Georgian film history began in late 19th century and the first cinema opened in Tbilisi in 1896; by the 1900s, there were several film theaters throughout Georgia. In 1912, Vasili Amashukeli and Alexander Digmelov directed the first documentary film Akaki Tsereteli Racha-Lechkhumshi, which effectively marked the begining of the Georgian film industry. In 1916, Alexander Tsitsunava made first feature film Kristine. After World War I, Tbilisi was second only to St. Petersburg in a number of cinema theaters and film productions in the Russian empire.
The Georgian film industry prospered in the 1920s, when a special unit was established at the Commissariat of People’s Education in 1923 and later developed into Goskinprom (state cinematic production). This period produced several talented directors. Siko Dolidze’s Dariko, David Rondeli’s Dakarguli Samotkhe, Kote (Konstantine) Mikaberidze’s Chemi bebia, Nikoloz Shengelaia’s Eliso and Narinjis Veli, Ivane Perestiani’s Arsena Jorjiashvili and Krasnie diavoliata, Amo Baknazarov’s Poterianoe sokrovishe, and Mikhail Kalatozov (Kalatozishvili) Marili Svanets set standards in the industry and greatly influenced subsequent generations of Georgian artists. In the same period, Alexander Tsutsunava and Kote Marjanishvili, both coming from a theatrical background, introduced the best traditions of dramatic art into the Georgian cinema. Tsutsunava’s most memorable films were Vin Aris Damnashave? and Djanki Guriashi while Mardjanishvili’s Samanishvilis dedinatsvali remains one of the finest Georgian comedies. In 1929, Mikhail Chiaureli debuted with Saba and later produced his other feature film Khabarda.
As the Soviet authorities strengthened, the Georgian film industry found itself increasignly under pressure to conform with official guidelines. Socialist realism became the dominant theme and the creative force gradually weakened. This was especially evident between the 1930s and early 1950s, when the cinema effectively became a propaganda machine for the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. In 1938, the Tbilisi Cinematographic Studio was established in Tbilisi. Several Georgians rose to prominence in this period, notably Mikheil Chiaureli who emerged as one of the most important Soviet filmmakers in the 1940s and became Joseph Stalin’s favorite director; his movies contributed significantly to the creation of Stalin’s personality cult. Among his important works were Velikoe Zarevo (1938), Giorgi Saakadze (1942-1943), Kliatva (1946), Padenie Berlina (1950), Nezabivaemii god 1919 (1952), etc. The success of the Georgian cinema was also due to a generation of talented artists, including Nato Vachnadze, Veriko Anjaparidze, Alexander Zhorzholiani, Sergo Zakariadze, Tamar Tsitsishvili, Ushangi Chkheidze, etc. Mikhail Gelovani became famous for his portrayal of Joseph Stalin in Vyborgskaia storona and Lenin v 1918 (1939), Oborona Tsaritsyna (1942), Kliatva (1946) and Padenie Berlina (1950).
In the 1950s-1960s, the Georgian cinema saw the establishment of the Gruzia Film studio and the rise of a young generation of talented directors and screenwriters. Tengiz Abuladze and Rezo Chkheidze collaborated on the 1954 feature film Magdanas Lurja, which earned them the prestigious Golden Palm at the Cannes Film Festival and first prize at the Edinburgh International Film Festival in 1956. Abuladze’s other film Someone Else’s Children (1956) won awards at the international film festivals in Tashkent, Helsinki, London and Tehran. In 1958, Mikhail Kalatozov (Kalatozishvili) achieved great success with his Letiat zhuravli that won the prestigious Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival and he went on to direct the successful films Neotpravlennoe pizmo (1959) and Red Tent (1969).
The period between the late 1960s and the 1980s was the golden age of the Georgian film industry, which produced up to 60 films a year. In 1972, the Faculty of Cinema was established at the Shota Rustaveli Institute of Theater and later developed into the Tbilisi Institute of Theater and Film. The studio employed such prominent directors as Giorgi Danelia, Eldar and Giorgi Shengelaia, Otar Ioseliani, Lana Gogoberidze, Mikhail Kobakhidze, Nana Jorjadze, Dito Tsintsadze, Sergey Paradzhanov, Goderdzi Chokheli and others. The period is noteworthy for a remarkable collaboration of the creative artists Rezo Gabriadze and Eldar Shengelaia, who produced such memorable films as Arachveulebrivi gamofena (1968), Sherekilebi (1973) and Tsiferi mtebi (1983). In 1962, Abuladze produced one of his most popular feature films, Grandma, Iliko, Illarion And Me, based on Nodar Dumbadze’s novel. One of the most acclaimed Georgian films of this period Otets soldata was directed by Rezo Chkheidze in 1964, with Sergo Zakariadze in the leading role. Chkheidze went on to direct a series of hits, including Gimilis bichebi (1969), Nergebi (1972), Mshobliuro chemo mitsav (1980), Tskhovreba Don Kikhotisa da Sancho Pansasi (1988). Abuladze’s Vedreba (1967) won a grand prix at the San Remo Film Festival while his other film Natvris Khe (1976) was also honored at film festivals in Riga, Tehran, Moscow, etc. Giorgi Shengelaia directed the popular movies Pirosmani (1969), Matsi Khvitia (1966), Alaverdoba, Rats ginakhavs, vegar nakhav (1965), Khareba da Gogia (1987), Sikvaruli Kvelas unda (1989) and the musical Veris ubnis melodiebi (1973). Ioseliani worked on Giorgobistve (1968), Iko shahsvi mgalobeli (1970) and Pastoral (1975) while Kobakhidze produced Kortsili (1964), Qolga (1966) and Musikosebi (1969). Lana Gogoberishvili achieved critical acclaim with Gelati (1958) and later directed Me vkhedav mzes (1965), Peristsvaleba (1968), Rotsa akvavda nushi (1972), Aurzauri salkhinteshi (1975), Ramodenime interviu pirad sakitkhze (1979) and Oromtriali (1986). This period is also noteworthy for a number of short films, including Kvevri, Serenada, Ghvinis Kurdebi, Peola and Rekordi, that remain popular to the present day. Goderdzi Chokheli directed Mekvle, Adgdgoma, Adamianta Sevda, Utskho, Agdgomis Batkani and Tsodvis shvilebi. In 1979, Temur Babluani made a debut with Motatseba and followed with Begurebis gadaprena (1980) and Kukaracha (1982).
Some of the films produced in this period were censored and kept from public release. Otar Ioseliani’s works were suppressed on several occasions, while Abuladze’s famous Monanieba (1984) was released only three years later. This feature film of Abuladze became one of the most famous and controversial movies of this period as it portrayed the brutal reality of Stalin’s purges and had a long-lasting effect on raising political consciousness in the Soviet Union. Sergey Paradzhanov was another major director in the Georgian cinema, whose works earned him worldwide acclaim. His Shadows of Our Forgotten Ancestors (1965) became a breakthrough film and international success, garnering the British Film Academy Award in 1966. His next film, Sayat nova (The Colour of Pomegranates), revealed his mastery of film art and complexity of his vision that produced a series of unforgettable scenes. In 1980s, Paradzhanov directed two major films Legenda o Suramskoi kreposti (1985) and Ashik Kerib (1988) that further enhanced his stature as the preeminent Soviet director of his generation.The Georgian film industry fell in disarray in the early 1990s, when Georgia found itself in the midst of a civil war, ethno-territorial conflicts and economic crisis. Nevertheless, a number of popular films were produced, including Laka, Gamis Tsekva, Zgvarze, Isini, Ara, Megobaro, Otsnebata Sasaplao, Rcheuli, Ik Chemtan, Ak Tendeba and others. Babluani directed Udzinarta Mze in 1992 and won the Silver Bear prize at the Berlin Festival. Dito Tsintsadze debuted with Dakhatuli tsre in 1988 and later produced Sakhli (1991), Stumrebi (1991) and Zghvarze (1993). Many directors emigrated to Europe and Russia. Otar Ioseliani and Mikheil Kobakhidze continued their career in France while Nana Jorjadze and Dito Tsintsadze worked in Germany; Jorjadze enjoyed a very successful career, winning the Caméra d’Or at Cannes for her Robinzoniada, anu chemi ingliseli papa (1986) and receiving a nomination for the American Academy Award for her Les Mille et une recettes du cuisinier amoureux (The Chef in Love, 1997). In 2001, the National Center of Cinematography was established in order to revive the Georgian film industry. An international film festival had been organized annually in Tbilisi since 1999. Unfortunately, a massive fire in mid-January 2005 destroyed a large number of the Georgian movies after the storehouse of the Georgian Film Studio burned down in Tbilisi.
In Georgian mythology, Amirani is a hero, the son of the goddess Dali and a mortal hunter. According to the Svan version, the hunter’s wife learned about her husband’s affair with Dali and killed her by cutting her hair while she was asleep. At Dali’s death, the hunter extracted from her womb a boy whom he called Amirani. The child had marks of his semi-divine origins with symbols of the Sun and the Moon on his shoulder-blades and a golden tooth.
Georgian myths describe the rise of the titan Amirani, who fights devis (ogres), challenges the gods, kidnaps Kamar (the daughter of gods), and teaches metallurgy to humans. In punishment, the gods (in some versions, Jesus Christ) chain Amirani to a cliff (or an iron pole) in the Caucasus Mountains, where the titan continues to defy the gods and struggles to break the chains; an eagle ravages his liver every day, but it heals at night. Amirani’s loyal dog, meantime, licks the chain to thin it out, but every year, on Thursday or in some versions the day before Christmas, the gods send smiths to repair it. In some versions, every seven years the cave where Amirani is chained can be seen in the Caucasus.
Scholars agree that this folk epic about Amirani must have been formed in the third millennium BCE and later went through numerous transformation, the most important of them being morphing pagan and Christian elements after the spread of Christianity. The myth could have been assimilated by the Greek colonists or travelers and embodied in the corpus of the famous Greek myth of Prometheus. In the Georgian literature and culture, Amirani is often used as a symbol of the Georgian nation, its ordeals and struggle for survival.
There was and there was not (of God's best may it be!), there was an old hunter, named Sulkalmakhi. He lived in a forest with his wife Darejan and his two little sons, Badri and Usupi. His eldest son Tsamtsumi lived in a distant country.
One evening, on his way home, after a weary day of hunting, he came to a high cliff. As it was late, he spent the night in a cave near this cliff. At dawn he heard a scream that came from the top of the cliff. After much difficulty, he reached the top. And there, in a cave, he beheld Dali, the Goddess of the wood (hunt). She lay writhing on the ground. The Goddess on seeing him begged him to take a knife and cut open her womb and take from it the baby that
was there. She told him that a stranger had come to her while she was sleeping, and had cut off her long golden hair, and had remained with her that night-"If it be a boy, name him Amirani. Take him, and bring him up and love him as thine
own." The hunter did as she told him. He cut open her womb with his knife and took out the infant. It was a boy who" had a golden tooth in his mouth. The hunter took the infant home to his wife, who soon loved him even more than her
own sons, so that he was called "Darejani's son". Amirani grew as much in a day as other children grow in a year.
Soon the hunter and his wife died, leaving the children to look after themselves. As for Amirani
Astounding was the quantity of wine he drank and food he ate.
For dinner he a bull devoured; for supper more than three he ate.
Now Badri was as gentle and as lovely as a virgin maid.
A crystal tower did Usup seem, so strong and graceful was he made.
But like a dark and lowering cloud was Amirani, ever grave.
Once Amirani and his brothers went ahunting far from home.
O'er many mountains did they wander, over plains where devils roam.
They passed the Algetisni mountain, heeding neither heat nor cold,
When sudden from its lofty summit sprang a deer with horns of gold.
Upon this strange and distant mount they saw a crystal castle fair.
They walked around the lofty tower, but could not find an entrance there,
Then Amirani struck the wall on which the sun its light did pour;
And there the castle oped its mouth, and lo! before them stood a door.
A warrior dead upon the floor, and near his head a steed they spied;
At his right side a giant sword sent flashing lustre far and wide.
His shield reached heavens high, and tore the lining of the spacious sky;
And in one corner of the room in heaps did gold and silver lie.
With loosened hair his mother knelt, and for her child she loudly cried.
His wife whose tears o'erflowed the seas sat weeping at her husband's side.
The dead man held a letter in his hand, which he had written before his death. Amirani, stooped down, took it and read aloud...
"I beg of ye, to list to me. Usup's brother's son am I.
All trembled at my strength and might; the foe from me in fear did fly
Yet while the devi Baqbaqi is alive, no peace have I,
So, whoe'er slays that monstrous giant to him my flashing shield give I;
Whoever brings the tidings glad to him my peerless sword give I;
Whoe'er my parents buries well to him my wealth and land give I;
Whoever finds my sister's fate to him my hoard of gold give I;
Whoever buries me to him my wife and faithful steed give I."
On hearing this the brothers were greatly troubled, for it was then that they learned of
the brother whom they had never seen or known of. Amirani was the first to speak. "Why do we
stand here doing nothing. Let us go and seek the devi Baqbaqi. But wait, let us take away the
lady, the steed and all this gold and silver before we go."
But the brothers said:
"O Amirani of the sun, desire not that what is not thine.
Else thy good name be spat upon for robbing a dead man's riches fine."
They buried the dead and locked the castle. Then they set out to find the devi. Soon they met the devi Baqbaqi who had heard of Tsamtsumi's death, and was coming to eat him.
But Amirani rushed upon the devi with his sword on high.
"No Christian wilt thou touch," he cried, "thou monster vile, I dare thee try!"
Then Amirani and the giant to all the world their strength disclosed.
Their cries like thunder echoed far as both in deadly struggle closed.
The devi felt his strength give way and down he fell upon the plain.
His arm was cleft, he howled aloud as on the ground he rolled in pain.
"Darejani's son," he cried, "O kill me not, I beg of thee!
And I shall tell thee of a maid who lives beyond a magic sea.
So fair is she that ev'n the sun has never seen the like before.
Her dress is made of wondrous silks and gold that sunbeams o'er it pour.
But one must pass great seas and mounts to reach Qamari's native strand.
I'll give to thee a cunning slave to help thee find that distant land."
Amirani wished to let the devi go free, but his brothers said: "Kill him, otherwise thouwilt regret it."
The devi had three heads. Amirani, listening to his brothers' words, cut off Baqbaqi's heads. But before he had cut off the third the devi said: "One thing I ask of thee before I die. Do not kill the three worms that will crawl out of my heads."
Amirani cut off the third head. From Baqbaqi's heads three worms crawled out. Usupi told Amirani to kill them at once, but Amirani laughed and said: "The devi could not do me any
harm, so can three tiny worms do anything to me?" Then he turned to the guide Baqbaqi had given them and told him to lead the way to Qamari, a maid such as the sun had never seen the like of.
Thus they went over hill and vale, without a rest, without delay,
Hoping to reach the destined place at close of every weary day.
They followed e'er the wary guide, and thus went on an endless way.
But soon the brothers understood the guide was leading them astray!
Then Amirani shouted loud: "Thou wretch, I'll make thee howl in woe.
Mislead us not or else I'll strike thee flat upon the ground below."
The guide soon led them to a plain where they beheld in dread dismay
Baqbaqi's worms to dragons three had grown and there before them lay!
One worm was red, the other black, the third was white; and all the three
Sang: "Amirani do we seek," as they came prancing o'er the lea.
"Come, brothers mine, and let us kill the dragons!" Amirani cried.
"Thou didst not kill the worms; so fight alone the dragons," they replied.
Then Amirani clutched the sword that like the wrath of heaven flashed:
"Help me in my distress, my sword!" and towards the dragons three he dashed.
A dreadful struggle took place. Amirani killed the white dragon. Then he killed the red one. The black dragon rushed forward belching fire and smoke. Amirani was so exhausted and weak that the monster swallowed him, and off it went to its mother, the sea. Usupi and Badri were greatly distressed. They resolved to kill the dragon. Usupi drew his bow and lo! the dragon's tail was severed off. The monster wished to wind itself about a tree and crush its prey. But it strove in vain and could only flap the stump of its tail on the ground. The dragon groaned: "O mother, help! my entrails burn and render me wild!"
"None but the son of Darejan can ever harm thee, dearest child."
"He who is in me has a tooth of gold." the dragon writhing sighed.
"Woe to thy mother and to thee, for that is Darejani's child!"
In the meantime Amirani had taken out a sharp knife which he had in his boot. He cut through the dragon's belly, and came out. Once again the three brothers set out in search of Qamari. They went on and on beyond the sky, across the earth, through forests, across the plains, over the mountains, through storm and battle and through fire and blood. At last they came to a large castle where nine devis lived together with their wives and children. It was impossible to count the number of their sons and daughters and grandchildren.
Then Amirani rushed within and killed the devis at one blow.
Blood flowed and overflowed the house; the world gleamed in a crimson glow.
The blood rose up and filled the tower, and Amirani felt the dread
Of being drowned within the sea of blood that now had reached his head!
But suddenly his eyes beheld a struggling devi floating nigh;
He caught and threw it at the door, which opened wide, and with a cry
The blood rolled up, and like a ball of thunder left the castle high.
The brothers came into the tower and found a mount of devis dead.
They cleared the house and washed the floor which devis' blood had stained with red.
And thereafter the brothers three a life of peace and comfort led.
Thus Amirani and his brothers lived happily together for some time. But, as time passed, Amirani grew sad. The thought of Qamari, the maiden unseen even by the sun, was ever in his
mind. He grew restless. So one day he turned to Badri...
"Give me thy steed Snow-white," he said, "'twill lead me safe o'er land and sea;
We'll fly along the tempest's breast, and bring Qamari back with me."
Badri gave him his steed Snow-white. Amirani together with his brothers went forth to find Qamari. Soon they came to a great sea. Amirani, leaving Usupi and Badri on the shore plunged into the sea. Snow-white cut through the waves and Amirani in the twinkling of an eye found himself on the opposite shore, where Qamari lived.
Qamari's parents lived amidst the suns and stars in heavens high;
Above the world their castle fine hung swinging in the azure sky.
Then Amirani spurred his horse, and like an arrow made it fly;
And with his sword he cut the chain that tied the castle to the sky.
The castle fell, and Amirani to the window rode and cried:
"Qamari, come, and be my wife, in happiness with me abide."
Qamari was tidying up the house when she heard Amirani call. "Thou must wait," she replied, "I must wash these dishes before I go with thee." Amirani tied his horse and went in. The beautiful maiden asked him to help her.
He placed each dainty dish upon a shelf. But one little dish would not stand upright.
He tried and tried and tried in vain, he tried with all his might and zeal;
And then impatiently he threw it down and crushed it with his heel.
Then piece with piece, and dish with dish, began to speak in deafening cry;
And all the dishes upwards flew to Qamari's father in the sky.
Qamari told Amirani to make haste for — "If my father finds us here, to escape his anger will be late." So Amirani and Qamari rode away in great haste... The whirling winds in fury blew; the rain like torrents flowed from high. But Amirani wondered much to see the sun shine in the sky. "The wind," explained Qamari, "is the dust blown up by the rushing feet of my father's men. The rain is the tears shed by my mother who is weeping for me. But Amirani, quick, lest we be overtaken."
"My Qamari," answered Amirani, "why this haste? Fear them not.
No tiny forest bird am I caught by a falcon when on high;
No rabbit caught by dogs am I; no little leaf wind-tossed am I.
My brothers two and I will cut the heads of all the coming foe,
And all thy father's men I'll lay stone dead before thee with one blow.
So let them come! Let thousands come! I'll meet them with my dagger bright.
However great their number be, however great their strength and might."
Amirani and Qamari soon reached the shore where Usupi and Badri were waiting. They looked back and saw the sea covered with ships sent by Qamari's father. The ships were full of devis and Kajis. Usupi mounted the steed Snow-white and plunged into the sea. He fell upon the Kajis and devis and killed half their number. But he was wounded and fell dead. Now Badri rushed at the enemy, and hewed and hacked them down. But he also fell wounded and died.
Amirani shot an arrow, but before following it cried:
"Far better than a shameful life is gloried death within a grave!"
Now Amirani forward rushed and made the foe before him fall;
But there was one whom none could kill, the strongest, mightiest of them all.
The lord of the devis and Kajis was Qamari's father, who was wroth to see all his army slain. He rushed in fury and anger at Amirani. Fire lighted up the sky as sword met sword. They
struggled a long time, but neither could strike the other. Qamari saw with a sinking heart that Amirani was about to fall. She knew that it was impossible to kill the lord of the devis and Kajis. She called to Amirani:
"Thou fightest not as warriors should," and tears flowed from her anxious eye.
"Strike lower down to bring him down! Thy sword thou wieldest up too high."
"A house that's shattered at the base will fall, however large or high."
Her father on hearing her words cried:
"Cursed be the hussy! Hear her words! How to her father she is blind.
Like leaves do husbands thrive, but can she another father find?
Why did thy mother care for thee. It would have been better if she had brought forth a dog instead, for it would have been more faithful and true to her."
"I never sucked my mother's breast, nor ever heard a lullaby;
None cared if I lived on or died, alone, abandoned I would cry."
When Amirani heard the words he swung his mighty sword around,
And in one lightning stroke his foe, deprived of life, fell on the ground.
Amirani, victorious and happy hurried back to Qamari. But on the way he met a woman. She said to him: "Where goest thou? Why this haste? For thy beloved thou hast slain her father and his men. But who is grateful to thee for the deed? If thou wert a man thou wouldst unsheathe thy steel, and find thy brothers." Amirani suddenly remembered Usupi's words, "For thy lady love thy brothers are willing to die." Amirani forgot Qamari. His only thought and desire was to find Usupi and Badri. He said to himself, "If I find my brothers alive, I will rejoice and be happy with them, but if they are dead, I will dig a grave, and lay myself beside them."
On the fields covered with the bodies of the devis and Kajis vultures and beasts of prey were feasting and revelling. After a long search Amirani found the dead bodies of his brothers.
"O brothers mine," he wailed aloud, "Hear how I mourn for you and cry.
Have pity! be not wroth with me; to ye I come; with ye I die."
He tried to plunge into his heart his dagger, but in vain the strife;
He knew not that if he had cut his little finger with a knife,
Then he would bleed to death and thus, with gladness, leave this woeful life.
But Amirani knew this not, so down he sat and grieving said:
"Unworthy am I ev'n of death." And on the ground his dagger laid.
But one dead Kaji sudden sat, and to the other Kajis said:
"O Kajis, listen to me now and know of what the world is made.
You hear how Amirani weeps and grieves because he cannot die;
If he cuts off his finger then the blood will flow and he will die."
On saying this the Kaji lay down again. All was as still as before.
Amirani, who had heard the words of the dead Kaji, took his dagger and cut his little finger off. The blood flowed out and he lay down beside his brothers. "Qamari," he whispered weakly, "give up thy life for me, and die with me. Prefer me
dead to even the glory of a living lion."Amirani breathed his last. Qamari with loud wailings ran up to him. With loosened hair, she mourns her mate; her tears with seas and oceans blend. In pity leaves from trees drop down, and to her wailings rustlings lend. At that moment there jumped out a little mouse. It began to lick Amirani's blood but Qamari in rage took off her shoe and throwing it at the mouse killed it.
At this the mother of the mouse came out and to Qamari said:
"Thou wanton, for thy love and sake thy mate and all thy kin are dead.
Thou canst do naught for all thy dead, while I can bring my child to life."
When both the mice had disappeared within their holes beneath the ground,
Qamari rose with beating heart, and soon that very herb she found.
Qamari applied it to Amirani, and he was restored to life. When he saw Qamari he said: "What a long time I have slept!" But Qamari said: "Thy sleep would indeed have been a long one but for the mouse." She told him what had happened. Then she applied the herb to Usupi and Badri. They both came back to life.
Then all the four, Qamari, Amirani, Usupi and Badri went home rejoicing.
O happy they, three brothers true, for whom the golden sunbeams glow;
Their wives none dare to carry off, none dare to face their deadly blow;
None dare to break within their homes, nor to their lives bring grief and woe.
Thus they lived happily. Amirani was always in search of new adventures. He killed many giants and dragons. And the wonder of his deeds spread throughout the world. For fear of
him no bird flew under heaven, no ant crawled on earth. And soon there were but three devis, three wild boars, and three oak trees left standing in the world.
Many times had Amirani offended God but had always been forgiven, nevertheless — Amirani, who had nowhere met his match, became so confident of himself, that he desired to try his strength with his Godfather, Jesus Christ.
So once when Jesus Christ stood before him he expressed his desire to wrestle with Him. Jesus Christ said that it was a sin to fight with one's Godfather. But Amirani would not be
persuaded and wishing to test. His strength challenged his Godfather to wrestle with him. "Very well, have thy wish." said Christ. He waved a large stick above His head, and driving it deep into the ground, told Amirani to pull it pout. Amirani pulled, and with one hand drew the stick out. Then his Godfather drove another stick into the ground. Again did Amirani draw it out.
"Art Thou playing with me?" he asked angrily.
"Try to draw this one out," said Jesus Christ.
And saying this He swung His stick and fixed it firmly in the ground.
The stick took root which grew so long that soon about the world it wound.
Amirani could not pull the stick from the ground. Then Jesus Christ cursed Amirani. Upon the highest peak of the Caucasus He stuck a huge iron pole, and bound Amirani to it with a chain. He left a black-eared dog with Amirani, for the dog had killed many deer loved by God. A vulture had given it birth, so that it had wings. Every day a raven brought to them a loaf of bread and a glass of wine. Amirani and the dog pulled ceaselessly at the chain the whole year
long; The pole was almost out when lo! a bird would perch upon its top. Amirani knew that the bird was sent by God, and wishing to kill it, he flung a large iron hammer at it. The bird flew away in time to avoid the hammer.
The hammer strikes the iron pole which sinks into the ground again.
And every year do Amirani and the dog pull at the chain.
The chain thus strained at soon wears out and when about to break in twain,
The blacksmiths of the world come there and quickly make it whole again.
And Amirani's dagger lies beside him on the ground below;
But rust hath eaten up its blade; no more doth it with lustre glow.
"God forbid!" every Georgian prays, that Amirani ever break the chain and become free "He will first kill all the blacksmiths, and then dare defy even God."
Let woe be far, and joy be near; chaff be there, and flour be here;
God's blessings on the minstrel old, and all who list with eager ear!
And up a mount I push a cart; then down the hill it rolling flies.
We'll live in joy and die in peace, and then we'll dwell in Paradise.
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