social development, economic and cultural, of the ethnical minorities of Georgia, especially to the teaching in their mother language and the interior management of their own culture. Everybody has the right to his mother tongue in writing printing and speaking.
 A r t i c l e  130
All local ethnical minorities formed into united administration enjoy the right to group themselves and form national unions for organizing and directing their cultural matters within the light of the constitution and the law.  The local ethnical minorities which do not belong to united administrations may constitute themselves independently into an ethnical union, enjoying the competencies mentioned in this article. One is under jurisdiction of an ethnical union for reason of the language one speaks. The cultural needs of the ethnical minorities are met by sums levied on the budget of self-government in proportion in the number interested.
A r t I c l e  131
Nobody. Shall be restricted in his rights, civil or political for the reason of belonging to an ethnical minority.
A r t i c l e 132
Any ethnical union may bring before a court of justice any matter in violation of the conferred to the minorities by the constitution or by law.
A r t i c l e  133
Any citizen of the Georgian republic has equal rights concerning the admission to the civil or military service of the state as well as to the service of towns and communities.
A r t i c l e  134.
 In localities of a mixed population the bodies of self-government, are obliged, with the funds at their disposal, to create a sufficient number of schools and establishment of instructions and general education in proportion to the ethnical composition of its population.
A r t i c l e  135.
Instruction in all schools belonging to an ethnical minority shall be given in the language in which its pupils speak
A r t i c l e  136.
In a circumscription submitted to a body of self-government where the proportion of the ethnical minority exceeds 20 per cent of communal and state affairs run concurrently, the official language, if the minority desires it, shall be the language of the said minority.
A r t i c l e  137.
Any deputy of non-Georgian  origin not knowing the official language sufficiently for expressing his opinions in parliament may use his native language on condition that he has previously submitted to the bureau of parliament an exact translation of his speech. The application of this article shall be regulated by law.
Chapter XV-Officials of the State
 A r t i c l e  138.
Any Georgian citizen has access to all the offices if he satisfies the requirements of the law.
A r t i c l e  139.
An officer may be relieved of his office or incur disciplinary punishment by order of the institution or chief. The rules as to his definite suspension are fixed by law.
A r t i c l e  140.
Every officer has the right of a pension. The terms under which an officer or his family have the benefit of a pension are fixed by law.
A r t i c l e  141.
Every officer is responsible to justice according to the principles of the common law. Any citizen has the privilege to arraign any officer who may be guilty. Any citizen has the right to be reimbursed by the state for any loss or damage caused by an officer in the exercise of the functions of his office. The proceedings and conditions of indemnification are by low.
Chapter XVI – Relations of State and Church
A r t i c l e  142.
The state and the church are separate and independent one from the other.
A r t i c l e  143
No confession or creed enjoys special privileges.
A r t i c l e 144.
It is forbidden to make any levies on the resources of the state or the bodies of self-government for the needs of any religious order.
Chapter XVII – Revision of the Constitution
A r t i c l e  145.
The complete or partial revision of the constitution may be demanded:
a) By at least one-half of the members of parliament.
b) By a group of  50.000 electors.
A r t I c l e  146.
A proposal for the revisal of the constitution can only be heard in parliament six months after the deposition of such proposal.
A r t I c l e  147.
A proposal or plan for the partial or entire revisal of the constitution can only be adopted by a majority of two-thirds of the members of parliament. This proposal only comes into force after it has received the approval of the people.
A r t I c l e  148
The alternation of the form of Government of the democratic Republic of Georgia can not be made the object of the proposal of a revisal of the constitution.
A r t I c l e  149.
Until the meeting of parliament of the constituent assembly will act in its place.
(Democratic Republic of Georgia. 1919-1921.Three historic documents, p. 109-133)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE REVOLUTIONARY COMMITTEE on taking the whole power
The former Government of Georgia led by Zhordania and its officers and cadets overthrown by the working masses went to west Georgia.
On entering the Capital City, the Revolutionary Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia took the power in its hands.  Therefore the Revolutionary Committee decrees:
1.  The fighting against overthrown but not surrendered Government of Georgia shall be continued vigorously.  
2. Every state organizations, city and district self-governance and militia, as well as every public official shall stay at their position and continue working.
3.  The revolutionary order shall be maintained: those who resort the sabotage, disobedience or breach the public order shall be punished under the revolutionary laws.
Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Georgia – M. Orakhelashvili
26 February 1921
(Struggle for Strengthening the Soviet Power in Georgia. Tb. 1959, p. 3/ in Russia)


PROTOCOL OF BATUMI MEETINGS on the issues of Soviet Power and Communist Party Structures in Abkhazia  
28 March 1921
Attended: comrade Orjonikidze, the member of the Revolutionary Council and of the RKP CK of the Caucasus Bureau; comrade Eliava, the Commissar of the Navy Affairs of Georgia; comrade Toroshelidze, the Chairman of the Batumi Okrug Revolutionary Committee; comrade Eshba, the Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Abkhazia and the member of the Organizational Committee; comrade Lakoba, the member of the Revolutionary Committee and the Organizational Committee of Abkhazia, the Commissar of the Region.
Heard: the issues of Soviet Power and Communist Party Structures in Abkhazia.
Decided: Until the convocation of the Congress of the Councils of Abkhazia the issue on attaching Abkhazia to the RSFSR or Georgian SSR shall remain open.  Abkhazia is being declared as the Soviet Socialist Republic.
The Party organization, until the Congress is convoked shall have the name of the Organizational Bureau of the Revolutionary Committee and work under the directives of the RKP CK of the Caucasus Bureau.
In order to avoid confrontation in the activities of both Revcoms, the decrees issued by the Revolutionary Committee (Revcom) of Georgia shall serve as a background material.
Organizational Bureau shall carry out effective measures aimed at eradicating the ethnic confrontation bred by Mensheviks between the peoples of Georgia and Abkhazia.
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia, Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 469)


DECREE ISSUED BY THE REVOLUTIONARY COMMITTEE OF THE GEORGIAN SSR
on arranging the Power
21 April 1921
§ 1.  The Revolutionary Committee (Revcom) is the supreme legislative, executive and controlling body of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.  
§ 2. The Revolutionary Committee convenes the Congress of the Soviets of Georgia and submits its report on the activity and on the political issues to it.
§ 6. The members of the Revolutionary Committee shall lead the following Public Commissariats and organizations:
a) Foreign Affairs, b) Military and navy Affairs, c) Internal Affairs, d) Justice, e) Labour, f) Social Protection, g) Public Education, h) State Communication, I) Finances, j) Transportation and Road, k) Foreign Trade, l) Agriculture, m) Food Industry, n) Workers and Peasants inspectorate, o) Health Care, p) Supreme Council of the Public Economy and q) Extraordinary Investigative Commission.
§ 12.  Until the convocation of the General Congress of the Soviet Georgia the Revolutionary Committees shall be established in the regions, city (only in Tbilisi), districts and villages on the territory of the Republic of Georgia.
(…)
Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee Ph. Makharadze
The Commissar of the Internal Affairs B. Kvirkvelia
(Messenger of the Commissariat of the Internal Affairs, # 3, 1921, p. 9)

DECLARATION OF THE REVOLUTIONARY COMMITTEE OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST
REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA on Independence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
21 May 1921
The Menshevik’s power, being bourgeois by its nature, oppressed the revolutionary movement of the national minorities and bred the antagonism between the certain minorities residing in Georgia throughout the centuries.
The Soviet power has the different approach to this issue pushing forward the principle of fraternal relations and equality between all workers.
The right to self-determination declared by the Great October Revolution is recognized as the best remedy for eradication of national prejudices and strengthening of the relations between the workers.
Proceeding form the aforementioned the Revolutionary Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia recognizes and welcomes the establishment of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and believes that the relations between the Georgian SSR and the Abkhazian SSR will be decided at the first Congress of the workers and peasant of Abkhazia, as well as of Georgia.
Let the workers of both socialist republics decide the forms of close and fraternal cooperation.
Revcom of the Georgian SSR
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia, Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 473)


RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE FIRST CONGRESS OF THE WORKERS OF ABKHAZIA
on the report of the Chairman of the Revcom of Abkhazia N. Lakoba on the National Issue in Abkhazia
28 May 1921
1. The government of Kerenskiy-Miliukov, likewise the Tsar regime of Russia continued oppressing the national minorities residing in a former Russian Empire.
2. But after the victory of the October Revolution, in the center of Russia the power was taken by workers and peasants and bourgeoisie started to strengthen their position in the provinces manipulating with the national feelings of the trans-frontier nations.  Using the national movements, the bourgeoisie led the government and created the republics in the remote territories, which were fully dependent to the world imperialism (the Entente).
3.  The workers and peasants of the oppressed nations realized their interests and through the support of proletarian Russia created real independent socialist republics.  The next step will be the close union with the Soviet Federation.  Proceeding from this fact the Congress of the  Workers of Abkhazia expresses the will of  all of the workers of the Republic to have the most fraternal and close cooperation with Georgian workers and peasant, who are the most close in cultural, economic and geographical point of view.
Viva to the forthcoming Congress of Georgia and Abkhazia, which will establish the close cooperation of the workers of these peoples!
Viva to the fraternal relations of the soviet republics!
Viva to the Soviet Socialist Republics in entire world.
(Strengthening of the Soviet Power in Abkhazia. Collection of Documents and Materials (1921-1925). Sukhumi, 1957, p. 48/in Russian)


RESOLUTION  OF THE FIRST CONGRESS OF THE WORKERS OF ABKHAZIA on the Report of Revcom Chairman E. Eshba on Building of Soviet society
28 May 1921
1. To consider reasonable recognition of Abkhazia as the independent state that is aimed at eradicating the confrontation and strengthening the fraternal relations between Georgia and Abkhazia.  The Congress believes that the first Congress of Workers and Peasant of Georgia will determine the final forms of friendly relations between Georgia and Abkhazia as it is mentioned in Declaration of the Georgian Revcom of 21 May.
2. The Congress endorses the general policy of the Revcom of Abkhazia, its activity and future plans aimed at reviving the public life of the country.
3. The delegates of the Congress consider necessary to work closely with the working masses in order to support the Soviet Power and prevent the provocation and counter-revolutionary activity.
(Strengthening of the Soviet Power in Abkhazia, p. 51-52)


EXTRACT FROM THE REZOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE PLENUM OF THE RKB CK OF
THE CAUCASUS BUREAU on the Political Situation of the Trans-Caucasus Republics
2-3 July 1921
1.  We shall recognize the necessity of the development of independence of the Caucasus Republics (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia) through unconditional observance of the party relations between the Communist parties of these states and the Central Committee of the RKP.
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia; Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 475)


REGULATIONS of the public court of the georgian SSR
Section I.  Court Arrangement
Chapter I
Organization of Public Courts
1. The unified court shall be established in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
3. The Public Court shall carry out its function on the territory of Districts, Cities or Regions.
4. The number of public judges, as well as the territorial division shall be decided by the District Executive Committee of Workers and Peasants and approved by the Public Commissariat of Justice.
Note: The number of public judges, as well as the territorial division in Tbilisi and Batumi shall be decided by the City Council of Workers and Peasants and approved by the Public Commissariat of Justice.  The other towns and cities will be attached to the districts.
The Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of the Georgian SSR B. Mdivani
The Public Commissar of Justice S. Kavtaradze
The Secretary of the Revolutionary Committee Al. Salaridze.
30 July 1921
(Messenger of the Commissariat of the Internal Affairs, N 16, 1921, p.5-12)


EXTRACT FROM THE REZOLUTION on Independence of the Abkhazian SSR ADOPTED BY THE JOINT SESSION OF THE RKB (B) ORGBUREAU, REVKOM AND PUBLIC OFFICIALS
15 October 1921
Proceeding from the RKP Programme and the new economic policy endorsed by the X Congress of the RKP on the one hand, and from the practice of interethnic relations between Abkhazs and Georgians established by Mensheviks – on the other, the session supports the Decision of Batumi Session of 28 March of this year, as well as the Declaration on Independence of Abkhazia adopted by the Revcom of Georgia on 21 May.
At the same time, taking into account the economic inequality and small amount of population of Abkhazia, which has close historical and cultural ties with Georgian people and unity of economy and economic policy of Georgia and Abkhazia, the session finds necessary to establish close cooperation between the Georgian SSR and Abkhazia.
Due to the sovietization of both republics in the nearest future, the session considers inevitable to establish promptly such relations between Georgia and Abkhazia through the Union-Treaty of the equal republics.
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia; Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 481)


DECREE on the Relations between Abkhazia and Georgia adopted by the Presidium of the RKP(B) of the Caucasus Bureau.
16 November 1921
1. To consider the existence of independent Abkhazia non-purposeful with the economic and political point of view.
2.  To entrust comrade Eshba with the task of proposing the final conclusion on entering Abkhazia to the Georgian Federation on the basis of Agreement or as autonomous Okrug – to the RSFSR.
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia; Abkhazia – Historical Region of Georgia, p. 481-482)


MINUTES N 30 OF THE SESSION OF THE PREZIDIUM OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF GEORGIA
17 November 1921
Chairman: Orakhelashvili
Members of the Presidium: Okujava, Mdivani, Kavtaradze, Eliava.
Participants:
Head of the Organizational Department Donenko, head of the Public Propaganda Department Tumanov, Head of Special Detachments Khutulashvili, Secretary of the Party Committee of the South-Ossetia Gagloeyv, Chairman of the South-Ossetian Revcom Jatiyev, member of the South-Ossetian Revcom Kozayev.
Heard:
The application of the Revcom and Party Committee of the South Ossetia on announcing Tskhinvali as the administrative center of the South-Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Repporteurs: comrades Jatiev and Orakhelashvili.
Decided:
1) To include city of Tskhinvali within the South-Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and announce it as the administrative center of the Oblast.  
2) To ask the Revcom of Georgia to entrust the Public Commissariat of Internal Affairs with the task of nominating, together with the secretariat of the Central Committee, two representative from the commissariat and one from the Georgian Revcom.
3) To include two representatives from South Ossetia to the Commission.
4) To entrust the Commission with the task of learning the conditions for implementation of Decree N 1 and also of identifying the administrative border of the South Ossetia.
5) To entrust the Commission with task of reporting the Presidium of the Central Committee on the results of the activity; after this the Commission shall implement the tasks provided for in section 1.
(The Archive of the President of Georgia (APG), f. 14, desc.1, file 189, p. 27)


DECREE N 79  on subordination of the maritime transport management to the Revcom of
Georgia and the unification of the maritime transport of the Georgian SSR and the Abkhaz SSR adopted by the Revcom of the Georgian SSR
For the purpose of changing the Order N 52 issued on 18 May of this year, the Revolutionary Committee of Georgia Decrees:
1. The Management of the trade-harbours of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and their exploitation shall be carried out as of the independent maritime transport management and subordinate directly to the Revcom of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
2. To introduce the joint management of the maritime transport of Georgian SSR and the Abkhaz SSR in accordance of the Resolution on unification of the maritime transport of Abkhazia and Georgia adopted by the Revcom of the Abkhaz SSR on September 2 of this year;  Every harbour and the maritime agency, from Batumi to Gagra shall be subordinated to this joint management.     
3. The head of the management, i.e. the Head of Georgian and Abkhazian Maritime Transport shall submit the report of the Chairman of the Revcom of Georgia, and the important issues shall be submitted to the Presidium of the Revolutionary Committee.
4. The representative of the Maritime Transport shall be present on the territory of Abkhazia in the capacity of the assistant to the Head of Maritime Transport.  He shall be authorized to decide any issues of local importance. The principle and common issues shall be decided upon instruction from the Center.  The assistant to the Head of Maritime Transport shall be approved by the Revcom of Abkhazia upon nomination of the Head of Maritime Transport of Georgia and Abkhazia.
5. The Decree shall come into force since it is published.
Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia B. Mdivani
Secretary of the Revcom Al. Salaridze
18 November 1921
(Messenger of the Public Commissariat of the Internal Affairs, N 21, 1921, p. 1)


RESOLUTION on the Relations between the RKP(B) Orgbureau of Abkhazia and the Cen-
tral Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia adopted by the Central Committee of the RKP(B) of the Caucasus Bureau
24 November 1921
The Organizational Bureau of Abkhazia shall be attached to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia in terms of administrative point of view thereby retaining the name of RKP.
Comrade Eshaba shall be the plenipotentiary member of the Central committee of the Communist Party of Georgia.
(Jemal Gamakharia, Badri Gogia; Abkhazia – historical Region of Georgia, p. 482)


MINUTES N 39 OF THE SITTING OF THE PREZIDIM OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF
THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF GEORGIA
12 December 1921
Chairman: Orakhelashvili
Members of the Presidium: Okujava, Kavtaradze, Mdivani, Dumbadze
Members of the Central Committee: Toroshelidze, Gogoberidze
Attended by: Head of Foreign Affairs Department of the Central Committee Dotsenko; members of the bureau of the faction Kurulashvili, Kiknadze, Mashkevich, Virap, Jugeli, Odilavadze; members of the administrative border-commission of the South Ossetia: Elderov, Gagloev, Kakabadze; comrade Lominadze; Commissar of the Internal Affairs Kvirkvelia; comrade V. Kandelaki.
Heard
The report by the South Ossetian border Commission
Repporteurs: comrades – Kakabadze, Gagloeyv, Kvirkvelia.
Decided:
1. To recognize Tskhinvali as the administrative center of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast; the autonomous power shall apply the territories with Ossetian settlements except of the Chasavali Community, which shall remain within the Racha District and of Kobi region, which shall remain within Dusheti District.
2. The precise borders of the autonomous Ossetia shall be determined by the Special Commission that is already working on this issue.
3. Until the breakthrough in the attitude of the Georgian population of Tskhinvali Region in favour of inclusion of this region into Autonomous Ossetia, the power in this city and the neighbouring Georgian villages shall be exercised by the regional Revcom of Gori District.
(APG, f. 14, desc.1, file 8, p.  44)


UNION TREATY BETWEEN THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA AND THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLUC OF ABKHAZIA
16 December 1921
The Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia on the one hand and the Soviet So­cialist Republic of Abkhazia on the other, proceeding from the national unity that exists between the working classes of Georgia and Abkhazia, and with respect of effective protection of the interests of both republics, as well as of the interests of the Revolution  through the joint effort, decided to conclude this Treaty; for this purpose the Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia nominated its plenipotentiary representative Sergi Kavtaradze and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia – Nikoloz Akirtava.  The aforementioned representatives, after submitting the credentials, agreed on the following:
1. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia are establishing the military, political and financial-economic cooperation with each-other.
2. For the purpose of achieving the aforementioned goals, the both of governments declare united the following Commissariats:
a) Military
b) Finances
c) Public Economy
d) Post and Telegraph
g) Workers and Peasant Inspectorate
h) Public Commissariat of Justice
i) Maritime transportation
Note: the foreign affairs shall remain fully within the competence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
2) The Railway shall be under direct subordination of the Railway Department of the Trans-Caucasus.  The foreign trade – under the subordination of the Trade Department of Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
3) The rules and forms of management of unified Commissariats shall be decided upon special agreement between the both governments.
4) In every regional union, namely within the Federation of the Trans-Caucasus Republics, Abkhazia enters through Georgia, which renders one third of its seats.
5) This Agreement shall come into force after it’s signed.
Plenipotentiary representative
of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia Kavtaradze
Plenipotentiary Representative
of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia N. Akirtava,  S. Kartozia
(Struggle for Strengthening the Soviet Power in Georgia. Tb. 1959, p. 177-178/in Georgian)


1922
RESOLUTION on Inter-relation of the state agencies adopted by the Revolutionary Committee of the Georgian SSR
Temporarily, before convocation of the Soviet Congress that shall elect the executive committees instead of the Revolutionary Committees, the state agencies in the Center, as well as at the local levels shall pursue the following guidelines:
1. The Legal Acts of common-state importance shall be issued only by the Revolutionary Committee of Georgia…
2. The decrees, resolutions, orders or decisions issued by the Revolutionary Committee of Georgia shall be binding to the public commissars, as well as to the local government agencies.
9. Internal agencies and the public utility departments of the districts, cities, Batumi region and South-Ossetian  Revcoms shall be subordinate to the Public Commissariat of the Internal Affairs; in addition, the aforementioned Commissariat shall carry out the control on the personnel of the local Revcoms and on the Revocm’s activity in a whole.
10. The Public commissar of the Internal Affairs shall submit to the Revcom of the Georgian SSR the reports on the issues raised by the local agencies, as well as the report on the activity of the mentioned organs.
20. This Resolution shall come into force from the day it’s published.
Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of the Georgian SSR Kavtaradze
Public Commissar of the Internal Affairs B. Kvirkvelia
Secretary of the Revolutionary Committee Al. Salaridze
10 January 1922
(Newspaper «Komunisti», N 15, 19 January, 1922)


MINUTES N 2 OF THE SESSION OF THE PREZIDIM OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF
THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF GEORGIA
15 January 1922, Tbilisi
Chairman: Orakhelashvili
Members of the Central Committee: Okujava, Mdivani, Kavtaradze, Dumbadze, Tsintsadze, Eshba, Gogoberidze. Bolkvadze, Murdaleishvili.
Attended by: Svanidze, Kakabadze, Kakhiani, Rudakov, Devdariani, Kandelaki.
Heard:
Report by comrade Kakabadze on the results of political campaign in South Ossetia.
Decided:
1) To approve the previous Resolution on attaching Tskhinvali to the South Ossetian Autonomous Okrug (in favour – 7, against -3)
2) The issue on 12 Georgian villages to the North of Tskhinvali shall be decided at the Congress of Georgian Soviets.
(APG, f. 14, desc.1, file 189, p. 2 )


RESOLUTION OF THE FIRST CONGRESS OF THE SOVIETS OF ABKHAZIA on the Fede­-
ra­tion of the Soviet Republic of the Trans-Caucasus and federation Abkhaz SSR with Georgian SSR
The establishment of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federation is dictated not only by the political and international conditions, but it also has very practical goal in economic point of view.  Establishment of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federation will put an end to the inter-ethnic confrontation and dirty and devastating policy of the Tsar’s Russia and nationalistic parties of Mensheviks, Dashnaks and Mussavatels that bred the national antagonism between the peoples of the Trans-Caucasus and provoked the bloodshed and clash (Armenian-Azerbaijanis clash, Armenian-Georgian war etc.).   At the same time the policy of Mensheviks, Dashnaks and Musavatels pointed to the political ties of these nationalistic governments with the European reaction demanding the full isolation from the Russian workers who hosted the flag against oppressors.
The Federative Union of the Trans-Caucasus Republics brings the firm and long peace between the peoples of the Trans-Caucasus and establishes the unified front of all the Soviet Republics against the capitalist states they are surrounded by.
Georgia and Abkhazia, concluding the Agreement on solidarity, mutual understanding and unity of interest of historically and economically linked peoples of Georgia and Abkhazia, through this Agreement will finally move away the ethnic hatred between these two fraternal peoples, which was bred by political Swindlers – Mensheviks.
Proceeding from the aforementioned the First Congress of the Workers and Peasants of the Abkhaz SSR and Red Army Deputies decrees:
1. Underlining the deteriorating policy of Mensheviks, Dashnaks and Mussavatists, the First Congress of the Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR expresses its firm belief that the working masses of the Trans-Caucasus will realize the idea of federation and strengthen the Trans-Caucasus Federative power through the decisive steps and joint effort of the peoples of the Trans-Caucasus.
2. The Agreement between the fraternal peoples of Georgia and Abkhazia  shall be recognized as inevitable for realization of political and economic interests of both peoples.
3. The Congress offers to the Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR to elaborate the details of the Agreement with the Georgian SSR and implement it on the basis of union treaties as it is already in force for the Soviet Republics of the Trans-Caucasus.
Viva to Great RSFSR!
Viva to Federation of the Trans-Caucasus Republics!
Viva to the fraternal union of Georgia and Abkhazia
17 February 1922
(Abkhaz Soviets (1921-1927). Collection of Documents and Materials. Sukhumi, 1976, p. 27-29/in Russian)


CONSTIRUTION OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
Chapter I
General Provisions
1. Georgian workers, peasants and Red Army Men, guided by the ideas of the Great October Socialist Revolution, after abolishing the Constituent Assembly and all the central and local organs of the state authority of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, hereby establish the sovereignty and dictatorship of the proletariat rendering the whole state authority to the Soviets of Deputies in the Center, as well as at local levels.
Note: The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, on the basis of the right to free self-determination, includes: the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara, the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia; the relation with the latter is based on the Special Union Treaty concluded between these Republics.
(…)
Chapter II
Article 5. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is a sovereign state, which may not tolerate the equal ownership from other sides on it territory; on its turn, Georgia shall respect the other’s territories.
Article 6. The state language of the Georgian SSR shall be Georgian.  All of the central organs are located in the city of Tbilisi.
Note: the national minorities shall be ensured the right to free development and application of their native languages in their own national-cultural organizations, as well as in the state agencies.
Article 7.  Any restriction of the rights of the national minorities, i.e. the oppression of equality with other citizens is inadmissible.

Chapter III.
Article 8.  The supreme power of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia belongs to the Congress of the All-Georgian Soviets of Workers, peasants and Red Army deputies; in the period of between the Congresses the supreme power is exercised by the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee.
Chapter V
Structure of the Soviet Authority
a) Organization of the Central Power
Article 18.  The All-Georgian Soviet Congress consists of representatives of the District, City, Rural Soviet Congresses, as well as of Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Oblasts on the basis of following norms: from the District and Village Congresses –one deputy for 10000 inhabitants; from city and industrial towns – 1 deputy for 2000 voters.
Article 19. The All-Georgian Congress of Soviets shall be convened by the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee once a year.
Article 20. The Special Congress of the All-Georgian Soviets may be convened by the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee upon its own initiative or at the request of local Soviets having not less than one-third of the entire population of the republic.
21. The Congress of the All-Georgian Soviets shall elect the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee of not more than 95 members.
Chapter VI
All-Georgian Central Executive Committee
Article 22. The All-Georgian Central Executive Committee is the supreme legislative, executive and controlling organ of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
Chapter VII
The Presidium of the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee
Article 33. The All-Georgian Central Executive Committee elects the Presidium of the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee.
Article 38. The Presidium of the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee shall verify the execution of the decisions and ordinances of the All-Georgian Executive Committee and directs the work in the center, as well as at local levels.
Article 39. The Presidium of the All-Georgian Executive Committee shall resolve the issues and conflicts relating to the interrelations on the one hand between the People’s Commissariats and other central organs, and on the other – with the local executive committees.
Article 40. The Presidium of the All-Georgian central Executive Committee shall decide the issues of administrative-economic division of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
Chapter VIII
The Council of People’s Commissars
Article 45. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is entrusted with the general management of the affairs of the Georgian SSR. It shall consist of 12 People’s Commissariats; the Council is led by the chairman, who shall be a member of the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee.  These Commissariats are: a) Foreign Affairs; b) Military and Navy affairs; c) Internal Affairs, which includes the Departments of: National Affairs, Post and Telegraph, Central Statistics; d) Justice; e) Labour, which includes the Social Protection Division; d) public Education; e) Health-Care; f) Finances; g) Agriculture; h) Food  Processing; i) Supreme Council of Public Economy, which includes the Transportation Department; j) Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate.
Chapter XII
Jurisdiction of the Congress of the All-Georgian Soviets and of the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee
Article 62. The All-Georgian Congress and the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee deal with the affairs of state importance, such as:
a) General direction of the foreign and internal policy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia;
b) General administrative division of the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia;
c) Establishment and changing weights, measures, and money denominations of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia;
d) Making loans, signing customs and commercial treaties and financial agreements;
e) Working out a basis and a general plan for the national economy and for its certain branches on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia;
f) Approval of the budget, and levying taxes and establishing the duties of citizens to the state;
g) Establishing the bases for the organization of armed forces of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia;
h) State legislation, judicial organization and procedures, civil and criminal legislation etc;
i) Appointment and dismissal of the individual People’s Commissars, as well as of entire Council of People’s Commissars, and approval of the Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars;
j) Issuing general decisions on granting and forfeiting the Georgian citizenship and fixing rights of foreigners on the territory of the Republic of Georgia.
k) The right to declare general amnesty;
l) The All-Georgian Congress and the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee have charge of all other affairs which according to their decision, require their attention.
Article 63. The following issues are solely under the jurisdiction of the All-Georgian Congress:
a) Ratification and amendment of the basic principles of the Constitution;
b) Determination and alteration of boundaries, as well as ceding of the territories of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia or the rights rendered to the Republic.
c) Cooperation with foreign countries, declaration of war, ratification of peace treaties.
Chapter XIII
b) Organization of the Congress of the Local Soviets
Article 64.  The District Soviets are composed of the representative of community Soviets on the basis of the norm – 1 Deputy for 1000 inhabitants; from the cities within the District, Industrial Settlements and big villages – one deputy for 200 voters, but nor more than 200 deputies for entire district.
Note: The Military units, dislocated in the District outside of the District City territories, shall send their delegates to the District Congress without participating in the Community Soviets.
Note 3. All of the cities of the Republic of Georgia, except the cities of Poti and Tbilisi, shall be united with the respective Districts for the purpose of elections.
Article 65. The regular congresses of the soviets, including the autonomous republics and oblasts, shall be convened by the respective executive organs of the Soviet authority (Executive Committees) upon their own initiative or, upon request of local Soviets comprising not less than one-third of entire population of the given district, not less than once a year.
Article 66. Re-election of the city and community Soviets shall be conducted once a year.
Article 67. The Congress of District Soviets elects its executive organ - an executive Committee the membership of which shall not exceed 13.
Article 68.  The Executive Committee is responsible to the Congress of Soviets, which has elected it.
Article 69. In the boundaries of the respective territories the congresses the supreme power; during intervals between the convocation of the congress, the executive committee is the supreme power.
Article 70. The Decisions of the local Congress of Soviet may be revoked solely by the superior Congress, their executive committees, All-Georgian Central Executive Committee and its Presidium.
Article 71. The decisions of the Executive Committees and their Presidiums may be revoked by the higher Congress, Executive Committee and its Presidium, All-Georgian Central Executive Committee and its Presidium, and by the Council of People’s Commissars.
Chapter XIV
The Soviet of Deputies
Article 57.  Soviets of Deputies are formed in the Cities, industrial settlement and big villages on the basis of the norm – 1 deputy for 1000 inhabitants, but not less than 15 and not more than 50 deputies, except of the city of Tbilisi.
The Soviets shall participate in the District Congress and through them, in the Congress of Georgian Soviets, except the Cities of Poti and Tbilisi, which shall directly send their delegates to the Congress of Soviets of Georgia.
Article 73. Term of the deputy shall be one year.
Note: In small rural settlements, whenever possible, all questions shall be decided at general meeting of voters.
Article 74.  The Soviets of communities shall be formed on the basis of norm – 1 deputy for 100 inhabitants.
75. The Soviet of Deputies elects an executive organ (executive committee) – not more than three members for community, and in the cities – one for each 50 members, but not less than three and not more than 13 (for Tbilisi not more than 25); the Executive Committee is responsible to the Soviet, which has elected it.
Note: The District executive committee has the right to extend the composition of the community executive committees up to 4 members.
78. Within its jurisdiction, and in cases specified for in Article 73, the meeting of the voters is the supreme power in the given territory.
Chapter XV
Jurisdiction of the local organs of the Soviets
Article 80. The District Soviets and their executive committees have the rights to control the activity of the community soviets, as well as to overrule the decisions of the latter, giving notice in important cases to the central soviet authority.
Chapter XVI
The Departments at the Executive Committees and their subordination
Article 81. For the purpose of performing their duties, the local soviets, urban, district and community Soviets form the Departments led by the heads selected by the Executive Committee.
Article 82. The following Departments may be formed at the District executive committee:
1) Management; 2) Military; 3) Labour and Social Protection; 4) Public Education; 5) Finance; 6) Agriculture; 7) Food; 8) Workers’ and Peasants Inspectorate; 9) Health-Care; 10) Public utilities.
Note: Upon the permission of the Supreme Economic Council the Economic Department may be established at the District Executive Committee where the enterprises of all-Union importance are located.
Article 83. The Department is led by the Head, who may not be a member of the Executive Committee.  The Head of Department shall be elected by the executive committee and approved by the respective People’s Commissariat.  In the event of discrepancies the issue shall be decided by the Council of People’s Commissars.
Article 84. The Departments of the Executive Committee are under administrative subordination of the local executive committee; the instructions and orders of the local, as well as of higher executive committees and relevant People’s Commissariats are binding to them.
Chapter XVII
Relation of the central and local authorities
89. The Central organs deal with all matters solely through the local Soviets and their departments. All of the local standing organs and administrative-economic agencies subordinate to the People’s Commissariats, as well as ad-hoc organs shall be included within the relevant district and city Executive Committees or directly subordinated to them.  Certain exceptions may be introduced towards some organizations upon the special decision of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia or its Presidium.
90. Higher Executive Committees and their Presidiums, Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia and its Presidium are entitled to give direct instructions to the local executive committees and their presidiums.
91. Suspension of execution of any ordinances issued by the certain commissariats is admissible on the basis of decree of district or city executive committee but only under judicial responsibility of a letter and when such ordinance contravenes to the relevant Decision of the Council of People’s Commissars or of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia.
92. The District or City executive committee shall promptly inform the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia and the Council of People’s Commissars, as well as the relevant Commissariat on necessity and urgency of suspension.
93. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia makes decision on criminal liability of a guilty side, i.e. either the Commissariat, or the District or City executive committee that made a wrong decision on suspension of the Commissariat’s ordinance.
94. The Department of the executive committee, failing to fulfil the decision of the People’s Commissariat, shall promptly inform the Presidium; a latter, without termination of execution of the decision shall submit to the Council of People’s Commissars or to the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia the conclusion on necessity of application of this sanction simultaneously informing the organ that have issued the ordinance.
95.  The executive committees of counties have the same rights on the same basis with regard of instructions issued by the District departments.  
Chapter XVIII
The Court
96. …The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall form the unified system of  People’s Court operating on the territory of District, region or city consisting of one permanent judge and two or six regular Assessors.
97. For appeal and private motions on verdicts, decisions and performance of the People’s Judges, and for exercising the control over the judiciary, the Council of People’s Judges shall be formed with a permanent residence in Tbilisi and authorized to hold interim sessions at the places.
(…)
Chapter XIX
Budgetary Rights
102. The state expenditure and income of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia are combined in the state budget within the all-state.
105. The All-Georgian Congress of Soviets or the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee shall determine what matters of income and taxation shall go to the state budget and shat shall go to the local Soviets.
106. The local Soviets determine the taxation only for the needs of local economy with obligatory and preliminary submission of motivated estimate to the Council of People’s Commissars, subject to final approval by the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee.
108. The assets for all-state needs shall be assigned from the State Treasury.
109. No expenditure, out of the state treasury not set forth in the budget of income and expenditure, shall be made without a special order of the central power.
110. For the needs of all-state importance, the relevant People’s Commissariats shall provide the credits at disposal of the local Soviets from the state treasury.
(…)
2 March 1922
(The Collection of the Constitutional Acts of the Georgian SSR. (1921-1978). Tbilisi, 1983, p. 19-22)


THE UNION TREATY of the soviet socialist republics of the trans-cau­casus
The authorized Conference of the representatives of the Soviet Socialist Republics of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia, based on the right to national self-determination declared by the Great Proletarian Revolution, recognizing the independence and sovereignty  of the participating sides and realizing the necessity of unification of their forces for the defence and economic purposes – decided that from now and on the Soviet Socialist Republics of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia shall establish political, military and economic cooperation on the following bases:
1. The supreme body of the Union of Republics shall be the Conference of Representatives, who will be elected by the Governments of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia in equal number.
13. The Union of Republics shall establish the relations with the RSFSR on the basis of Union Treaty.
12 March 1922
(The Struggle for strengthening the Soviet Power in Georgia, p. 108-110)


DECREE N 2  on Arrangement of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast issued by the Cen­-
tral Executive Committee of All-Georgia and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia
Central Executive Committee of the Socialist Georgia and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia decrees:
1. The South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be the part of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia; Tskhinvali shall be announced as the Center of the mentioned Oblast.
2. The territory of the South-Ossetian Autonomous Okrug shall be determined as follows:
a) The northern border lies by the Major Chain of the Caucasus along the southern border of the Autonomous Republic of Highlanders.
b) The western border-line starts from the border with the Soviet Socialist Autonomous Republic of Highlanders at the outfall of the River Chanchakhi, crosses the altitude of 8 872 and goes to Mount Tsitelta, crosses the River Chanchakh and goes by Mount Geske,  stretches to the south-west till Mount Dzvari at the altitude of 6 062, then it goes down to Mount Veluanti and Mount Kudevi at the altitude of 7 616; then it goes in the east – south direction through the village Perevi and reaches Mount Perangi at the altitude of 5 201 to the west of the River Dzirula; it then crosses the latter and Kaprebis-Seri chain; at the altitude of 4 172 goes along the River Charat-Khevi and across the Kaprebis-Seri chain stretches the River Lopani.
c) To the South: the border goes by Corchan-Tsnelisi road, crosses the River Lopani and down to Tsnelisi turns on the north-east; goes through the village Atotsi, crosses the River Frona down to the village Okoni;  then it goes to the South along the east bank of the river Frona; crosses the left inflow of Frona down to the village Dvani;  goes along Dvani-Gujaburi road and crosses the River Didi Liakhvi on the south of Tskhinvali and up to the village Ergneti; then is crosses the village Eredve and the River Patara Liakhvi up to the village Arbo; goes by the River Charebula up to Mereti and Koshki villages; then it turns to the south-east and crosses the River Orteva at the village Plavismani and the River Adzura and Mejuda at the villages of Adzvisa and Mejekhiskhevi; the border line goes to the north-east of the villages of Kirbalisa and Bershueti, crosses the River Tartla down to the village of Tsinakari and the right bank of the river Lekhura at the village of Khurvaleti going round to the villages: Orchosani, Abrevi and others; crosses the River Lekhuri at the village of Sakorintlo and Odzisi, the River Ksani up to Odzisi and reaches Mount Ipani.
d) To the East: the border-line from Mount Ipani turns to the North and crosses Khnartsvsa, village Mikeliantkari, Irmis Sopeli and other villages; turns round from the north at the altitude of 6 409 passing by the remains of the Old Church and goes along the River Alevi; crosses Mounts Chartala, Sapersheti and Takhti;  stretches along the River Aragvi and Ksani inflows and crosses the hills of: Kurkutsa, Munkhuji and Lomisi Pass at the ruins of Monastery and stretches until the Jamuri Passing; crosses the right inflows of Aragvi – Ganisa, Ereti and others and goes along the upper part of the River Aragvi; then turns to the west, crosses Nount Lazg-Tsiti and goes to the water-dividing chain between the River Terek and the River Didi Liakhvi finally reaching Mount Vailk-Pars.
3. The Central Executive Committee and the local Soviets (councils)  shall be the governing organs of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
4. The Public Commissariat shall be established for the management of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast: a) Internal Affairs, b) Justice, c) Education, d) Health, e) Labour and Social Protection, f) Agrarian, g) Food Industry, h) Finances, I) Economy and j) Workers and peasants Inspectorate.
Note 1. The Extraordinary Council of the Public Commissars will not be set up and the Public Commissariats shall exercise their duties as the departments of the Central Executive Committee.
Note 2. Foreign Affairs and the Foreign Trade shall remain under the authority of the central agencies of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
The military affairs shall be under the competence of the Military Commissariat, which is under the direct subordination to the Military and Navy Commissariat of Georgia and it will be arranged  by the latter upon the consent of the Central Executive Committee of South Ossetia.
The fighting against the counter-revolution will remain under the competence of the Extraordinary Commission of Georgia.
5. In order to arrange and protect the unified financial and economic system on the territory of the Georgian SSR, the commissariats on FOOD, Finances, Labour, Economy and Workers and Peasants inspectorate of the South Ossetia shall remain subordinate to the relevant commissariats of the Georgian SSR.  The instructions and measures of the latter shall be carried out by the public commissariats of South Ossetia through the Central Executive Committee of South Ossetia.
The Public Commissars specified for in Article 5 shall be appointed by the relevant Commissars of the Georgian SSR upon the consent of the Central Executive Committee of South Ossetia and they will be approved by the latter.
6. The following Public Commissariats of South Ossetia: Internal Affairs, Justice, Education, Health, Agrarian and Social Protection shall be independent in their function and accountable to the Central Organs of the Georgian SSR through the Central Executive Committee of South Ossetia.
7. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall provide every necessary financial and technical means to the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia from the state resources upon instructions by the Central Executive Committee of Georgia through the Central Executive Committee of South Ossetia.
8. The issue of the administrative entities that are attached to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be decided by the joint commission composing of representatives of the Central Executive Committee of South Ossetia, Executive of Committee of neighbouring District and of the Central Government of the Georgian SSR.
The aforementioned Commission shall be entrusted with the task of completing its work not later than on 1 May of 1922.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia Ph. Makharadze
Chairman of the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR T. Kalandadze
20 April 1922
(Messenger of the Commissariat of Internal Affairs, N 33, 1922, p. 81-84; Central State Historical Archive of the Nearest Future of Georgia (CSHANFG), f. 607, desc. 1, file 754, p. 4)


REGULATION for the State Navigation of Georgia ADOPTED BY THE COUNCIL OF PUB-
LIC COMMISSARS OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
The Council of the Public Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia decrees:
To approve the following Regulation for the State Navigation of Georgia.
1. For the development of the state navigation and improvement of the capacity of the sea-ports of Georgia “The State Navigation” shall be established.  The headquarters of the State Navigation shall be in Tbilisi.
2. The State Navigation shall be subordinate to the Department of Maritime Transport of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and operate on the basis of this Regulation; at the same time the State Navigation is independent entity and exercises the operation on the commercial basis.
III.  The rights and responsibilities of the State Navigation
12. The State Navigation shall organize and manage the shipping within its competence, between the ports of Georgia Batumi and Gagra, as well as between the harbours of the Black Sea and the Azov Sea.
16. The State Navigation shall have the special (sole) right to the coasting trade in the region of Batumi-Gagra.
Chairman of the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian SSR S. Kavtaradze
Secretary of the Council Al. Salaridze
20 September 1922
(Messenger of the Public Commissariat of Internal Affairs, N 41, 1922, p. 2-5)


RESOLUTON on Introduction of the Criminal Code of the Soviet Socialist Republic of
Georgia adopted by the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR
The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia  decrees:
1. To introduce the Criminal Code on the whole territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of the South Ossetia and the Soviet Socialist Union Republic of Abkhazia from 15 November 1922.
(…)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia T. Kalandadze
9 November 1922
(Messenger of the Public Commissariat of Internal Affairs, N 44, 1922, p. 5-6)


RESOLUTION on Introduction of the Prosecutor’s Office adopted by the Central Execu-
tive Committee of the Soviet Georgia
The Central Executive Committee of Georgia Decrees:
To approve at this the Regulation on Prosecutor’s Office attached to the Resolution.
3. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia shall take the relevant measures to introduce the Prosecutor’s Office in the Republic of Abkhazia.
 (...)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia T. Kalandadze
11 November 1922
(Messenger of the Public Commissariat of Internal Affairs, N 44, 1922, p. 6-7)


REGULATION of the Prozecutor’s office ELABORATED BY THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE SOVIET GEORGIA
For observance of the lawfulness and effective fighting against crime, the Central Executive Committee of Georgia decrees:
1. To set up the Prosecutor’s Office at the Public Commissariat of Justice.
3. The public Commissar of Justice in a capacity of the State Prosecutor shall lead the Prosecutor’s Office.  The Department of Procurator established within the Public Commissariat of Justice shall be subordinate to the State Prosecutor.
5. The State Prosecutor shall be included in the Presidium of Central Executive Committee and in the Council of Public Commissars with the deliberative vote in case he has no casting vote upon election.
6. The Prosecutor of the East Georgia, Prosecutor of the West Georgia, Prosecutor of the Revolutionary Tribunal, Prosecutor of Adjara and South Ossetia shall be subordinate to the State Prosecutor;  they will be appointed and dismissed by the State Prosecutor if the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
(…)
8. This Regulation shall come into force from 15 November 1922.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia T. Kalandadze
11 November 1922
(Messenger of the Public Commissariat of Internal Affairs, N 44, 1922, p. 7-9)


EXTRACT FROM THE CONSTITUTION of the Soviet Socialist federative Republic of the
Trans-Caucasus
Section One
Chapter 1.
Revolution and Unification of the Workers of the Trans-Caucasus
2. … the workers of the Trans-Caucasus Republic and of the Autonomous entities established within this Republic, in order to work in accordance of the plan elaborated for revival of the economy and for the defence purposes from internal and external enemies, established the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics of the Trans-Caucasus.
3. … taking into account the situation in the Trans-Caucasus republics…, the workers of the Trans-Caucasus republics find necessary to recognize this political, economic and military Union.  For this purpose the representatives of the all the republics of the Trans-Caucasus gathered at the First Congress and decided to establish the Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of the Trans-Caucasus.
Section Six
Chapter IX
The Residence of the Central State Organs
(…)
Article 47. All of the Central State Organs of the Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of the Trans-Caucasus shall have the Residence in the city of Tbilisi.
(…)
13 December 1922
(Collection of the Laws and Decrees adopted by the Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of the Trans-Caucasus, N 2, 1923, p. 18-27)


EXTRACT FROM THE TREATY on establishment of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics
The Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of Russia (RSFSR), the Soviet Socialist Republic of Ukraine (USSR), Soviet Socialist Republic of Byelorussia (BSSR) and the Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of the Trans-Caucasus (TCSFSR – Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia) conclude this Treaty on unification within one Union State – the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the following bases:
(…)
30 December 1922
(Constitution and Constitutional Acts of the USSR (1922-1936). The Collection of Documents. Moscow, 1940, p. 19-22)


1923
STATUTE of the central executive committee of the USSR
Chapter I
General Provisions
3. The sittings of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR shall be held in a form of regular and special sessions.
8. The work of the session of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR is held:
b) at the sessions of the Soviet of the Union;
b) at the sessions of the Soviet of Nationalities;
c) at the joint session of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities.
Chapter III
On the Soviet of Nationalities of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR
25. The Council of Nationalities shall hold its sittings only at the time of sessions of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR.
29. The following organs are authorized to submit the issues for discussion to the Council of Nationalities: the Council of Nationalities itself and its Presidium, the Union Council and its Presidium, the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, the Council of Public Commissars of the USSR, certain public commissariats of the USSR, central executive committees of the Union Republics, central executive committees of the autonomous republics, executive committees of the autonomous oblasts and also the members of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR.
12 November 1923
(Constitution and Constitutional Acts of the USSR (1922-1936), p. 25-31)


1924
BASIC LAW (THE CONSTITUTION) of the union of the soviet socialist republics
Part II
The Treaty on Forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
The Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of Russia (RSFSR), the Soviet Socialist Republic of Ukraine (USSR), the Soviet Socialist Republic of Byelorussia (BSSR), Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (TCSFSR: Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan, Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia) associate into one state – the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
(…)
Chapter III
Congress of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics
8. The supreme power of the state authority of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics belongs to the Congress of Soviets, and in periods between the convocation of congress to the Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics consisting of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of the Nationalities.
10.  The Congress of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics is composed of delegates of the provincial (Gubernia) congresses of soviets.  In the Republics where the Gubernia is not formed, he delegates shall be elected directly at the Congress of the respective republic.
Chapter IV
Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
13. The Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics consists of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of the Nationalities.
14. The Congress of Soviets of the USSR elects the Soviet of the Union from the representatives of Union Republics proportionate to the population of each of the Union Republic in total 414 people.
15. The Soviet of Nationalities is formed from representatives of the Union republics and autonomous republics – 5 representatives from each, and from the autonomous oblasts of the RSFSS – one representative from each.  The composition of the Soviet of the Nationalities shall be approved by the Congress of the Soviets of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Note: the Autonomous Republics of Adjara and Abkhazia, and the Autonomous Oblasts of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia shall send to the Soviet of the Nationalities one representative each.
Article 26. In the period between convocation of the sessions of the Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic shall exercise the function of the highest body of state authority; the Presidium shall be formed by the Central Executive Committee consisting of 21 members, which includes the all members of the Presidiums of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of the Nationalities.
(...)
Article 34. Decrees and resolutions of the Central Executive Committee, its Presidium and of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall be published in a language widely used in the Union Republics (Russian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian, Georgian, Armenian, Turk-Tatarian).
(…)
31 January, 1924, Moscow
(Constitution and Constitution acts of the USSR (1922-1936), p. 41-49)


DECREE on the application of the State Language and the languages of majority and minority populations at the state institutions. (ADOPTED AT THE SECOND SESSION OF THE SECOND CONVOCATION OF THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF GEORGIA on 27 February 1924)
For implementation of paragraph 3 of the Declaration on the Language adopted by the Central Executive Committee of the Trans-Caucasus, the Central Executive Committee of Georgia Decrees:
1. Georgian shall be the state language of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
2. On the basis of this Decree the language of non-Georgian residents representing the ma­jority can be used at the state institutions of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia (Article 7) and also the language of the minority (Article 8) as Russian, Armenian and Turkish languages.
3. The Legal Acts, also the administrative Acts adopted by the Central Organ of the Government that are binding on the whole territory of the Republic, shall be published in state language, as well as in the languages of the aforementioned minorities.
Note.  In case of suspicion to the interpretation of the aforementioned acts the Georgian text shall be considered as original.
4. The decrees, instructions or declarations issued by the local organs that are binding to the population shall be issued in state language, as well as in the language of the majority of the district population (Article 7) and in the minority language specified for in Article 2 of this Decree (Art.8)
5. The paperwork at the state institutions shall be carried out in a state language respecting the exceptions given below.
6. Everyone shall have the right to submit the written or oral application to the central state organ, besides the state language, in one of the minority languages specified for in Article 2 and also ask for the document or information in one of these languages with translation.
7. In the institutions of districts, where according to the latest statistic data the majority of population are not Georgian ethnic, the paperwork shall be carried out in the language of this majority. This rule shall be authorized by the Central Executive Committee upon submission of the District Executive Committee.
8. The minority language used at the district institutions by the minority population shall be one of the languages specified for in Article 2 of this Decree if the number of this minority upon the latest statistic data exceeds 15 percent of the total population; this shall be authorized by the Central Executive Committee upon submission of the District Executive Committee.
9. The citizen, applying to the District institution or district official may use everywhere in the Republic the state language; in the Districts where the majority of population is non-Georgian they may use the language of this minority and also the language that is authorized as the language of application in this District upon Article 8 within the competence specified for in Article 6 of this Decree.
10. The inter-communication between the District institutions where the language of paperwork is established under Article 7 of this Decree and the Central organs of the government shall be carried out in a language of paperwork authorized for this district.  In the Districts, where the languages of application are different, the intercommunication shall be carried out in state language or in one of the languages specified for in Article 2.
11. The administrative organ, lower than the District Organ may carry out the paperwork in a state language or in one of the languages specified for in Article 2 upon the special decision made by the relevant executive committee; but the communication with the central or district institutions shall be carried out in a language applied to the paperwork in this particular district, and the communication with the populations shall be carried out according the rule specified for in Article 9 of this Decree.
12. Persons belonging to the nationality whose language is not applied to the whole of the territory or to the certain district shall be authorized to use Russian in every institution according to the rule specified for in Article 6.
13. The language of proceedings at the judicial institutions shall be determined by the criminal and civil procedural codes.  The side of the proceeding, which has no command in a state language or the language of majority of the certain district, shall be authorized: a) to submit the application, information or any other document relating to the proceedings in a language of minority used in this language; b) to give a verbal explanation in the same language; c) to ask for interpreter from the court to make understandable any act of the proceedings, the bill of indictment and motion, the conclusion of prosecutor’s supervision, the court judgment, decision or ruling, witness’s testimony and the conclusion of the expert; d) to ask for the copy of court judgment, decision or ruling, as well as the protocol or other acts of the proceedings translated into that language; and  e) to receive the summon or application in that language.
14. The Decree shall come in to force from 1 May of 1924.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR M. Tskhakaia  
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR P. Sabashvili
4 April 1924  
(Collection of Law and Decrees issued by the Workers and Peasants Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, N 1, 1924, p. 19-21)


DECREE on the introduction of the Civil Justice Code of the Soviet Socialist Republic of
Georgia issued by the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR
(Adopted at the Second Session of the Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR of the Second Convocation on 28 February 1924)
1.  The Civil Justice Code shall be introduced from 1 May of 1924 in the whole of ter­ri­tory of the Georgian SSR, Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the Union Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.  The Central Executive Committees of the mentioned Republics and Oblast shall have the right to submit for approval to the pre­sidium of the Central Executive Committee the changes and amendment to the Civil Justice Co­de that are necessary for adapting this Code with the local environment of relevant republic of ob­last.
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR – M. Tskhakaia
Public Commissar of Justice of Georgian SSR – I. Vardzieli
Secretary of the Executive Committee – P. Sabashvili
11 April 1924
(Messenger of the Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars of the All- Georgian SSR, N 4, 1924, p. 95-96)


DECREE on certain changes and amendments to the Regulations on Court Arrangement
in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
(Adopted at the Second Session of the Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR of the Second Convocation on 28 February 1924)
The Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR Decrees:
To introduce the following changes to the Regulations of the Court Arrangement:
5. Chapter XI. I. The Procurator
83. The Procurator’s Office is led by the Procurator of the Republic – the Public Commissar of Justice.  The Department of Procurator of the Justice Commissariat is under the direct subordination of the Prosecutor of the Republic.
85. The Prosecutor of the Republic shall be included in the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR and the Council of the Public Commissars with the deliberative vote if he has no casting vote upon election.
86. The Prosecutor of the West Georgia, the prosecutor of the East Georgia and the Prosecutor of the Marshal Court shall be in direct subordination to the prosecutor of the Republic.
87. The Prosecutors in the Autonomous Republic of Adjara and the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia shall be appointed and dismissed by the executive committees of this Republic and oblast respectively and within this republic or oblast they shall enjoy all of the relevant rights, but in the issues relating to the common legislation of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Procurator’s Offices of Adjara and South Ossetia shall be subordinate to the Prosecutor of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic and accountable to him.  
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR – M. Tskhakaia
Public Commissar of Justice of Georgian SSR – I. Vardzieli
Secretary of the Executive Committee – P. Sabashvili
19 April 1924
(Collection of Law and Decrees issued by the Workers and Peasants Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, N 1, 1924, p. 51-62)


DECREE N 128 ISSUED BY THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE SOVIET
GEORGIA On reorganizations of the District Court of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and of the Supreme Court of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
On the basis of the Note to Article 1 of the Decree N 52 on adoption of the Regulations on the Court Arrangement of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and the Resolution adopted by the Central Executive Committee of the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast of 52 August of this year, the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia Decrees:
1. To give the name of the Major Court of the South-Ossetian Autonomous Oblast to the District Court of the South-Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
2. The members of the Major Court of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be appointed by the Central Executive Committee of this Oblast.  The Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Major Court shall be nominated by the Central Executive Committee of the South-Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and approved by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia.
3. Two representatives from the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be included in the Supreme Court of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic with the full rights of the members of the Supreme Court.
4. The member of the Supreme Court from the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall participate in the Cassation Board of the Supreme Court while the applications or protests are submitted on the judgments made by the courts of South Ossetia.
5. The member of the Supreme Court from the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall attend the Court Plenum if the case discussed will be preceded at the courts of South Ossetia or is launched in practice of these courts.
6. The member of the Supreme Court from South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be elected by the Central Executive Committee of this oblast and approved by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia M. Tskhakaia
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia S. Todria
12 December 1924
(Collection of Law and Decrees issued by the Workers and Peasants Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, N 7, 1924, p. 2-3)


1925
REGULATIONS of the central executive committee of the all-georgian soviets (APPROVED
BY THE THIRD SESSION OF THE CEC ON 8-9 OCTOBER 1924; went in to force on 12 January 1925)
Chapter I
General Provisions
4. The Regular Session of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Georgian Soviets shall be convened by its Presidium three times a year.
5. The Extraordinary Session of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia shall be convened under the decision of its Presidium upon the request of the executive committee of Adjarian Autonomous Republic, South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and Union Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia or upon the request of the one third of the members of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia.
(…)
9. The issues for discussion at the Central Executive Committee can be submitted by its Presidium, as well as of the central executive committees of the Council of Public Commissars of the Georgian Socialist Republic, certain public commissariats, Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the Union Republic of Abkhazia, also the members of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia.
(…)
Chapter III
Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia
(…)
16. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee issues the Decrees, Decisions and Instructions, considers and approves the draft-decrees submitted by the Council of Public Commissars of the Soviet Georgia, certain institution, central executive committees and the presidiums of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the Union Republic of Abkhazia.
Note. Certain institutions, executive committees and the presidiums of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the Union Republic of Abkhazia shall submit the draft Decrees and Resolutions to the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee – the former, through the Council of Public Commissars of the Soviet Georgia and the latter – through their own executive committees of the council of public commissars.
(…)
21. The central executive committees of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Autonomous Republic of South Ossetia and the Union Republic of Abkhazia shall be authorized to file the protest to the session of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia against the Resolution issued by the Presidium of the latter.
(…)
23. The issues submitted by the central executive committees of the Presidiums of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the Union Republic of Abkhazia shall be discussed directly by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia or transferred to the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia for preliminary discussion or to the interested institutions for the preliminary conclusions.
(…)
26. While discussing the issues relating to the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the Union Republic of Abkhazia, their representatives shall participate in the sessions of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee with the deliberative vote; upon the special decision of the Presidium of the Central Executive committee the other persons also may be invited to the discussion.
Chapter V
Members of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Georgia
(…)
35. A member of the Central Executive committee of the Soviet Georgia shall be authorized to attend all of the sessions of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the Union Republic of Abkhazia with the deliberative vote, also the meetings of the central and local agencies of the Soviet Georgia.
(…)
(Messenger of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia, N 1-2, 1925, p. 6-10)


REGULATIONS of the Council of Public Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia (Approved by the Third Session of the CEC on 8-9 October 1924; went in to force
on 12 January 1925)
(…)
In addition to Presidium of the Central Executive Committee, the following organs shall have the right to submit the issues to the Council of the Public Commissars of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic:
(…) The Central Executive Committees and the Presidiums of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and the Union Republic of Abkhazia.
(…)
(Messenger of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia, N 1-2, 1925, p. 13-15)


GENERAL REGULATIONS of the Public Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of
Georgia (Approved by the Third Session of the CEC on 8-9 October 1924; went into force
on 12 January 1925)
(…)
6. The Decree issued by the Public Commissariat of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic may be suspended by the Central Executive Committees of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara and the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia if the Decree runs counter to the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia or its legislation or the legislation of the mentioned autonomous entities.  The central executive committee or Presidium of the autonomous entity shall promptly inform the Council of the Public Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia about suspension of the Order.
7. Every commissariat of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, as well as the Supreme Council of the Public Economy shall lead the field under their respective competence; the issues relating to the state management on the whole territory of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, as well as the relations with the commissariats of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara and Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia shall be determined under the special Regulations.
(Messenger of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia, N 1-2, 1925, p. 16-17)


REGULATIONS of the Commissariat of the Internal Affairs of the Soviet Socialist Repub-
lic of Georgia (Approved by the Third Session of the CEC on 8-9 October 1924; went into force
on 12 January 1925)
I. General Provisions
1.The Commissariat of the Internal Affairs is the central organ for the internal management and at the same time it exercises the function of the executive staff for the Central Executive committee and the Presidium of the CEC of Georgia.
2. The major aim of the Commissariat of the Internal Affairs is as follows:
a) supervision over the arrangement and activity of the local agencies of the state.
b) monitoring over the implementation of decrees and resolutions of administrative character issued by the state organs at the central and local levels; it shall encourage or force the relevant organs or entity to implement the decrees and resolutions.
c) to maintain the state order and public peace;    
(…)
… the commissariat of Internal Affairs shall:
d) submit the report to the Central Executive committee of Georgia or its Presidium on the legal acts and amendments adopted by the governing organs of the autonomous entities if these acts run counter to the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia or to the common-state legislation.  
(Messenger of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia, N 1-2, 1925, p. 20)


REGULATIONS of the Public Commissariat of the Education of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
(Approved by the Third Session of the CEC on 8-9 October 1924; went into force
on 12 January 1925)
General Provisions
The Public Commissariat of Education leads the scientific, art,
educational and social educational affairs, including the vocational education of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia; it is the executive staff of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia and of its Presidium in this sphere.
Note: the Commissariat of Education also shall lead the scientific, art, education and social educational affairs, including the vocational education in the Union Republic of Abkhazia, Autonomous Republic of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia.
(…)
(Messenger of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia, N 1-2, 1925, p. 41)


REGULATIONS of the Public Commissariat of Labour Affairs of the Soviet Socialist Repub-
lic of Georgia (Approved by the Third Session of the CEC on 8-9 October 1924; went into force
on 12 January 1925)
General Provisions
Chapter 1
1. The Public Commissariat of Labour Affairs of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is the central organ, which shall regulate the labour conditions in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and at the same time it is the executive staff of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia and of its Presidium in this sphere.
Chapter II
2. The aim of the Public Commissariat of Labour Affairs of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is as follows:
j) to guide the local labour organs and their activities on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia (the commissariats of labour affairs, as well as the Labour Inspectorates, Labour Stocks and the Social Insurance Agencies of the Union Republic of Abkhazia, Autonomous Republic of Adjara and Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia)
(…)
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia S.Todria
(Messenger of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia, N 1-2, 1925, p. 62-63)


REGULATIONS of the Supreme Council of the Public Economy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia (Approved by the Third Session of the CEC on 8-9 October 1924; went into force on 12 January 1925)
I. General Provisions
1. The Supreme Council of the Public Economy is the Central Organ of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia with the authority of the Public Commissariat.; it shall regulate, direct and administer the industry and subordinate trade agencies on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia in accordance with the rules established by law.
2. The Supreme Council of the Public Economy is subordinate to the Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia and is the executive organ of the latter; at the same time it shall pursue the directives issued by the Supreme Council of Economy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
(…)
5. The sphere of competence of the Supreme Council of Economy is as follows:
e) to draw up the industrial plans and budget for the enterprises of the Republic; to consider and approve the industrial plans and budget of the autonomous republics and oblasts and after having them discussed by the economic council to submit them to the Supreme Council of the Public Economy of the USSR; to carry out the relevant measures for implementation of the industrial plans and budgets of the Republic and for drafting of the report on implementation.
7…
The Supreme Council of Public Economy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, on the basis of the current laws, shall guide:
the Public Council of Economy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the Departments of Economy of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara and Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia (in the field of local industry), which are operating in compliance with the Constitutions of the Union Republics and Autonomous Entities and of the special Regulations on the Economic Councils and Economic Departments.
10. Industrial-economic Department of the Supreme Council of Public Economy shall lead the industrial affairs and the trade agencies and the enterprises of the republican importance that are under subordination of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
The department
d) shall guide the Council of public Economy of Abkhazia, departments of economy of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara and the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, as well as the activity of the industrial and subordinate trade agencies.
(…)
(Messenger of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of Public Commissars of Georgia, N 1, 1925, p. 71-75)


MINUTES Of  THE FIFTH CONGRESS OF THE SOVIET OF WORKERS’ AND PEASANTS’
DEPUTIES OF THE SOUTH OSSETIAN AUTONOMOUS OBLAST
31 March 1925
Heard:
Information of comrade Kargiyev, the representative of the Central Executive Committee of the North Ossetia about the Resolution of the First Congress of the North Ossetia on unification of South Ossetia and North Ossetia.
Decided:
1. Having heard the information about the resolution adopted by the Congress of the North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast on the unification of North and South Ossetia, the Fifth Congress of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast welcomes the Resolution of the First Congress of the North Ossetia and finds timely to raise this issue.
2. The Fifth Congress of the Soviets of the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia realizes this unification within the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
3. The Fifth Congress of the Soviets of the Autonomous Oblast of Ossetia instructs the Central Executive Committee of South Ossetia to set up the special commission together with the CEC of North Ossetia for learning the issue of the unification of north and south Ossetia.
4. After the Commission has studied the issue of unification of both Ossetia, the Central Executive Committees of both oblasts shall be entrusted with the task of unifying south and north Ossetia.
Chairman A. Jatiev
(CSHANFG, f. 284, desc. 1, file 179, p. 3)


CONSTITUTION of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
Chapter I
General Provisions of the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
1. Workers, peasants and Red Army men of Abkhazia, having overthrown the state power of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, formed the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, established the sovereignty and proletarian dictatorship rendering the all power to the Soviets of Workers’, Peasants’ and Read Army deputies.
3… on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia:
a) All private property in land is abolished, and the entire land is declared to be national property and is to be appropriated among workers without any charge and on the basis of equal usage.
b) All private property in large factories and enterprises is abolished; the procedure for nationalization of the large enterprises and production means shall be determined by the special decrees.
4.  Abkhaz SSR, united on the basis of Union Treaty with the Georgian SSR, enters the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic through the Georgian SSR and as a member of latter, the USSR.
    (…)
Chapter II
5. The Abkhaz SSR is a sovereign state exercising the state authority on its entire territory independently from any other power.
The sovereignty of Abkhazia, bearing in mind its voluntary association with the TCSFSR and the USSR, shall be limited by the Constitutions of the mentioned Unions.
The citizens of the Abkhaz SSR, retaining the republican citizenship, are the citizens of the TCSFSR and of the USSR.
The territory of the Abkhaz SSR may not be altered without its consent.
6. The language of use at the state organizations of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be Russian.
Note: All the nationalities of the USSR shall be secured the right to develop and use freely their native language in national-cultural, as well as in state organizations.
7. The city of Sukhumi shall be the place of residence of the state organizations of the Abkhaz ASSR.
8. The Abkhaz SSR recognizes the equal rights of citizens irrespective of race and nationality; any direct or indirect limitation of the rights of citizens, or establishment of privileges on grounds of race or nationality, and any oppression of national minorities or restriction of their rights are punishable by law.
Chapter III
14. The Abkhaz ASSR grants the right of asylum to foreigners persecuted for political or religious reasons favouring the Socialist Revolution.
Chapter V
Organization of the central power, Congress of the Soviets of Workers’, peasants and Red Army Deputies
17. The Congress of Soviets of Workers’ Peasants’ and Red Army Deputies is the supreme power of the Abkhaz SSR.
18. The Congress of Soviets of Workers’ Peasants’ and Red Army Deputies of the Abkhaz SSR is composed of representatives of congresses of provincial Soviets and Sukhumi City Soviet one deputy for 1000 inhabitants.
19. The Congress of the Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR shall be convened by the Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR once a year.
20. The special Congress of the Abkhaz SSR shall be convoked by the Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR upon its own initiative or at a request of the local Soviets having not less than one-third of the entire population of the Republic.
21. The Congress of Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR elects the central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR of not more than 100 members.
Chapter VI
The Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR
22. The Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR is the supreme legislative, executive and controlling organ of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
23. In period between the convocation of the Congress, the Central Executive Committee is the supreme organ of state authority of the Abkhaz SSR.
24. The Central Executive Committee shall direct in a general way the activity of the Workers’ and Peasants’ government and of all organs of the soviet authority in the country, and it shall coordinate and regulate the operation of the Soviet Constitution and of the resolutions of the congresses of the Abkhaz Soviets and of the central organs of the soviet power.
25. The Central Executive Committee considers and enacts the draft-decrees and other resolutions and proposals introduced by the council of People’s Commissars or by various People’s Commissariats and it also issues its own decrees and regulations upon its own initiative.
26. The Central Executive Committee shall give the special consideration to the decrees introducing the general norms of political and economic life, as well as the decrees, introducing the substantial changes in current practice of the state organs.
27. The Central Executive Committee shall exercise control over the work of agencies and local Soviets through raising the issues at the sessions and considering the relevant reports of the People’s Commissariats after examination of their work by the special Commission of the Central Executive committee, as well as the reports of the several of district executive committees.
28. The Central Executive Committee is responsible to the Congress of the Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR.
29.  The Central Executive Committee shall convoke the Congress of Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR, at which time the Executive Committee reports on its activity and on general issues of all-state importance.
30. The Central Executive Committee shall form the Council of People’s Commissars for the purpose of general management of the affairs of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, and it also forms certain People’s Commissariats for the purpose of conducting various branches.
31. The Central Executive Committee has the right to revoke and suspend any resolution or decision issued by the Council of People’s Commissars.
Chapter VII
Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR
32. The Central Executive Committee elects the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR.
33. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee has the right to submit the draft-decrees to the Plenum of the Central Executive Committee for consideration.
34. The presidium of the Central Executive Committee has the right to issue the decrees and resolutions, to introduce the changes and amendments to the Codes adopted by the Central Executive Committee subject to confirmation at the next session of the Central Executive Committee.
35. In the period between the convocation of session of the Central Executive Committee, the Presidium has the right to suspend the decrees of the Council of People’s Commissars, appoint and dismiss the individual People’s Commissars upon recommendation of the Council of People’s Commissars.
36. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee is carrying out the function on behalf of the Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR.
37. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee resolves the issues and disputes between the People’s Commissariats and other central organs on the one hand, and between the local executive committees on the other.
39. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee is entitled to decide the issues of administrative-economic division of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
40. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee has the right file the motion on exerting the pardon, confirm the awarding of Decoration of the Red Flag and decide the other matters within the limits of its jurisdiction.
41. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee is responsible for preparation of the Congress of Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and the Sessions of the Central Executive Committee; at this the all relevant documents shall be published by the Presidium a month before of the Congress and two-weeks before of the session.
43. The special session shall be convened upon the initiative of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee, or upon the proposal of the People’s Commissariat, or at the request of the one-third of the members of the Central Executive Committee.
Chapter VIII
Council of People’s Commissars
44. The Council of People’s Commissars is entrusted with the general management of the affairs of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia chaired by the special official – a member of the Central Executive Committee and consisting of the following Commissariats:1) Internal Affairs, 2) Justice, ) Education, 4) Health care, 5) Agriculture and 6) Social Protection.
The Council of the People’s Commissars also includes the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Public Economy, representatives of the People’s Commissar of Finance, Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate, Labour and Internal Trade and the Chairman of the Special Commission.
45. The management of the foreign affairs, military and navy affairs, foreign trade, communication, Post and Telegraph is vested in the relevant commissariats of the USSR.
46. The Council of People’s Commissariats has the right to issue the decrees, decisions and ordinances and take measures necessary for proper development of the state life.
47. The decrees and decisions of the general political importance shall be submitted for consideration and approval to the Central Executive Committee.
48. The Council of People’s Commissars is entirely responsible to the Congress of Soviets of the Abkhaz ASSR and to the Central Executive Committee.
49. None of the organs, except the Congress of the Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR, the Central Executive Committee, its Presidium and the Council of People’s Commissars has the right to issue the legal acts of the all-state significance.
Chapter IX
People’s Commissariats
50. The people’s Commissariats shall issue the decisions and ordinances solely within the limits of their competence.
53. The People’s Commissariats are entirely responsible to the Council of People’s Commissariat and to the central Executive Committee.
54. The ordinances of the People’s Commissariats may be revoked by the Central Executive Committee, its Presidium and the Council of People’s Commissars.
Chapter X
The interrelation of the Central and Local Organs of the State Authority
55. The Central Organs of the State Authority at a local level exercise their power solely through the local executive committees and their departments. The exception for certain institutions may be introduced only under the special Decision by the Central Executive Committee or its Presidium.
56. Only the higher executive committees, presidiums, the Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz ASSR and its Presidium, and the Council of People’s Commissars of the Abkhaz ASSR shall be entitled to instruct the executive committees and their Presidiums.
Note: The People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs shall carry out the function of the executive staff of the presidium of the Central Executive Committee and observe the organization and activity of all local organs.
57. The District Executive Committee has the right, to suspend the execution of the decision of certain Commissariats under the collective responsibility of the latter and if the decision runs counter to the relevant Decision of the Council of People’s Commissars and of the Central Executive Committee.
58. The District Executive Committee shall promptly give the notice in suspension of the decision to the presidium of the central Executive Committee and to the Council of people’s Commissars, as well as to the corresponding People’s Commissar.
59.  The Department of the Executive Committee, finding the failure of execution of the instruction for some reason, is obliged to inform promptly the Presidium, which, without termination of the progress in executions, shall inform the Council of People’s Commissars or the Central Executive Committee.
Chapter XI.
The Economic Council
Article 60.  The Economic Council is to be established under the Council of People’s Commissars for the purpose of administration and coordination of the work of the People’s Commissariats in the field of economic development of the Country.
Article 61. The Economic Council shall have the status of the Commission - the Economic Council of the People’s Commissariats.
Article 62. The composition of the Economic Council shall be determined by the special Regulations.
Article 63. In exercising its function the Economic Council shall be entitled to issue the Decrees, decision, instructions and take measures for proper and timely implementation of them, namely it shall introduce the unified economic plan of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, direct the economic activity of the People’s Commissars in pursuance to this plan, exercise control over its implementation and when necessary seize some closes from the plan.
64. The Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars are entitled to revoke or suspend the decrees or decisions of the Economic Council upon the protest of the People’s Commissars of upon its own discretion.
Chapter XII
The Jurisdiction of the Congress of Soviets and
of the Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz ASSR
Article 65. The Congress of Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR and the Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR shall deal with the matters of all-state significance outside of the jurisdiction of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and the USSR, such as:
a) Administration in general way the internal policy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
b) The general administrative division of the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
c) Working out a basis an a general plan of the national economy and for its various branches on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
d) Consideration of the budget of the Abkhaz ASSR and introduction of taxes and establishing the duties with the consent of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR.
e) All-state legislation, arrangement of the Courts, judicial proceedings, civil and criminal legislation and others;
f) Appointment and dismissal of the individual People’s Commissars or the entire Council, also approval of the Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars.
g) the right to declare the amnesty on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR, exercising the pardon and rehabilitation of citizens convicted by the judicial and administrative organs of the Republic.
h) Granting and forfeiting the citizenship of the Abkhaz SSR;
i) The matters within the jurisdiction of the Congress of Soviets and the Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR.
66. The following issues are solely under the jurisdiction of the Congress of Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR:
a) Ratification and amendment of the fundamental principles of the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia;
b) Consideration of the issues relating to the alteration of the borders of the Abkhaz SSR on the basis of Basic Laws of the USSR and the TCSFSR.
Chapter XIII
Organization of the Soviet Power
at the local level The local Congress of Soviets
67.  The Congress of District Soviets is composed of representatives of rural Soviets on the basis of the norm - one deputy for 500 inhabitants and from the District cities – one deputy for 100 voters, but not more than 200 deputies from entire district.
Note 1. The Military units, irrespective of the place of dislocation, shall send the delegates to the District Congress on the basis of representation as for the workers, i.e. one deputy for 100 voters.
Note 2. All of the cities of the Abkhaz SSR shall be united with the respective District for the purpose of elections
68.  The Special Congress of the Soviets shall be convened by the relevant executive organ of the state authority (executive committees) upon its own discretion or at the request of the local Soviets comprising not less than one-third of the entire population of the given district.  In any case they are convoked at least once a year.
Article 69. Re-election of the Sukhumi City Soviet and community Soviets shall be conducted once a year.
Article 70. The Congress of District Soviets elects its executive organ - an executive Committee the membership of which shall not exceed 15 and not less that 11.  The organization and function of the District Executive Committees shall be determined by the special Regulations.
Article 71.  The Executive Committee is responsible to the Congress of Soviets, which has elected it.
Article 72. In the boundaries of the respective territories the congresses the supreme power; during intervals between the convocation of the congress, the executive committee is the supreme power.
Article 73. The Decisions of the District Congress of Soviets may be revoked solely by the Congress of the Soviets, the Central Executive Committee and the Presidium of Abkhaz ASSR.
The decisions of the District Executive Committees and their Presidiums may be revoked by the higher Congress, Central Executive Committee and its Presidium, and by the Council of People’s Commissars.
Chapter XIV
The Soviet of Deputies
Article 74.  The city of Sukhum elects the City Soviet according the following norm: one deputy for 100 voters and sends its delegates to the Congress of the Soviets of the Abkhaz SSR.
Organization and procedures of operation of the Sukhumi City Soviet and its executive organ shall be determined by the special Regulations.
Article 75.  The Soviets of communities shall be formed on the basis of norm – 1 deputy for 100 inhabitants.
Article 76. Term of the Deputy shall be one year.
Article 77. For the current work the rural Soviets of Deputies shall elect among from the deputies the executive organ (executive committee) composed of three members.
Organization and procedure of operation of the rural Soviets and their executive committees shall be determined by the special Regulations.
Article 78.  The Soviet of Deputies shall be convened by the executive committee upon its own initiative or at the request of not less than a half of the members of the Soviet, but at least once a month.
Article 79.  The Soviet of Deputies, within its competence, is the highest body of the state authority on its territory.
Chapter XV.
Jurisdiction of the Local organs of the State Authority
Article 80. The District organs of the soviet power and also the Local Soviets of Deputies have to perform the following duties:
a) Carry out all orders of the respective higher organs of the soviet power;
b) Carry out all measures of raising the cultural and economic standard of their respective territories;
c) Decide all matters of local importance within the respective territories;
d) Coordinate all soviet activity in their respective territories.
Chapter XVI
The Courts
82. For the purpose of establishing the revolutionary justice and for protection of the achievements of the proletarian Revolution, the state interests and citizens, the Abkhaz SSR forms the unified system of the People’s Court.
83. The following Courts are included in the unified system of judiciary:
a) People’s Courts composed of the People’s Judge and two People’s Assessors;
b) The Supreme Court of the Republic composed of the Court and the Supreme Chambers.
84. The special courts on labour issues shall be formed at the People’s Courts for the purpose of protection of the workers’ rights and labour.
85. The structure, court proceedings, jurisdiction of the criminal and civil cases and organization of the public prosecution and defence council shall be determined by the relevant Codes and Regulations on Judiciary.
86. The People’s Court, in deciding the cases, shall be guided by the Codes, Decrees and Resolutions operating on the territory of the Abkhaz ASSR, and in case of lack of the legal norms, by the basic principles of the legislation and common policy of the Workers’ and Peasants’ government of the USSR.
Chapter XX
Budgetary Rights
Article 102. The state expenditure and income of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia are combined in the state budget and distributed to the following budgets:
a) state budget; and
b) local budget.
Article 103 The estimates on state and local budgets (Republic of Abkhazia) shall be draw-up by the various of agencies and considered by the Budgetary Commission at the Office of the Representative of the People’s Commissariat of Finance and of the State Planning Committee of the USSR in Abkhazia.
Article 104. The estimates of expenditure and income of the Abkhaz SSR flowing through the Union and TCSFSR budgets shall be determined by the Constitution of the USSR and the TCSFSR.
Article 105. All the revenues and expenditures of the state and local budgets shall be determined by the unified fiscal legislation of the USSR.
Article 106.  No taxes and duties shall be introduced without strict observance of the rules established by the Fiscal legislation of the USSR.
Chapter XXI
The Coat of Arms and Flag of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
83.  The coat of arms of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia consists of the background with the landscape of Abkhazia on which a golden scythe and hammer are placed.  On the top there is a five-pointed star in sun-rays.  The coat of arms is surrounded by corn, tobacco and grape wreath, inscribed in the Abkhaz language – “Abkhaz SSR” and “Workers of all the Countries, Unite!”
84.  The flag of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia consists of red cloth or purple linen, in the left top corner of which are placed scythe and hammer and above them the five-pointed star surrounded with a golden wreath, inscribed: ASSR.  The size 1:2.
1 April 1925
(The Congresses of the Soviets of the USSR, Union and Autonomous Soviets Socialist Republics, vol. 6. The Congresses of the Soviets of the Union and Autonomous Soviets Socialist Republics of Transcaucasus, 1923-1937. M. 1964,  p. 686-701)


RESOLUTION on Unification of North and South Ossetia ADOPTED AT THE SECOND SESSION OF THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE SOVIET GEORGIA OF THE THIRD CONVOCATION
(…)
The Second Session of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia of the Third Convocation heard the information by R. Takoev and A. Jatiev on unifying the north and south Ossetia in one autonomous Republic and on including this unified Republic within the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.  Taking into account the attitude of the North Caucasus Executive Committee to this issue, the Central Executive Committee of Georgia Decrees:
1. The Second Session of the Central Executive committee of Georgia welcomes the unification of two separated parts of Ossetia irrespective which soviet republic this new state will join.  In this step the Session foresees the proper solution of the national issue for the peoples oppressed in the time of former Russian Empire.
2. As for the including of the unified Ossetia into the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, the session expresses its solidarity to the resolutions adopted by the Executive Committee of North Caucasus and the Executive Committees of South and North Ossetia on this issue.
15 July 1925
(Shorthand of the Second Session of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia. Tbilisi, 1925, p. 223)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE
TRANSCAUCASUS
7 August 1925
Heard
On unification of south and north Ossetia
(the issue is submitted by the Central Executive Committee of Georgia)
Decided:
Not to stand against Resolution on unification of north and south Ossetia into one autonomous republic adopted by the Second Session of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia on 15 July of this year.
Special vision of the member of the Central Executive Committee of the Trans-Caucasus comrade A. Nazaretian: «taking into account the fact that it would be impossible to realize the economic unification in the nearest 5-10 years due to the lack of roads (the crossing between south and north Ossetia usually is locked for 9 months), the decision on unification seems is rather early».
(CSHANFG, f. 607, desc. 1, file 332, p. 4)


DECREE on changes and amendment to the Regulations on Arrangement of the Courts
issued by the Central Executive Committee of Georgia
(Approved at the Second Session of the CEC of the third Convocation on 18 July 1925)
The Central Executive Committee of Georgia Decrees:
II. The Articles of the Regulations of the Court Arrangement 4, 14, 29, 30, 35, 37, 41, 44 (b), 49, 56,57, 58, 64, 72, 73, 74, 79, 80, 82(b), 83,84,86,99,103,104 (2), 111, 118, 129, 130, 132 (previous numeric number - 131), 138 (previous numeric number 135) and 139 (previous numeric number 136) shall be changed as follows:
Article 4. The authority of the District Court applies to the territory where the court is established.  The Court of the Oblast with cassation-revision competence acts in the capacity of the first instance court for the cases of special category specified for in the civil and criminal procedural code.
Note: The following Courts are operating on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia: a) District Court of East Georgia – within he borders of East Georgia and b) District Court of West Georgia – within the borders of West Georgia.
Article 14. The number of regions and the borders of the regions shall be determined by the Public Commissar of Justice upon agreement with the relevant executive committee and the District Court; the decision shall be approved by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
III.
To add to the Regulations sec. c of Article 2; Article 73; Article 86 and note, Article 101 and note, Article 127 and note, Articles 131,133,134 and 140.
Article 101.  The Chairman of the Supreme Court, Deputy Chairman and the members of the Panel shall be appointed by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia at its own discretion; the other members shall be appointed upon submission by the Public Commissar of Justice.
Note: two members from the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall be included in the Supreme Court; they shall be elected by the Central Executive Committee of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and approved by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR.  The members elected from the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast shall participate in the work of Cassation Panel while the cases regard the judgment of the Major Court of South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast or if a protest is lodged against judgments or rulings; There presence at the Panel’s sitting is obligatory if the case regards any affairs from the practice of this court, as well as of the cases specified for in Article 447 of the Criminal Procedural Code.
30 October 1925
Chairman of the Central Executive committee of Georgia Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia – S. Todria
(Messenger of the CEC and the Council of Public Commissars, N 21, 1925, p. 22-23; Collection of Decrees and Resolutions of the Workers and Peasants Government of Georgia, N 3, 1925, p. 22-23)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES N29 OF THE SITTING OF CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE USSR OF 27 November 1925
Heard: draft-project on reorganizations of the executive organs in the autonomous oblasts according to the Constitutions of the Republics.
Decided: To approve and distribute the draft-project to the Central Executive Committees of the Union Republics (see attached).
Secretary of the CEC of the USSR A. Enukidze
To the Central Executive Committees: RSFSR, Trans-Caucasus SFSR.
The documents at the disposal of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR show that the supreme executive organs in the autonomous oblasts are arranged in a different way: in some autonomous oblasts there are central executive committees, while in others they have Oblast Executive Committees.  The Central Executive Committees are established in the autonomous oblasts of Chechnya, Kalmukhia, Kabardino-Balkaria, South Ossetia (RSFSR), Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia (Trans-Caucasus SFSR).
Such different structure of the executive organs lays the ground to the differences of their competence.  The Central Executive Committees of the autonomous oblasts practically enjoy the rights that are rendered to the central executive committees of the Autonomous Republics, i.e. the autonomous oblasts become equal to the autonomous republics.
There is no legal ground for establishing the Central Executive Committees in the autonomous oblasts either in the Constitutions of the autonomous oblast, or in the Founding Acts of the mentioned autonomous oblasts and such approach breeds unequal conditions of the autonomous oblasts within the USSR.
Therefore the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR deems necessary to offer the autonomous oblasts to reorganize their central organs in a full compliance with the constitutions of union republics.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR M. Kalinin
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee A. Enukidze
(CSHANFG, f. 607, desc. 1, file 754, p. 8-9)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES N 21 OF THE SESSION OF THE TRANS-CAUCASUS CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE of 14 December 1925
Heard: Circular note of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR of 27 November on reorganization of the executive organs of the autonomous oblasts in compliance with their constitutions.  (Presidium of the CEC of the USSR. Chapter 29; Article 3)
Decided: Confirming the fact that establishment of the central executive committees in South Ossetian (Georgian SSR) and Nagorny Karabakh (Azerbaijanis SSR) autonomous oblasts has no legal ground in the relevant legal acts of Georgian SSR and Azerbaijanis SSR, as also with respect of the realities of the Trans-Caucasus, the reorganization of the central executive committees of the aforementioned autonomous oblasts shall be deemed as undesirable and untimely.
Secretary of the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus  A. Shaverdov
Tbilisi, the Palace
(CSHANFG, f. 607, desc.1. file 754, p.22)


1926
EXTRACT from THE MINUTES N 38 OF THE SITTING OF THE PRESIDIUM OF CEC OF THE USSR of 19 February 1926
Heard:
12. the Resolution of the Presidium of the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR of 14 December 1925 on the reorganization of supreme executive organs of the autonomous oblasts pursuant to the Circular Note of the Presidium of the CEC of the USSR of 27 November 1925 (submitted by the secretary of the CEC if the USSR; Minutes N 29, Article 3, file N 350.7/II).
Decided: to retain temporarily the existing organs of power in South Ossetia and Nagorny Karabakh at the exceptional basis of the Circular Note of the CEC of the USSR of 27 November 1925; to propose to the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR to start reorganizing these organs of power in the nearest future in accord to the Constitution of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR.
Secretary of the CEC of the USSR A. Enukidze
(CSHANFG, f. 607, desc. 1, file 754, p. 21)


EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES N 5 OF THE SITTING OF THE PRESIDIUM OF CEC OF
THE TRANS-CAUCASUS of 30 March 1926
Heard: on the supreme organs of power in the autonomous oblasts of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia. (Minutes N 38-26 of the Pres. of the USSR) (Repporteur: comrade Shaverdov)
Decided: Being guided by the Circular Note of the CEC of the USSR of 27 November 1925 and the Resolution of the CEC of the USSR of 19 February 1926, the Presidium offers to start reorganizing the supreme organs of Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia; first of all they have to elaborate and submit for approval to the Presidium of CEC of the Trans-Caucasus the draft regulations on the supreme executive organs in these autonomous oblasts.
Secretary of the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus A. Shaverdov
Authentic with original: Technical secretary of the CEC of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR Khoroshilov (Signed)  
(CSHANFG, f. 607, desc. 1, file 754, p. 2; ibidem, f. 284,  desc. 1, file 961, p. 3)


RESOLUTION on adoption and application of the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia adopted at the Third Session of the Georgian Soviets of the Third Convocation
In compliance with Article 5 of the Constitution of the Georgian SSR and Article 4 of the Constitution of the Trans-Caucasus SFSR, to approve and apply the changed and amended text of the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia submitted by the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR.
The text of the Constitution adopted by this session shall be submitted to the Forth Congress of Georgian Soviets.
The Central Executive Committee of the Abkhaz SSR shall deliberate the Constitution of the Abkhaz SSR in accordance to the principles that are envisaged in the Constitution of the Georgian SSR.
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia Ph. Makharadze
Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of Georgia S. Todria
5 July 1926
(The Collection of the Constitutional Acts of Georgian SSR, p. 97-98)


CONSTITUTION of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia(Adopted at the Fourth Congress of All-Georgian Soviets of Workers’ Peasants’ and Red Army Deputies on 3 April 1927)
Chapter I
General Provisions
2. Georgia is a socialist state of workers and peasants, which is being developed on the basis of federation of the national soviet republics...
3.  In the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia the Congress of All-Georgian Soviets of Workers’, Peasants’ and Red Army Deputies is the bearer of the supreme power, and in the period of between Congresses – the All-Georgian Soviet Central Executive Committee.
4. ... The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, in accordance with the Resolution of the Second Congress of All-Georgia is voluntarily associated to the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic together with the Soviet Socialist Republics of Armenia and Azerbaijan;  it forms the TCSFSR though which enters to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
5. The sovereignty of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is limited only in the matters indicated in the Basic laws of the Soviet Socialist Republics and in the Constitution of the TCSFSR. Outside of those limits the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia exerts its public powers independently; the TCSFRS and the USSR shall protect the  sovereign rights of Georgia.
Article 6. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia retains the right to feely secede from the Trans-Caucasus SFSR and from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in conformity to the procedures provided for in the Constitution of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
Article 7. The territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall not be altered without its consent.
Article 8. A citizen of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia at the same time is a citizen of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and a citizen of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic.
(...)
Article 9. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia recognizes equality of citizens irrespective of their race or nationality and finds inadmissible introduction of any privileges, or any restriction of the rights of national minorities.
The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia also recognizes the rights of other peoples residing on its territory to form the autonomous republic or oblast upon admission of the highest organ of state authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
The Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia includes: the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Adjara and the Autonomous oblast of South Ossetia, and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia on the basis of Special Treaty concluded between them.
10. The state language of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall be Georgian.
17.  National minorities, residing on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall have the right to free development and application of their native language in national-cultural life, as well as at the state organizations.
18. On the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia the land, its bowels, forests, water, mills and factories, rail, water and air transport and communication means are state property of workers and peasants.
Chapter II
The matters under the jurisdiction of the organs
of supreme state authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
19. The following matters are under the sole jurisdiction of the All-Georgian Congress of Soviets:
a) Introduction of basic principles of, changes and amendments to the Constitution; approval of partial amendment of the Constitution adopted by the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee between the convocation of the Congresses of the All-Georgian Soviets;
b) Decision of the issues regarding modification of the boundaries of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia in conformity to the rules established by the Basic Law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics;
c) Permission on forming the autonomous Soviet socialist republics and the autonomous oblasts by the national minorities; approval of changes and amendments to the Constitutions of the autonomous Republics, and to the Regulations of Autonomous Oblast.
20. All maters of all-state importance shall be under the jurisdiction of the All-Georgian Congress of Soviets unless they are under jurisdiction of the supreme organs of the USSR and the TCSFSR in compliance to the Basic Law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and to the Constitution of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
The following matters shall be under the jurisdiction of the All-Georgian Congress of Soviets and the Central Executive Committee:
a) General guidance of the entire internal policy and public economy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia;
b) General administrative division of the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and determination of the boundaries of the Autonomous Republics;
c) Endorsement of the Constitutions of the Autonomous Republics and Regulations of the Autonomous Oblast, approval of amendments and changes to them, resolution of disputes between the autonomous entities and other state organs;
d) Introduction of plans of public economy and its branches on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia in compliance with the legislation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic;
e) Approval of the state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia  and observance of its execution;
f) Adoption of the common-state laws of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and the laws on the matters outside of the competence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic;
g) Right to amnesty and exercising the pardon to citizens convicted by the Courts and administrative organs of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, and rehabilitation of the political rights of the citizens of the Republic.
h) Revoke and suspend decisions adopted by the Congresses of the autonomous republics and autonomous oblasts and their Central executive committees, district congresses of soviets and their executive committees if those decisions violate the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and the decisions of the higher organs of the state authority;
i) The matters outside of jurisdiction provided for by the Basic Law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and by the Constitution of the Trans-Caucasus recognized by the Congress of All-Georgian Soviets and the Central Executive Committee as the matters under their competence.
21. In addition to the aforementioned matters the Congress of All-Georgian Soviets and the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia deal with other issues provided for by the Basic law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and by the legislations of the USSR and the Trans-Caucasus Federation.
22. The decisions of the highest organs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic and of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, as provided for by the Basic Law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and by the Constitution of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Republic are binding on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.  No other organ, except the Congress of All-Georgian Soviets and of the Central executive Committee, and in some cases the Presidium of a latter has the right to issue the legal act of state importance on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
Chapter III
Organization of the state power All-Georgian Congress of Soviets
23. The Congress of All-Georgian Soviets is composed of representatives of the  congresses of soviets of the Abkhaz SSR, the Autonomous SSR of Adjara, the Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and of Districts’ soviets on the basis of one deputy for 10000 inhabitants from the soviets where deputies are elected in proportion of population, and one deputy for 2000 voters from the soviets where deputies are elected in proportion of constituency.
24. The Congress of All-Georgian Soviets elects the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia; the membership to the CEC shall be decided by the Congress.
25.  The Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia convenes the Congress of All-Georgian Soviets once a year.
(...)
26. The Special Congress of All-Georgian Soviets may be convened by the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia upon its own initiative, or at the request of  District Soviet or District Congress of Soviets having the population not less than one-third of the entire population of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, or at the request of the Congress of one of the Republics included within the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
b) The Central Executive committee of All-Georgia and its presidium
27. The Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia is the supreme legislative, administrative and controlling organ of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
28. The Central Executive Committee is authorized to adopt the Codes, Decrees and Decisions upon its own initiative, and review and approve the draft-laws submitted by the Council of People’s Commissars.
29. All decrees and decision defining the general norms of the political and economic life of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, the state budget, and the acts introducing the modifications in the existing practices of state organs shall be submitted to the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia for consideration and approval.
30. The Central Executive Committee of Georgia is entrusted to direct the work of all organs of the Workers’ and Peasants’ government of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, coordinate the activity of legislative and administrative organs, observe the implementation of the Constitution and  execution of decrees adopted by the Congress of All-Georgian Soviets and of the highest organs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic and of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republics.
31. The Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia is responsible to the Congress of All-Georgian Soviets once a year submitting to it the report on certain political issues and the matters of the all-state significance.
32. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia shall convoke the regular sessions of the Central Executive Committee of All-George at least three times a year; the Presidium of the Central executive Committee of All-Georgia convokes: a) upon its own initiative; b) at the request of at least one-third of members of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia, and c) at the request of the Central Executive Committee of one of the Republics included within the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
33. The Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia elects the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia and determines the sphere of its competence.
34. The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia is the supreme legislative, administrative and controlling organ of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
35. In the periods between the convocation of the sessions of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia, the Presidium is the supreme legislative, administrative and controlling authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
37.  The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia observes the enforcement of the Constitution of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and execution of all decisions of the Congress of All-Georgian Soviets and of the Central executive Committee by all state organs. It is a supreme administrative organ both in the centre and at the local level.
38. In the intervals between sessions of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia, the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee appoints the People’s Commissars on the recommendation of the Council of People’s Commissars subject to subsequent confirmation by the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia.
39.  The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia examines the petition on pardon and rehabilitation in political rights.
40. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia has the right to suspend and revoke the decrees and ordinances issued by the Council of People’s Commissars, People’s Commissariats and other organs of state authority, the decrees and decisions of the central executive committees of the autonomous republics and oblasts, suspend the execution of the resolutions of the congresses of Autonomous Republic and District Soviets.
41. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of All-George is authorized to settle the disputes between the organs of Central and local authorities.
c) The Council of People’s Commissars
43. The Council of People’s Commissars is the legislative and administrative organ of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.  The issues of administration of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia are under the competence of the People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
44. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is appointed by the  Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia and consists of: the Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars, vice-chairmen, chairman of the supreme economic council, and people’s commissars of Internal Affairs, Justice, Education, Health-Care, Finance, Labour and Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate.  The Council of People’s Commissars also includes the Plenipotentiary Representative of the People’s Commissariat of Internal Trade of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic appointed on the basis of the legislation of the Trans-Caucasus Federation and having the deliberative vote under the decision of the Central Executive committee of All-Georgia or its presidium.
45. The Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia operates on the basis of the Regulation and within the competence determined by the Central Executive Committee; it is authorized to issue decrees and decisions that are binding on the entire territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
46. The Economic Council shall be established at the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia that operates in pursuance of  the Special Regulations and under the guidance of the Supreme Economic Council of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Socialist Federative Republic leads the economic policy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
47.  The Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is responsible to the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia and its Presidium.
49.  The Supreme Economic Council, and the Commissariats of Finance, Labour and Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate     are subordinate to the Central Executive Committee and the Council of the People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and execute the instructions of the Supreme Economic Council of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and of the relevant People’s Commissariat.
50. The People’s Commissariats are led by the People’s Commissars;  they are the members of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
Chapter Four
The Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics and Oblasts
74. The Central and Local organs of state authority of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics and Oblast are organized on the basis of this Constitution.
75. The Constitutions of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics and the Regulations of the Autonomous Oblasts shall be adopted by the congresses of respective autonomous entity and submitted to the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia for confirmation and to the Congress of the All-Georgian Soviets for final approval.
76.  The Supreme organ on the territory of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics and autonomous oblasts shall be their respective Congress of Soviets, and in the period between convocation of the Congress the Central Executive Committee shall be the organ of supreme state authority,
77. The Central Executive Committees of the Autonomous Republics and oblasts elect the Presidium from among the members of the CEC; in the period between convocation of sessions, the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee is the supreme administrative organ of the state authority of the respective autonomous republic and oblast.
78. The Central Executive Committees of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics shall form the executive and administrative organs – the Councils of People’s Commissariats consisting of the Chairman, the chairman of the Supreme economic Council and the People’s Commissars leading the following People’s Commissariats: Internal Affairs, Justice, Education, health-Care, Agriculture and Social Protection… The Council of People’s Commissars also includes the Plenipotentiary Representatives of the People’s Commissariats of Finance, Labour and Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
The Councils of Public Economy of the Autonomous Republics are subordinate to the central executive committees of the autonomous republics and execute the directives of the Supreme Council of public Economy of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia; Plenipotentiary Representatives of the People’s Commissariats of Finance, Labour and Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia are also subordinate to the central executive committee of the Autonomous Republic; they are obliged to submit the reports on their activity to the central executive committees and the council of people’s commissariats of the Autonomous republics.
79.  The Central Executive Committee of the Autonomous Oblast do not form the Council of People’s Commissars and administers the governance through the Supreme Council of the Public Economy and the following people’s commissariats led by the people’s commissars: Internal Affairs, Justice, Education, Health-Care, Agriculture, Finance, Labour and Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate.  The representatives of the  aforementioned Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia are appointed in the Autonomous Oblast.  The Economic Councils of the Autonomous Oblast are under the direct subordination of the Supreme Economic Council of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and execute the decisions and ordinances of the latter through their executive committees; the plenipotentiary representatives of the  Commissariats of Finance, Labour and Workers’ and peasants’ Inspectorate are in direct subordination to the relevant central organs of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and shall submit the reports on their activity to the central executive committee of the autonomous oblast.
80. The Central Executive Committees of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics and of the Autonomous Oblast have the right to reduce a number of People’s Commissariats specified for in Articles 77 and 78 of this Constitution.
81. The Codes, Decrees and Decisions promulgated by the highest organs of the state authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia are binding on the territory of the autonomous republics and oblasts.
82. The Central Executive Committees of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics have the right to adopt the legal acts within the sphere of their competence and for development of the legislation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia that have the legal force on the whole territory of Georgia.
Note: The Central Executive Committees of the autonomous oblasts have the right to adopt decisions within the limits of this Article that shall be binding on the territory of autonomous oblast after approval by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia or its presidium.
Chapter five
The Union Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia
83. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia enters the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia on the basis on special Union treaty, and through it, to the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
84. The representatives of the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia participate in the Congress of All-Georgian Soviets.  The number of delegates to the Congress is determined under Article 23 of this Constitution.
85. The Congress of All-Georgian Soviets elects the representatives from the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia to the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia; the number of representatives shall be determined by the Congress of All-Georgian Soviets.
86. The Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, the Central Executive Committee and its Presidium, as well as the local organs of the state authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall be organized on the basis of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
87. The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall form the Council of People’s Commissars consisting of the Chairman and People’s Commissars leading the following Commissariats: Internal Affairs, Justice, Education, Health-Care, Agriculture and Social Protection; the Council of People’s Commissars also includes the representatives of the Commissariats of Finance, Labour and Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia;  they may have casting or deliberative vote under the decision of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
The People’s Commissariats of Internal Affairs, Justice, Education, Health-Care, Agriculture and Social Protection act independently from the relevant People’s Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia only providing each-other the information about their activity.
The Supreme Economic Council is subordinate to the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia and to the Council of People’s Commissars and executes the directives of the Supreme Economic Council of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
The Plenipotentiary Representatives of the Commissariats of Finance, Labour, and Workers’ and peasants’ Inspectorates represent the organs of the relevant Commissariats of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia and they are under the direct subordination to them; the Representatives shall submit the report on their activity to the Central Executive committee and the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
88.  The highest organs of the state authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall independently adopt the acts outside of the competence of joint administration (Internal Affairs, Justice, Education, Health-Care, Agriculture and Social protection) that have the binding force on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
89.  All decrees and ordinances of the Central Executive Committee, its presidium and of the Council of Peoples Commissars of All-Georgia concerning the issues under the joint state administration (Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspectorate, Public Economy)  shall be binding on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia; the highest organs of state authority of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia shall have the right to adopt the legal acts within the limits of joint state administration aimed at developing the legislation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia; those legal acts shall be binding on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia.
90. The Congress of All-Georgian Soviets and the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia shall have the right to revoke the decisions of the Congress Soviets, the Central Executive Committee and of the Council of people’s Commissars of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia if they contravene this Constitution.
91. The budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, after it has been approved by the Central Executive Committee of Abkhazia, shall be incorporated into the all-state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia in conformity to Article 104 of this Constitution.
In accordance with the All-Union and Trans-Caucasus SFSR legislation, all local revenues and expenditures on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia are combined in the local budget.
Chapter Seven
The Budgetary Rights of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia
100. All state revenues and expenditures of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, together with the revenues and expenditures of the autonomous republics included within the Georgian SSR, are combined in the common state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
101. The common state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia is consolidated into the budget of the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Socialist Republic and through the latter - into the budget of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
104. The procedure for drawing-up, consideration and adoption of the state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall be determined by the Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia within the limits established by the All-Union and Trans-Caucasus SFSR legislation.
105. The parts of all-state revenues and expenditures of the budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall be determined in pursuance of the law on All-Union Budget.
106. All taxes and duties on the territory of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia shall be introduced in compliance with the All-Union legislation.
109. All local revenues and expenditures shall be combined in the local budget on the basis of legislation of the Trans-Caucasus Federation and in pursuance of laws adopted in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
110. In conformity to the legislation of All-Union and of the Trans-Caucasus Federation, and on the basis of legislation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia adopted for development of the said legislation, the revenue sources for local needs shall be provided in the local budgets.
111. The Central Executive Committee of All-Georgia shall approve the report on implementation of the state budget of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia.
(…)
5 July, 1926
(The Collection of the Constitutional Acts of the Georgian SSR, p.100-124)