COSMOLOGY: In ancient Georgian cosmology, the universe is sphere-shaped and consists of three vertically superposed worlds or skneli: the highest world or zeskneli is above the earth and is populated by the gods; the lowest world or qveskneli is below the earth and is the netherworld populated by demons, evil spirits and dragons; in between these two worlds in the earthly world with humans, animals, plants, etc. Each of these three worlds has its own color, white for the highest, red for the middle and black for the lowest. Beyond this universe is gareskneli or the world of oblivion, darkness and eternity. There are two bodies of water and fire, celestial and subterranean, which have unique properties and affect human lives differently. The sun makes its voyage between the two extreme worlds, the celestial and the subterranean. The moon makes the same journey as the sun but in the opposite direction and rhythm. The moon and the sun are, respectively, brother and sister. The earthly world has a center which divides it into two regions, anterior (tsina samkaro, tsinaskneli) and posterior (ukana samkaro or ukanaskneli). The three vertical worlds are separated by ether but they are connected by the Tree of Life that grows on the edge of the universe; in some versions, a tower, chain or pillar). The various lands of the earthly world are usually separated by seven or nine mountains or seas. To travel between these lands a hero must undergo a spiritual transformation (gardacvaleba) and seek help of magical animals, i.e. Rashi, Paskunji, etc. After the spread of Christianity, pagan cosmology amalgamated the Christian teachings. The zeskneli became heaven and abode of the Trinity while qveskneli turned into hell and abode of devil. The spiritual travel to these worlds became associated with death.

ADGILIS DEDA: A female pagan deity of various area or villages; it was usually considered a deity of fertility. It protected travelers and guests, and cared for harvest and cattle. After the spread of Christianity, Adgilis deda was morphed with the cult of Holy Mother Mary and acquired peculiar attributes. It still remains widespread in mountainous regions of eastern Georgia.

ALI: An evil soul that haunted travelers, pregnant women, infants, etc. Alis were both female (alkali) and male, had wicked appearance (except for females, who were beautiful and tempting) and lived in remote woods, caves or ruins.

AMIRANI: Georgian mythical hero, the son of goddess Dali and a mortal hunter. According to the Svan version, the hunter’s wife learned about her husband’s affair with Dali and killed her by cutting her hair while she was asleep. At Dali’s death, the hunter extracted from her womb a boy whom he called Amirani. The child had marks of his semi-divine origins with symbols of the Sun and the Moon on his shoulder-blades and a golden tooth.

The Georgian myths (click here to read the epic myth) describe the rise of the titan Amirani, who challenges the gods, kidnapps Kamar, a symbol of divine fire, and teaches metallurgy to humans. In punishment, the gods (in some versions, Jesus Christ) chain Amirani to a cliff (or an iron pole) in the Caucasus Mountains, where the titan continues to defy the gods and struggles to break the chains; an eagle ravages his liver every day, but it heals at night. Amirani’s loyal dog, meantime, licks the chain to thin it out, but every year, on Thursday or in some versions the day before Christmas, the gods send smiths to repair it. In some versions, every seven years the cave when Amirani is chain can be seen in the Caucasus. Scholars agree that folk epic about Amirani must have been formed in the third millennium BCE and later went through numerous transformation, the most important of them being morphing pagan and Christian elements after the spread of Christianity. The myth could have been assimilated by the Greek colonists or travelers and embodied in the corpus of the famous Greek mythos of Prometheus. In the Georgian literature and culture, Amirani is often used as a symbol of Georgian nation, its ordeals and struggle for survival.

ARMAZI: Supreme deity in ancient Kartli (Iberia). According to tradition, the cult of Armazi (deity of the moon) was introduced in the third century BCE by King Parnavaz, who erected a large bronze statue of a warrior of gilded copper, clad in a gold coat of mail with a gold helmet on his head; one eye was a ruby, the other an emerald. To the right of Armazi stood another smaller gold idol by the name of Gazi, and to the left, a silver idol called Gaim. The statue of Armazi existed until the spread of Christianity in the fourth century CE. Armazi is also the name of an ancient fortress near Mtskheta. Archeological digs uncovered monuments of antique architecture and a bilingual stele with Greek and Aramaic inscriptions from second century CE.

BARBALE: A female deity of fertility and harvest. Barbale, also known as Babari, Babale, or Barboli, was accordingly worshipped with festivals and other honors, and her association with cattle fertility also translated into a close relationship with human progeny and health.

BATONEBI: Evil souls that spread disease among humans. They were most often associated with mumps (tsitela batonebi), smallpox (didi batonebi), etc. When batonebi ‘visited’ a person, s/he became ill and the rest of family had to prepare special food and sweets, decorate tress with presents and do other arrangements to please batonebi. The term is still used in rural places for infectious diseases.

BAKBAK-DEVI: One of the foremost devi (see below), who is usually defeated by main characters of the Georgians myth. Bakbak-devi is often portrayed as multi-headed shrewd and human-eating ogre or evil spirit.

BEDIS MTSERLEBI: One or several deities that recorded and decided human fate; similar to Greek moiras or Roman parcae/fatae. They lived in suleti or the world of dead souls, and constantly consulted the Book of Fates (bedis tsigni). They supervised every human life and notified the god of the dead (suletis ghmerti) when a person’s lifetime was over. Special heralds (mgrebrebi) then were sent to take human’s soul and bring it to the underworld.

BERI-BERA: A deity of harvest, fertility and animals. The cult of Beri-Bera was popular in the mountains of eastern Georgia, where special festivals were organized on the new year’s eve.

DALI: A female goddess of nature, animals and hunting. The cult of Dali (Dæl) was particularly widespread in mountainous regions of Georgia. She was believed to be of extraordinary beauty, with long, golden-colored hair and radiant white skin. She dwells high up in the mountains, usually out of the reach of humans, where she watches over the herds of wild animals under her protection. She sometimes shared animals from her flock with hunters, as long as certain conditions and taboos were respected. Hunters were not to kill more than they can carry back to the village nor could they take aim at specially marked animals believed to be a transformation of the goddess. In some myths, Dali entered in intimate relations with a hunter but the latter was bound not to reveal the liaison at risk of being punished with death. Some myths describe an encounter between Dali and a mortal hunter that produced Amirani. In Mingrelia, Dali was known as Tkashi-Mapa.

DEVI: An evil giant, comparable to ogres in Western European mythos. With horns and wicked appearance, the devis often had multiple heads that regenerated if severed. Devis lived in underworld or remote mountains, where they hoarded treasures and kept captives. Georgian mythos usually depicted a family of devis, with nine brothers being an average numbers. Bakbak-Devi was most often the strongest and most powerful of the devis. Heroes, generally, had to deceive them with various tricks or games.

DOBILNI: Minor evil spirits that usually took appearance of women, children or even animals to harm humans and spread diseases. The dobilni towers (dobilt k’oshk’i) are found within the complexes of most Khevsurian shrines. However, there are instances when dobilni had positive attributes, i.e. Giorgi’s sisters, Samdzimari/Tamar in Khevsureti and Pshavi. Local folk epics describes how Giorgi led a raiding party of khvtis-shvilni to Kajeti (Kajaveti), the realm of evil kajis. After defeating the kajis, Giorgi seized their wealth and their women, including Princess Samdzimari who swore brother-sisterhood with Giorgi. Women pray at the shrine to Samdzimari for the birth of healthy children, an easy childbirth and for women’s health in general. The shrines to kind dobilni were also invoked for the productivity and well-being of dairy cattle and the protection of travelers.

GHMERTI: The supreme divinity, head of the pantheon of gods, chief architect and lord of the universe. According to the mythos, Ghmerti is all-powerful and created the universe. He lives on the ninth sky, where he resides on a golden throne. His daughter, the Sun, and son, the Moon, illuminate the earth while his other offspring, khvtis-shvilni, wander the earth, protecting humans and fighting the evil forces. Ghmerti controls the nature and animals and he determines the length and events of every human’s life. Ghmerti often was called Morige Ghmerti (“God the Director”) or Dambadebeli (“the Creator”). Following the spread of Christianity, the cult of Ghmerti quickly merged with the identity of God the Father and the word “ghmerti” is still used in the Christian tradition.

GIORGI: Coming soon...

KAJI (QAJI): Evil spirits, often portrayed as a race of magic-wielding, demonic metalworkers. They lived in Kajeti (Kajaveti) and had magic powers that they used against humans. Folk tales distinguished between land kajis, who lived in the remote woods and harassed humans, and river kajis, who dwelt in rivers, streams or lakes and were more benevolent to humans. Female kajis were very beautiful, easily tempted men and helped heroes on their quests. Kajis figure prominently in Shota Rustaveli’s Vepkhistkaosani, which describes the kajis kidnapping one of the main characters and fighting heroes at the Kajeti fortress.

KAMAR: Daughter of the gods. The Amirani epic describes her as the daughter of the god of nature and sky. She was famous for her beautiful appearance, which enchanted Amirani, causing him to kidnap her from her heavenly abode. Elements of the myth about Kamar resemble in some parts the famous Greek mythos about the titan Prometheus and the heavenly fire.

KHVTIS-SHVILNI: A group of heroes, who were born to gods and had semi-divine nature. They protected humans, assured good crops and milk-yields, fought against devis and kudiani and performed various quests. While there are dozens of these deities, the most popular of them were Kopala, Iakhsari, Giorgi and Amirani. Folk epics describe how, led by Kopala and Iakhsari, the khvtis-shvilni declared a war of conquest on the ogres (devis), and drove them from the land. Another raiding party led by Giorgi destroyed the hitherto impregnable fortress of the Kajis, and carried off their treasures, cattle and women.

KOPALA: Deity of lightning, a mighty hero and demon killer. His cult still remains popular in the mountains of Georgia, especially in Khevsureti. It is Kopala, who aided by Iakhsar, drove away from the surface the demons who were persecuting humanity. Kopala is armed with a mace to which he is bound in close solidarity and an iron bow made especially for him by the blacksmith god Pirkusha. He alone has the power to defeat the most powerful and stubborn demons, who often seize a human soul. Kopala, thus, can cure various forms of madness, which was believed to “the disease of the soul.”

KVIRIA: Hero and son of gods who served as mediator between the supreme god (ghmerti) and humans. K’viria was invoked as protector of human society and instrument of divine justice. In some regions, he was also believed to be a deity of fertility and harvest while, in the mountains of western Georgia, Kviria was worshiped as the supreme deity. Special festivals, kveritskhovloba, were organized to honor him.

KUDIANI: A witch with wicked appearance, large teeth, tails and hunchbacked. Living in remote caves, kudiani could adopt any appearance and bewitch humans. The leader of kudiani, Rokapi, often summoned them to a special mountain where the witches celebrated in festivals reminiscent of Western European Walpurgis-night.

MAMBERI: The lord of wolves who was worshiped in Svaneti and other mountainous regions.

MATSILI: Evil spirits from the underworld that haunted travelers and hunters. Folk tales often describe Kopala’s quests against matsilis.

MINDORT-BATONI: Deity of valleys, fields and wild flowers. Humans had to ask for his permission to explore or cultivate these fields. He had a beautiful daughter, mindort brdzanebeli, also a deity of flowers, that fluttered above plants and lived off their pollen.

MICHPA: Deity protecting cattle and other domestic animals. It was popular in the mountains of Svaneti.

NATSILIANI: Humans who received magic gifts or had divine signs (natsili) from the gods. The signs were usually made on shoulder-blades and glowed with magic light, empowering their possessor. However, humans had to cover and keep them in secret since revealing them meant losing their power.

OCHOKOCHI: A forest deity which combined human and animal features. Ochokochi was believed to have a thick fur, large claws and spiky horns on its chest. Living in remote corners of the forest, Ochokochi wandered in the woods, scaring the hunters or shepherds they encountered with their appearance. Ochokochi was believed to be enthralled by Tkasi-Mapa, whom he constantly chased in order to copulate. However, mortal hunters protected Tkashi-Mapa from his advances.

OCHOPINTRE (OCHOPINTE): A deity of wild animals. Ochopintre has attributes similar to Pan of the Greek mythos. Born with the legs and horns of a goat, he helps the goddess of hunting Dali in herding the animals. Hunters usually made sacrifice in his name since no one could hunt the animals without his help. The fate of a person entering the forest was believed to be fully in his hands.

PASKUNJI: A phoenix-like animal that helped and protected heroes and humans. Living in underworld, Paskunji often warred with gveleshapis (dragons) and was summoned by burning one of his feathers. It could transport heroes to other places and heal wounds and illnesses. In some myths, paskunjis were also hostile to humans and persecuted them.

RASHI: A magical winged horse. Rashis can be of different kind. Those of land were well disposed to humans and heroes and could perceive future. Rashis of the seas were more hostile to humans but could take heroes to the depth of the sea while their milk was believed to cure many illnesses. Heavenly rashis were winged and fire-breathing animals, very difficult to subdue but loyal to their riders.

ROKAPI: An evil spirit and leader of the kudiani. He was punished by the ghmerti and dwelt chained to a column in the depth of the earth, where he devoured the hearts of humans brought to him by the kudianis. Every year, Rokapi tries to free himself of chains but fails.

TEVDORE: A pagan deity of agriculture and horses. The cult of Tevdore or Tedore later merged with the Christian saint Tevdore but retained some of its ancient elements. In feudal Georgia, a special festival, Tedoroba, was organized to honor him and ensure a bountiful harvest.

TKASHI-MAPA: In Mingrelian myths, a goddess of forest and animals. With golden hair, she was believed to be of unsurpassed beauty and often tempted hunters entering her domain. However, the hunter could not reveal the secret of his liaison with Tkasi-mapa and those, who failed to keep their word, were turned into stone together with their hounds. Ochokochi was believed to be enthralled by Tkasi-Mapa, whom he constantly chased in order to copulate. However, mortal hunters protected Tkashi-Mapa from his advances. Tkashi-mapa is often associated with the cult of Dali that was widespread in other regions of Georgia.

TSKARISHDIDA: In Mingrelian myths, a half-fish and half-women deity of rivers and the fish, similar to mermaids of European folklore. Popular in the Mingrelian folklore, Tskarishdida dwelt in streams and lakes and had magic powers which she often used against the humans.

ZADEN: One of the major deities in pagan Kartli, believed to be as powerful as Armazi. It was introduced as a deity of fertility by King Parnajom in the second century BCE and a statue was erected near Mtskheta. The cult disappeared after the spread of Christianity.


Alexander Mikaberidze

From the beginning of mankind till today woman has been a source of inspiration; however woman’s role in social, political, economic and other important spheres has been subject of dispute. Development  of  society  has  caused  women  to  feel  more  self-conscious.  In  addition,  men  and women’s roles and social stereotypes have been reconsidered and new conclusions, viewpoints and attitudes have been established.

After the commencement of politically motivated women’s movement in the 60s of the 20th century, some viewpoints about a woman’s role have been altered in literature and scholarly world. On the one hand, women authors’ emancipated literature appeared which were created on the basis of women’s stories. On the other hand, there emerged feminist literary theory, which established the concept of female author (femininity, as an ethic category) in literary theory (English- Femininity, German - die Weiblichkeit, Russian - Женственность).

According  to  feminist  criticism,  women  writers’  texts  are  distinguished  as  they  expose experience,  emotions  and,  in  general,  thoughts  motivated  by  women.  The  emergence  and development of feminist literature  was politically conditioned in its basis. The primary aim of this theory  was  to  motivate  women  and  facilitate  their  literary  activities  by  means  of  critical  analysis, even with conscious marginal preconditions.

In parallel with studies oriented on women, in the last decade scholars started to draw their attention to gender studies.  Like in feminist literary studies, here emphasis is made on the issue of role  distribution  between  men  and  women  which  is  not  based  on  biological  sex-distinction.  If  in feminist  literary  studies  biological  difference  is  represented  by  an  English  term  –  sex,  in  gender studies  it  became  possible  to  determine  social  and  cultural  components.  Nowadays,  a  term  taken from grammar – gender is widely used.

Unlike  feminist  studies,  the  main  concern  of  gender  studies  is  not  the  issue  of  femininity. Gender  definitions  in  socio-cultural,  historical  and  public  discourse  are  represented  as  the  main objective of gender studies.  Currently, term gender is equally used in humanities and social sciences as well as law and economics. Each field defines the term in accordance to its specificity.  

If we consider literature as continuation of collective, folklore texts and have a look through ancient era, it will become obvious that female authors coexisted among numerous men writers. As it is known, Greek poet Sappho was named by Plato among top 10 writers.

In medieval centuries, churches and monasteries served as main educational institutions where it was possible to  acquire  basic literacy skills  and read books. For women there were only limited possibilities  and  mainly  in  Europe.  They  could  acquire  the  profession  of  a  nanny  (governess)  and become educated to some extent.

In the era of renaissance and humanism, when individuality of a human being, self-cognition and  the  desire  to  take  insight  into  oneself  rose,  there  emerged  some  possibilities  for  women  to become educated. They started to make education available for both sexes as it was envisaged as a precondition for humanistic relations in family. For example, Agrippa Von Nettesheim and Erasmus Von Rotterdam supported the availability of education for women.

Despite the fact that through creative works women strived to display a universe perceived by women  and  based  on  their  own  experiences,  women’s  fiction  writings  were  not  appropriately perceived.  Women writers’ works had to be evaluated from the perspective of women readers and women  critics.  Only  in  that  case  it  was  possible  to  see  the  real  and  genuine  thoughts  of  women writers.    Only  women’s  society  was  able  to  comprehend  women  writer’s  texts,  feel  their  thoughts and meanings, which was unachievable by that time.

 In order to defend their own ideas and opinions and preserve their works and provoke positive opinions among readers, many women writers had to avoid  their names and write under male pen-names.    In  the  18th  and  19th  centuries  women  wrote  anonymously,  without  signing  their  works  or they wrote under male pen-name. This was the only way for most women to penetrate into literary world which was legitimate only for men.

From the beginning of the 20th century a number of formal-legislative amendments were made concerning  women’s  issue.  High  schools  for  girls  were  founded,  which  made  it  possible  to  get higher  education,  a  lot  of  professions  and  work  places  became  available  for  women  which  were previously  occupied  only  by  men.  In  the  20s  of  the  20th  century  women  were  granted  the  right  to vote. Correspondingly, social changes were reflected in women writers’ creative works.   

It  is  worth  mentioning  that  since  women’s  writing  became  a  discrete  area  of  literary  studies there  emerged  a  need  to  divide  their  works  into  periods  and  define  their  historical-cultural characteristics. According to some scholars, in spite of the fact that women’s writings are wide and belong to different historical periods, their study should be started from the period of activation of women’s movement, in other words from the period when women writers commenced to create their writings  consciously  and  from  the  position  of  women  writers,  with  new  literary  viewpoints  where woman’s position, her universe, viewpoints, perspectives and interests where highlighted.    As it is known  there  were  times  when  woman  only  participated  in  literary  processes,  when  there  was  no gender  definition  in  literary  studies,  when  woman  was  obliged  to  be  only  participant  of  literary processes, which was dominantly masculine, when woman even had to write under male pen-name in  order her texts  to  be  adequately perceived and attention to  be drawn. It  is  obvious that women writings of that time could not reflect the nature and literary content which was peculiar for women writings  later.  However,  in  spite  of  the  above  mentioned,  creative  works  of  women  writers  are frequently  analyzed  by  taking  into  consideration  common  features,  existing  historical  and  social factors.  

In  comparison  to  Western  literature,  Eastern  literature  with  its  traditions and  dichotomy  was much more “masculine”. It is primarily conditioned by eastern nature. Woman, an object of love and obedience, only rarely managed to  literary transform her interests, desires and longings and reflect them in literature. East  was more austere towards women and this attitude could be traced back to religion.    

The  issue  of  women  authors,  the  place  and  role  of  gender-marked  literature  in  Georgian literature  is  completely  unstudied.  The  manifold  nature  of  the  issue,  in  addition  historical  and contemporary processes which exist in Georgian literature serve as a proof that this issue should be thoroughly studied in future.            

Fiction  and  Literature  are  the  world  of  the  author,  the  creator,  which  is  full  of  the author's  perception  of  the  world,  the  author's  ideas,  impressions,  attitudes,  desires,  goals  and intentions  and  many  more  features  that  are  outlined  in  Fiction.  Sensations,  performances  and attitudes  are  universal  and  do  not  vary  due  to  gender.  Literary  text  equally  accommodates  in general,  universal,  common  desires  and  expectations  of  both  women  and  men,  ,  but  often,  a woman-author's  perceived  world  is  more  delicate  artistically  and  differs  from  the  text  by  the member  of  "the  stronger  sex";  it  as  much  more  emotional  and  colorful,  and  text  has  different architectonics, content, beginning and ending as well.

If  we  appeal  to  the  literary  traditions  and  remember,  we  will  see  that  the  authors  of Georgia  and  elsewhere,  for  centuries  were  mostly  men.  In  Georgian  literature,  women's literature begins by  Queen Borena (in the eleventh century, the wife of Georgian King Bagrat the fourth, the daughter of Ossetian King). She dedicated a verse in iambic pentameter to Saint Mary. Queen Borena’s iambic verse is very sophisticated and an important form of art. In early times iambic pentameter had a very simple form, but Queen Borena’s verse is well-formulated and refined to perfection.

Naturally,  many  of  the  feminine  works  did  not  survive  and  reach  us.  We  can  only assume that the authors in Georgian literature were also women authors. Georgian literary law for various reasons is not favorable to women, although Georgian princesses (The daughters of the  king  Erekle  II:  Ketevan,  Mariam  and  Tekla  Princesses)  poetic  creations  should  be mentioned.  Here  it  is  clear  that  the  romantic  tendencies,  which,  as  has  been  recognized,  on grounds of nationality laid the foundation of Georgian romanticism.

After  the  loss  of  independence  and  Russia's  accession  became  an  uncured  pain  for Georgian  intelligence.  Among  them  were  women.  Women  participated  in  the  1832  coup  in which was intended to struggle for Georgia's independence.

It should be noted that in Georgia in the second half of the nineteenth century Women's movement  started  to  exist,  which  aimed  at  expanding  women's  rights.  In  this  regard,  worth mentioning is the activities of Barbare Eristavi-Jorjadze. Barbara was twelve years old when she was married. The young woman was totally unprepared for this stage of life , but she obeyed her fate; They settled in Gremi, with her husband a former military officer, Zakaria  Jorjadze. As a young woman she already became mother of  three children ( Michael, Noshrevani,  Manana). Barbare Jorjadze frequently published articles in the newspaper " Iveria " on a variety of social issues, trying to express an opinion on women's rights , which caused an aggressive reaction in men.  

Georgian  Women's  Movement  as  a  political  phenomenon  did  not  exist,  although  it should be noted that in 1919 , the first democratic elections in the Republic of Georgia, the right to vote was given to all citizens above 20 years old , regardless of gender or national origin. As we can see , the role of women spurred in the twentieth century and the twenty-first century already saw the further strengthening of the role of women.

Female authors, or women-writers were needed by the Soviet Georgia almost as that of women  tractorists,  or,  women  drivers.  Therefore,  along  with  A.Machavariani’s,  Michael Kvlividze’s Otar Chiladze’s poems and novels were published Anna Mkheidze’s stories (Journal Tsiskari, 1981, #2), along with Besik Kharanauli and Jansug Charkviani – Malvina Mukbaniani’s and  Janeta  Koridze’s  stories  (Journal  Tsiskari,  1981,  #9).  Collections,  verses,  short  stories  and even novels by women authors were being published, but it is not surprising that men produced more than women.   

Literature  -  loving  women  were  mainly  involved  in  scientific  research,  became  post-graduate  students  or  candidates,  defended  their  thesis  and  then,  in  the  best  case,  were  higher educational  lecturers  and  even  they  remembered  their  poetry-literary  sentiments,  they  were fully committed to teaching Western literature and history of Georgian literature. However, it must  be  said  that  there  are  good  drivers,  including  women  and  there  are  really  good  women writers,  including  in  the  Soviet  Georgia.  Women  author  as  a  separate  identity  is  identified  in post-Soviet Georgian literature.

The  activation  of  women  writers  on  literary  arena  in  the  post-Soviet  era  became necessary due to the values and stories that the women had to tell. Woman, as a condition, and woman as the problem became the subject of a separate interest.

The feminine factor of Female authors in many cases is completely clear, in some cases, there is no boundary between men’s and women’s creativity. The role and purpose is often more apparent in the case of women. Feelings and desires in a woman's compassion, and a key feature of  the  main  women  author.  Therefore,  their  creations  are  experiencing  a  variety  of  emotions and feelings, the only woman have.



Literature:

Khamenei 2003  Sosan Jafari Parast Khamenei, Zu den Weiblichkeitsbildern im islamischen Fundamentalismus und deren  Entgrenzung  in  der  modernen  iranischen  Prosa  am  Beispiel  der  Werke  von  Scharnusch Parsipur,  Inauguraldissertation  zur  Erlangung  der  Doktorwürde  am  Fachbereich  III  Sprach-  und Literaturwissenschaften  der  Universität  Gesamthochschule  Siegen,  Berlin,  im  September  2003, urn:nbn:de:hbz:467-774


Laakoff 1975 Laakoff, R. T. Language and woman*s place. New York: Harper & Row, 1975

Маслова 2001 Маслова В. Лингвокультурология, Для студентов высших учебных заведений, Москва, 2001,
УДК 008(100)(075.8) ББК 81.2-5я73 М31

Peters 1988 Peters ursula, Religiöse Erfahrung als literarisches Faktum. Zur Vorgeschichte und Genese
frauenmystischer Texte des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts. Tübingen 1988.

Richter-Schroeder 1986 Richter-Schroeder  Karin,  Frauenliteratur  und  weibliche  Identitaet,  Frankfurt  am  Mein,
Hain, 1986

Schlieker 2003 Kerstin Schlieker, Frauenreisen in den Orient zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts (Weibliche
Strategien  der  Erfahrung  und  textuellen  Vermittlung  kultureller  Fremde,  Disertation  zur
erlangung  akademischen  Grades  eines  Doktors  der  Philosophie  der  Philosophischen
Fakultaeten der Universitaet des Saarlandes), Verkag fuer Wissenschaft und Kultur, 2003.

Tsiskari 1981 Literary Journal Tsiskari, Tbilisi 1981, #2

Tsiskari 1984 Literary Journal Tsiskari, Tbilisi 1984, #9



Nino Popiahvili - Woman writer – Georgian literary experience

From the beginning of mankind till today woman has been a source of inspiration; however woman’s role in social, political, economic and other important spheres has been subject of dispute. Development  of  society  has  caused  women  to  feel  more  self-conscious.  In  addition,  men  and women’s roles and social stereotypes have been reconsidered and new conclusions, viewpoints and attitudes have been established.

After the commencement of politically motivated women’s movement in the 60s of the 20th century, some viewpoints about a woman’s role have been altered in literature and scholarly world. On the one hand, women authors’ emancipated literature appeared which were created on the basis of women’s stories. On the other hand, there emerged feminist literary theory, which established the concept of female author (femininity, as an ethic category) in literary theory (English- Femininity, German - die Weiblichkeit, Russian - Женственность).

According  to  feminist  criticism,  women  writers’  texts  are  distinguished  as  they  expose experience,  emotions  and,  in  general,  thoughts  motivated  by  women.  The  emergence  and development of feminist literature was politically conditioned in its basis. The primary aim of this theory  was  to  motivate  women  and  facilitate  their  literary  activities  by  means  of  critical  analysis, even with conscious marginal preconditions.

The  issue  of  women  authors,  the  place  and  role  of  gender-marked  literature  in  Georgian literature  is  completely  unstudied.  The  manifold  nature  of  the  issue,  in  addition  historical  and contemporary processes which exist in Georgian literature serve as a proof that this issue should be thoroughly studied in future.            

Fiction  and  Literature  are  the  world  of  the  author,  the  creator,  which  is  full  of  the author's  perception  of  the  world,  the  author's  ideas,  impressions,  attitudes,  desires,  goals  and intentions  and  many  more  features  that  are  outlined  in  Fiction.  Sensations,  performances  and attitudes  are  universal  and  do  not  vary  due  to  gender.  Literary  text  equally  accommodates  in general,  universal,  common  desires  and  expectations  of  both  women  and  men,  ,  but  often,  a woman-author's  perceived  world  is  more  delicate  artistically  and  differs  from  the  text  by  the member  of  "the  stronger  sex";  it  as  much  more  emotional  and  colorful,  and  text  has  different architectonics, content, beginning and ending as well.

Literature  -  loving  women  were  mainly  involved  in  scientific  research,  became  post-graduate  students  or  candidates,  defended  their  thesis  and  then,  in  the  best  case,  were  higher educational  lecturers  and  even  they  remembered  their  poetry-literary  sentiments,  they  were fully committed to teaching Western literature and history of Georgian literature. However, it must  be  said  that  there  are  good  drivers,  including  women  and  there  are  really  good  women writers,  including  in  the  Soviet  Georgia.  Women  author  as  a  separate  identity  is  identified  in post-Soviet Georgian literature.

The  activation  of  women  writers  on  literary  arena  in  the  post-Soviet  era  became necessary due to the values and stories that the women had to tell. Woman, as a condition, and woman as the problem became the subject of a separate interest.

The feminine factor of Female authors in many cases is completely clear, in some cases, there is no boundary between men’s and women’s creativity. The role and purpose is often more apparent in the case of women. Feelings and desires in a woman's compassion, and a key feature of  the  main  women  author.  Therefore,  their  creations  are  experiencing  a  variety  of  emotions and feelings, the only woman have.



Key Words:

Woman writer, Georgian literature, feminist criticism.